An end to simplicity

For the past month I have been arguing for a simple model of extra-African human evolution in which proto-Caucasoids interbred with a western race of heidelbergensis (Neanderthals) and proto-Mongoloids interbred with an eastern race of heidelbergensis (e.g. Dali, Jinniushan, Maba). A recent paper asserted that Mongoloids have more Neanderthal ancestry than Caucasoids, and believing this assertion to be false, I set out to disprove it.

The way that I attempted to do this was to calculate f3 statistics using Howells’ craniometric data on modern and archaic humans. The main Howells data set includes 30 modern populations, and the Howells test data set includes 159 populations. Among the latter are two heidelbergensis specimens, Steinheim and Broken Hill I, and two classic Neanderthal specimens, La Ferrassie I and La Chapelle. I computed f3 statistics for all 3,322,242 combinations of one population as a mixture of two others. At the end of the post are the most relevant subsets of the results.

What I expected to see was a simple pattern of large negative f3 statistics for Caucasoid populations as mixtures involving Neanderthals, and large negative f3 statistics for Mongoloid populations as mixtures involving non-Neanderthal heidelbergensis. But such a simple pattern is not at all what I got. What I got was something far more complex, and something that in many respects contradicted my hypotheses about human evolution. At first I attempted to rationalize these results away. I observed that the archaics were represented by only a few individuals, and that erectus and eastern heidelbergensis specimens were completely absent. I surmised that these shortcomings of the data led to the results being garbage.

But then I began to look at the results again. The more I looked, thought, and investigated, the more I came to realize that the results are not garbage, but rather that they contain a great deal of truth about human evolution that I had never before understood.

A prime example is the Arikara. The f3 statistics show that Arikara have one of the highest levels of Neanderthal admixture of any population in the world. Nothing in my previous hypotheses would have enabled me to predict such a thing. This result was shocking. Yet when I started looking at photographs of Arikara, and then comparing them to Neanderthal reconstructions, it became obvious that the Arikara are indeed heavily Neanderthalized.

Another population that shows a high level of Neanderthal admixture is the Ainu. This is something which flatly contradicted my previous hypotheses. But again, when I started reexamining photographs of Ainu, I realized that the f3 statistics did not lie. Ainu cranial morphology has definite Neanderthal affinities. The old descriptions of Ainu as proto-Caucasoid now begin to make sense.

The statistics show that Abri Pataud has, not Neanderthal admixture, but the highest level of heidelbergensis admixture of any specimen. That likely means that heidelbergensis coexisted with Neanderthals in Upper Paleolithic Europe.

Tasmanians had one of the highest levels of archaic admixture, and the f3 statistics show it as being more closely related to heidelbergensis than to Neanderthals. I still believe that it is in fact erectus admixture.

The admixture in Upper Cave 101 is more closely related to Neanderthals than to heidelbergensis. Another complete contradiction of my hypotheses.

Markina Gora’s archaic admixture is more closely related to Neanderthals, while Grimaldi’s is more closely related to heidelbergensis, again indicating the coexistence of both subspecies in Upper Paleolithic Europe.

Some of the Andamans show Neanderthal admixture, while others show heidelbergensis admixture.

Some of the Zalavar specimens show Neanderthal admixture and some of them show heidelbergensis admixture.

Bushmen show admixture related to heidelbergensis.

The specimens from Berg show admixture related to heidelbergensis.

Some of the Eskimo have Neanderthal admixture and some have heidelbergensis admixture.

Some results were as expected. The Norse and Egyptian archaic admixture is Neanderthal. The Buriat archaic admixture is heidelbergensis.

The results show that the Rota and Hotu specimens, from Micronesia and Iran, respectively, are very special. They have the least archaic admixture of any of the individuals in Howells’ data sets, because they so frequently produce the largest negative f3 statistics when they appear as one of the two mixture components.

These statistics show that the model of human prehistory laid out in my timelines can only be correct as a very rough first approximation. There is much complexity that it fails to capture. And in some ways it is simply flat out wrong.

Below are the mixture components for which each of the 189 populations attains its minimum f3 value. Each line is of the form

mixed population = component population 1 × component population 2: f3 value

The populations in all caps are from the main Howells data set. The other populations are from the test data set.

U S Negro = Burma × Zulu: −0.6427084
Zalavar = Burma × Cro Magnon 1: −0.6373177
Solomon Is = New Guinea × Yayoi: −0.6211578
PHILLIPI = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.6137864
Anyang = Orok × Vanuatu: −0.5898238
Tasmanian ? = Colombo??? × Orok: −0.5791044
Dyak = Buriat × Colombo???: −0.5752317
Lapp = Buriat × New Guinea: −0.5747715
Unknown = Elmenteita A × South Japan: −0.5665765
Haya Tribe = Pygmy × Zulu: −0.5622738
Tasmanian = Colombo??? × Orok: −0.5617068
ATAYAL = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.5585811
AINU = Djebel Qafzeh 6 × Rota, Marianas: −0.557154
Yayoi = Orok × Vanuatu: −0.5570335
Abri Pataud = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.5528525
Orochi = Andaman Is × Orok: −0.550933
ZULU = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.5467281
HAINAN = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.5430563
Indian = Andaman ??? × Moyoro I.: −0.5425162
Taiwan  Aboriginal = Buriat × Colombo???: −0.5387517
ARIKARA = BURIAT × New Guinea: −0.5364957
S JAPAN = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.5338146
Fiji = Colombo??? × Moyoro I.: −0.5323191
San Miguel Channel Is = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.5319735
Ryukyus = Buriat × Colombo???: −0.5314766
ZALAVAR = BURIAT × Andaman ???: −0.5308651
TASMANIA = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.5219183
MOKAPU = EASTER I × Buriat: −0.5176157
N JAPAN = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.5161525
BERG = BURIAT × Andaman ???: −0.510936
NORSE = EGYPT × Upper Cave: −0.5096574
Eskimo = N Caledonia × Orok: −0.5020158
Bunun = Colombo??? × Orok: −0.5002507
Guam = Orok × Vanuatu: −0.4983266
SANTA CR = PERU × Twa Rwanda: −0.494051
Avar = Nakuru IX × Orok: −0.4939767
Pecos Pueblo = BURIAT × Vanuatu: −0.4927802
GUAM = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.4896207
Negrito = Andaman Is × Orok: −0.4874377
Magyar = Burma × Orok: −0.4828123
TOLAI = ATAYAL × Australoid: −0.4819609
ANYANG = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.4763841
New Hebrides = Colombo??? × Moyoro I.: −0.4735109
Indian Knoll = ESKIMO × Andaman Is: −0.4700619
DOGON = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.4687916
Nubia = Andamans × Baining: −0.4678871
Dahomey = Teita × Willey’s Kopje III: −0.460354
Tonga = Willey’s Kopje III × Yoshigo: −0.4595454
Santa Cruz = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.4578341
Bushman? = Fish Hoek × Iran: −0.4577212
Bushman = Hervey Is × Matjes River: −0.4467917
Moriori = Andaman ??? × Moyoro I.: −0.4466854
Gilbert Is = Australoid × Folklo: −0.442817
BUSHMAN = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.4421696
Muge = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.4396673
Marianas = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4373789
Marquesas = La Ferrassie I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.4352963
Madras = Burma × Cro Magnon 1: −0.4337412
MORIORI = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.4335297
Korea = Orok × Vanuatu: −0.4332038
Chinese = Buriat × Colombo???: −0.4329431
EGYPT = GUAM × Andaman ???: −0.4297036
N.Territory = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.4293005
Folklo = Buriat × Colombo???: −0.4276336
New Guinea = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.4255587
Canary Is = Elmenteita B × Markina Gora: −0.4253249
Pygmy = N Caledonia × Teita: −0.4213917
PERU = BURIAT × Andaman ???: −0.4194208
Ctrl Arctic = Willey’s Kopje II × Yami: −0.4182983
AUSTRALI = Djebel Irhoud 1 × Rota, Marianas: −0.4178954
Dogon = Mladec 1 × Teita: −0.4080474
N MAORI = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3978913
Afalou-bou-Rhummel 5 = Broken Hill I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.3960602
Teviec 16 = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3929485
Egyptian E? = La Ferrassie I × Neolithic: −0.3926258
Nicobar Is = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.3924269
Tinian Marianas = Colombo??? × Orok: −0.3916218
ANDAMAN = Andaman I? × Chancelade: −0.3893216
Easter I. = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3889175
Kyndeloese = Broken Hill I × Hotu #2: −0.3880253
Chukchi = Colombo??? × Orok: −0.3874834
Caroline Is = Willey’s Kopje II × Yami: −0.3866614
Tier.d Fuego = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3864742
Vedda = Andamans × Paiwan: −0.3842405
Mokapu = Andaman ??? × Orok: −0.3828931
Neolithic = Hotu #2 × South Japan: −0.3756538
Baining = Colombo??? × Orok: −0.375135
TEITA = BURIAT × Colombo???: −0.3704618
Tsukumo #14 = Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey × Shanidar 1: −0.3665593
Yakut = ESKIMO × Buriat: −0.3659687
Atayal = Arikara × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.3654621
South Japan = Andamans × Natufian: −0.3645969
Battak = Broken Hill I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.3613688
Peru = Buriat × Muge: −0.3585349
Yami = Orok × Vanuatu: −0.3575516
Masbate = BURIAT × Hotu #2: −0.355465
Australian = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3546021
Hottentot = Colombo??? × Orok: −0.3510189
European? = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3504788
Loyalty Is = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3459688
Iran = Arikara × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.3435215
Santa Cruz Is = Colombo??? × Moyoro I.: −0.3418438
Predmost III = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3365463
BURIAT = PERU × Orok: −0.3252715
Japanese? = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3242187
Arikara = Chancelade × La Ferrassie I: −0.3236352
Upper Cave = Cro Magnon 1 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3188814
EASTER I = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3156808
Kurgan #3 = Berg × Vanuatu: −0.3148477
Norway = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.3106601
S MAORI = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.309001
N Caledonia = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3052966
Keilor = Chancelade × La Chapelle: −0.3034917
Maori = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.301972
Buriat = Orok × Yoshigo: −0.3002985
Jebel Moya = Elmenteita B × N.Territory: −0.2948921
Tsukumo #58 = Broken Hill I × Uki: −0.2945903
Cairns Dist. = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2937654
Markina Gora = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2913594
Hervey Is = Broken Hill I × Uki: −0.2896768
Andaman I? = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2876248
Teviec 11 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2851758
Tsukumo #3 = Yoshigo × Zulu: −0.2850662
New Ireland = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2809807
Tsukumo #33 = Willey’s Kopje III × Yoshigo: −0.2809118
Onkoromanai 1A = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2783957
Paiwan = Hotu #2 × Skhul V: −0.2732096
Coloured = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2711568
Hainan Aboriginal = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2679511
Andaman Is = Andaman I? × Teita: −0.2640698
Bush-Bantu = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2629327
Burma = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.2543049
Elmenteita A = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.2530669
Djebel Qafzeh 6 = Broken Hill I × Paiwan: −0.2510029
Moyoro I. = Loyalty Is × Orok: −0.2495998
Banton I. = Colombo??? × Orok: −0.2489104
Samoa = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.242548
Tsukumo #34 = Yoshigo × Zulu: −0.2412221
Tahiti = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2380401
Afalou-bou-Rhummel 9 = Hotu #2 × Skhul V: −0.2365286
Mladec 1 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2344247
Kurgan #4 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2302351
Takasago #1 = Willey’s Kopje III × Yoshigo: −0.2251421
Andaman ??? = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2215157
Uki = Atchinese × Orok: −0.2178791
Kofun Period = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.2035625
Colombo??? = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2022402
Tsukumo #27 = Berg × Tsukumo #58: −0.2010475
Society Is = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.1984613
Vanuatu = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.1972049
Australoid = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.196308
Grimaldi = Andaman I? × Chancelade: −0.1940166
Shanidar 1 = Chancelade × La Chapelle: −0.1891728
Skhul V = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1856646
Nakuru IX = Teita × Tolai: −0.1834323
Borreby = Berg × Coloured: −0.1811962
Erteboelle = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1804696
Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey = Ota × Rota, Marianas: −0.1788913
ESKIMO = EASTER I × Orok: −0.178482
Natufian = Berg × Fish Hoek: −0.1621095
Fingira 2 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1587427
Willey’s Kopje III = Chancelade × La Chapelle: −0.1537798
Tolai = Yoshigo × Zulu: −0.1535564
Tuamotus = Broken Hill I × Chancelade: −0.1350446
Djebel Irhoud 1 = Steinheim × Tsukumo #33: −0.1200066
Rebunge = Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey × Shanidar 1: −0.1116127
Andamans = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.0987129
Atchinese = Willey’s Kopje III × Yoshigo: −0.09058624
Twa Rwanda = Elmenteita B × La Ferrassie I: −0.08866676
Matjes River = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.07502839
Teita = Broken Hill I × Hotu #2: −0.05744426
Predmost IV = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.05324906
Tsukumo #4 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.04790746
Elmenteita B = Rota, Marianas × Willey’s Kopje II: −0.02440816
Ota = Buriat × Hotu #2: −0.009304282
Fish Hoek = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: 0.007093888
Willey’s Kopje II = Andamans × Broken Hill I: 0.01769098
La Chapelle = La Ferrassie I × Skhul V: 0.05438917
Berg = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.07862524
Zulu = Chancelade × Fish Hoek: 0.0866807
Orok = La Ferrassie I × Uki: 0.113903
Rota, Marianas = Andaman I? × Chancelade: 0.1262858
Hotu #2 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: 0.1353799
Cro Magnon 1 = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.1363579
Broken Hill I = La Chapelle × Teita: 0.137447
Chancelade = Cro Magnon 1 × Teita: 0.1478548
Yoshigo = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.1605431
La Ferrassie I = Arikara × Broken Hill I: 0.2066179
Steinheim = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.3282454

Below are the components for the minimum f3 values such that at least one of the components is one of the four archaic specimens mentioned above.

Abri Pataud = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.5528525
San Miguel Channel Is = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.5319735
TASMANIA = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.5219183
U S Negro = La Ferrassie I × Neolithic: −0.5180625
Solomon Is = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.5072911
SANTA CR = PERU × Broken Hill I: −0.487628
Ryukyus = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4802544
ARIKARA = GUAM × La Chapelle: −0.4682619
Tasmanian ? = La Ferrassie I × Neolithic: −0.4665117
TOLAI = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.462662
Zalavar = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.4580766
Santa Cruz = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.4578341
Yayoi = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.4549201
Tasmanian = Broken Hill I × Yami: −0.4483844
Unknown = La Ferrassie I × Neolithic: −0.4441526
AINU = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.4402102
Muge = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.4396673
Marianas = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4373789
Marquesas = La Ferrassie I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.4352963
MORIORI = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.4335297
N JAPAN = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4307031
N.Territory = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.4293005
New Hebrides = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.4292432
New Guinea = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.4255587
Nubia = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.4236078
S JAPAN = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4209573
Moriori = Broken Hill I × Mokapu: −0.4207882
Indian Knoll = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4182914
Bunun = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4170968
Chinese = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.4162107
AUSTRALI = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4147975
PERU = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.4103362
Dyak = La Ferrassie I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.4027879
Anyang = La Ferrassie I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.4002951
Bushman? = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3986746
PHILLIPI = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3982085
N MAORI = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3978913
NORSE = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.3966401
Afalou-bou-Rhummel 5 = Broken Hill I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.3960602
Teviec 16 = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3929485
Egyptian E? = La Ferrassie I × Neolithic: −0.3926258
Haya Tribe = Jebel Moya × La Chapelle: −0.3925969
Nicobar Is = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.3924269
Easter I. = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3889175
Kyndeloese = Broken Hill I × Hotu #2: −0.3880253
Tier.d Fuego = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3864742
ZALAVAR = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3852784
ANYANG = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3852752
ATAYAL = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.381362
Canary Is = Broken Hill I × Hotu #2: −0.3763257
Dahomey = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3732427
HAINAN = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3727251
Madras = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3712838
Fiji = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3666326
BUSHMAN = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3655691
Korea = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.3651978
Tonga = La Ferrassie I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.3639096
Battak = Broken Hill I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.3613688
Australian = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3546021
Pygmy = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3540982
European? = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3504788
Avar = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.3488643
Loyalty Is = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3459688
ZULU = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.3459595
Tsukumo #14 = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3454208
Indian = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.3441136
Lapp = La Ferrassie I × Neolithic: −0.3385495
Predmost III = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3365463
Magyar = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3320479
Gilbert Is = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3271892
EGYPT = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.3262848
Eskimo = ESKIMO × La Ferrassie I: −0.324529
Japanese? = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3242187
Arikara = Chancelade × La Ferrassie I: −0.3236352
Atayal = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3233469
Taiwan  Aboriginal = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3204901
Caroline Is = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3190387
Upper Cave = Cro Magnon 1 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3188814
MOKAPU = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.3188689
EASTER I = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3156808
Baining = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.3153214
Tinian Marianas = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.310823
Norway = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.3106601
S MAORI = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.309001
GUAM = La Ferrassie I × Rota, Marianas: −0.3082587
Yami = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.3054052
N Caledonia = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.3052966
Santa Cruz Is = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3041699
Folklo = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.3041644
Keilor = Chancelade × La Chapelle: −0.3034917
DOGON = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3022283
Maori = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.301972
ANDAMAN = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.3013743
Tsukumo #58 = Broken Hill I × Uki: −0.2945903
Cairns Dist. = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2937654
Markina Gora = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2913594
Hervey Is = Broken Hill I × Uki: −0.2896768
Pecos Pueblo = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.2886349
Iran = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.2879823
Andaman I? = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2876248
Teviec 11 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2851758
Chukchi = ESKIMO × La Ferrassie I: −0.2825144
Negrito = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.2824665
New Ireland = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2809807
TEITA = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2806829
Onkoromanai 1A = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2783957
Peru = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.272191
Jebel Moya = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.2715069
Coloured = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2711568
Hainan Aboriginal = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2679511
Yakut = Broken Hill I × Uki: −0.2677302
Bush-Bantu = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2629327
Bushman = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2626674
Mokapu = La Ferrassie I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.2581099
Burma = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.2543049
Ctrl Arctic = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2540779
Elmenteita A = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.2530669
Djebel Qafzeh 6 = Broken Hill I × Paiwan: −0.2510029
Tsukumo #3 = La Chapelle × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.243125
BERG = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2425884
Samoa = Elmenteita B × Steinheim: −0.242548
Tahiti = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2380401
Mladec 1 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2344247
Kurgan #4 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2302351
Hottentot = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2291331
Orochi = Broken Hill I × Uki: −0.2279883
Andaman ??? = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2215157
Takasago #1 = La Chapelle × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.219531
Neolithic = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2116457
South Japan = La Chapelle × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.2100308
Vedda = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.2092966
Paiwan = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.2047201
Kofun Period = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.2035625
Colombo??? = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.2022402
Society Is = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.1984613
Vanuatu = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.1972049
Australoid = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.196308
Tsukumo #33 = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.1961009
Banton I. = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1951281
Dogon = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.1945485
Kurgan #3 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1896123
Shanidar 1 = Chancelade × La Chapelle: −0.1891728
Skhul V = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1856646
Guam = Masbate × Steinheim: −0.1848167
Erteboelle = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1804696
Moyoro I. = Broken Hill I × Uki: −0.1773069
Andaman Is = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1748726
Grimaldi = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1697043
Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1649682
Afalou-bou-Rhummel 9 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1603326
Borreby = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: −0.159077
Fingira 2 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1587427
Willey’s Kopje III = Chancelade × La Chapelle: −0.1537798
Tuamotus = Broken Hill I × Chancelade: −0.1350446
ESKIMO = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.1250663
BURIAT = Broken Hill I × Orok: −0.1233274
Djebel Irhoud 1 = Steinheim × Tsukumo #33: −0.1200066
Buriat = Broken Hill I × Orok: −0.1145377
Nakuru IX = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.1128995
Rebunge = La Ferrassie I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.1057813
Natufian = Broken Hill I × Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: −0.0997116
Andamans = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.0987129
Twa Rwanda = Elmenteita B × La Ferrassie I: −0.08866676
Atchinese = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.08047427
Matjes River = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.07502839
Masbate = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.07237881
Teita = Broken Hill I × Hotu #2: −0.05744426
Tolai = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: −0.05643113
Predmost IV = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.05324906
Tsukumo #34 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.04945266
Tsukumo #4 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.04790746
Tsukumo #27 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.04720538
Uki = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: −0.01408342
Ota = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: 0.002684912
Fish Hoek = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: 0.007093888
Willey’s Kopje II = Andamans × Broken Hill I: 0.01769098
Elmenteita B = Broken Hill I × Rota, Marianas: 0.04033647
La Chapelle = La Ferrassie I × Skhul V: 0.05438917
Berg = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.07862524
Orok = La Ferrassie I × Uki: 0.113903
Hotu #2 = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: 0.1353799
Cro Magnon 1 = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.1363579
Broken Hill I = La Chapelle × Teita: 0.137447
Chancelade = Hotu #2 × La Ferrassie I: 0.1481871
Zulu = Rota, Marianas × Steinheim: 0.1482632
Yoshigo = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.1605431
Rota, Marianas = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.1639201
La Ferrassie I = Arikara × Broken Hill I: 0.2066179
Steinheim = Hotu #2 × La Chapelle: 0.3282454

Below is the minimum f3 with one of the above two Neanderthal specimens as a component minus the minimum f3 with one of the above two heidelbergensis specimens as a component.

Shanidar 1: −0.1891728 − 0.08039128 = −0.2695641
Arikara: −0.3236352 − −0.0812385 = −0.2423967
Takasago #1: −0.219531 − −0.01620877 = −0.2033222
Predmost III: −0.3365463 − −0.1547717 = −0.1817746
Willey’s Kopje III: −0.1537798 − 0.01842462 = −0.1722044
Nubia: −0.4236078 − −0.2705157 = −0.1530921
Dahomey: −0.3732427 − −0.236108 = −0.1371348
Magyar: −0.3320479 − −0.1983679 = −0.13368
Zalavar: −0.4580766 − −0.3254195 = −0.1326571
U S Negro: −0.5180625 − −0.3874976 = −0.1305649
New Ireland: −0.2809807 − −0.1511753 = −0.1298054
Teviec 16: −0.3929485 − −0.2650645 = −0.127884
Egyptian E?: −0.3926258 − −0.2660046 = −0.1266212
Madras: −0.3712838 − −0.2480994 = −0.1231844
N.Territory: −0.4293005 − −0.3064408 = −0.1228597
Andamans: −0.0987129 − 0.02380245 = −0.1225153
Kofun Period: −0.2035625 − −0.08577766 = −0.1177848
Onkoromanai 1A: −0.2783957 − −0.1606399 = −0.1177558
Keilor: −0.3034917 − −0.1921919 = −0.1112998
Dyak: −0.4027879 − −0.2928549 = −0.109933
ARIKARA: −0.4682619 − −0.3656707 = −0.1025912
Tonga: −0.3639096 − −0.2617582 = −0.1021514
Colombo???: −0.2022402 − −0.1050376 = −0.09720251
Broken Hill I: 0.137447 − 0.234582 = −0.09713507
Berg: 0.07862524 − 0.1747231 = −0.09609786
Chukchi: −0.2825144 − −0.1870184 = −0.09549601
Iran: −0.2879823 − −0.1959257 = −0.09205666
Upper Cave: −0.3188814 − −0.2278437 = −0.0910377
Steinheim: 0.3282454 − 0.4147565 = −0.08651105
Muge: −0.4396673 − −0.3541962 = −0.08547109
Markina Gora: −0.2913594 − −0.2077741 = −0.08358532
Atayal: −0.3233469 − −0.2403665 = −0.08298043
Rebunge: −0.1057813 − −0.0229235 = −0.08285783
Haya Tribe: −0.3925969 − −0.310322 = −0.08227493
N Caledonia: −0.3052966 − −0.2239199 = −0.08137675
Maori: −0.301972 − −0.2212993 = −0.08067273
Burma: −0.2543049 − −0.1737754 = −0.08052949
Baining: −0.3153214 − −0.2361962 = −0.07912522
Australoid: −0.196308 − −0.1174514 = −0.07885665
Andaman ???: −0.2215157 − −0.1437163 = −0.07779941
Society Is: −0.1984613 − −0.1231805 = −0.07528084
Marquesas: −0.4352963 − −0.360352 = −0.07494433
Lapp: −0.3385495 − −0.2659782 = −0.07257122
Gilbert Is: −0.3271892 − −0.2550098 = −0.07217932
European?: −0.3504788 − −0.286778 = −0.06370078
Tsukumo #3: −0.243125 − −0.1799987 = −0.06312632
AINU: −0.4402102 − −0.3773103 = −0.06289985
Anyang: −0.4002951 − −0.3402951 = −0.05999998
South Japan: −0.2100308 − −0.1504484 = −0.05958236
Mokapu: −0.2581099 − −0.2015906 = −0.05651929
Borreby: −0.159077 − −0.1033209 = −0.05575618
Vanuatu: −0.1972049 − −0.1419145 = −0.05529035
Rota, Marianas: 0.1639201 − 0.2191597 = −0.05523959
Tasmanian ?: −0.4665117 − −0.4141966 = −0.05231509
Caroline Is: −0.3190387 − −0.2668998 = −0.05213896
Eskimo: −0.324529 − −0.2783808 = −0.04614817
La Chapelle: 0.05438917 − 0.09914543 = −0.04475626
Australian: −0.3546021 − −0.312663 = −0.04193908
EGYPT: −0.3262848 − −0.284598 = −0.04168679
Nakuru IX: −0.1128995 − −0.07139576 = −0.0415037
Vedda: −0.2092966 − −0.169285 = −0.04001152
Unknown: −0.4441526 − −0.4067086 = −0.03744397
NORSE: −0.3966401 − −0.3593202 = −0.0373199
Cairns Dist.: −0.2937654 − −0.256567 = −0.03719832
MOKAPU: −0.3188689 − −0.284255 = −0.03461391
Tsukumo #33: −0.1961009 − −0.161635 = −0.03446587
Elmenteita A: −0.2530669 − −0.2201225 = −0.03294437
New Guinea: −0.4255587 − −0.3948217 = −0.03073698
ZULU: −0.3459595 − −0.3205599 = −0.02539957
Pygmy: −0.3540982 − −0.3308883 = −0.02320991
GUAM: −0.3082587 − −0.2854779 = −0.02278077
S MAORI: −0.309001 − −0.2866631 = −0.02233793
New Hebrides: −0.4292432 − −0.4080009 = −0.02124228
Orok: 0.113903 − 0.1345517 = −0.0206487
Fiji: −0.3666326 − −0.347626 = −0.01900665
Solomon Is: −0.5072911 − −0.4888367 = −0.0184544
Tolai: −0.05643113 − −0.04107446 = −0.01535667
MORIORI: −0.4335297 − −0.4183072 = −0.01522247
Cro Magnon 1: 0.1363579 − 0.1508669 = −0.01450903
Tsukumo #14: −0.3454208 − −0.3323628 = −0.01305808
Dogon: −0.1945485 − −0.1820753 = −0.0124731
Tier.d Fuego: −0.3864742 − −0.3740016 = −0.01247265
Tinian Marianas: −0.310823 − −0.2996197 = −0.01120329
Neolithic: −0.2116457 − −0.2027515 = −0.008894198
Masbate: −0.07237881 − −0.06507506 = −0.00730375
Chancelade: 0.1481871 − 0.1537276 = −0.005540459
Yoshigo: 0.1605431 − 0.1657994 = −0.005256296
Ctrl Arctic: −0.2540779 − −0.2510984 = −0.00297956
Twa Rwanda: −0.08866676 − −0.08653964 = −0.002127127
La Ferrassie I: 0.2080514 − 0.2066179 = 0.001433512
BERG: −0.2396935 − −0.2425884 = 0.002894875
Zulu: 0.1522107 − 0.1482632 = 0.003947445
Tsukumo #27: −0.04233144 − −0.04720538 = 0.004873936
ZALAVAR: −0.3791623 − −0.3852784 = 0.006116075
Canary Is: −0.3700726 − −0.3763257 = 0.006253045
Djebel Irhoud 1: −0.1136715 − −0.1200066 = 0.006335119
Moriori: −0.4117635 − −0.4207882 = 0.009024763
Indian: −0.3344328 − −0.3441136 = 0.009680782
Ota: 0.01250798 − 0.002684912 = 0.009823073
Tuamotus: −0.1238968 − −0.1350446 = 0.01114779
Bunun: −0.4055775 − −0.4170968 = 0.01151929
Kurgan #3: −0.1767272 − −0.1896123 = 0.01288506
Santa Cruz Is: −0.2908176 − −0.3041699 = 0.0133523
Banton I.: −0.1798945 − −0.1951281 = 0.01523359
Taiwan  Aboriginal: −0.3023812 − −0.3204901 = 0.01810892
Kyndeloese: −0.3691367 − −0.3880253 = 0.01888855
Tsukumo #4: −0.02401591 − −0.04790746 = 0.02389154
Andaman Is: −0.1485021 − −0.1748726 = 0.02637056
Orochi: −0.2010575 − −0.2279883 = 0.0269308
Matjes River: −0.0474818 − −0.07502839 = 0.02754659
Negrito: −0.2536482 − −0.2824665 = 0.02881831
Tsukumo #58: −0.2657322 − −0.2945903 = 0.02885808
TEITA: −0.2503208 − −0.2806829 = 0.03036216
BURIAT: −0.09143861 − −0.1233274 = 0.03188882
ESKIMO: −0.0921224 − −0.1250663 = 0.03294388
N MAORI: −0.3631271 − −0.3978913 = 0.03476415
Atchinese: −0.04358194 − −0.08047427 = 0.03689233
DOGON: −0.2643355 − −0.3022283 = 0.03789283
Hottentot: −0.1896195 − −0.2291331 = 0.03951364
Bush-Bantu: −0.2233613 − −0.2629327 = 0.0395714
Norway: −0.2703569 − −0.3106601 = 0.04030313
Battak: −0.3193438 − −0.3613688 = 0.04202496
Tasmanian: −0.4028335 − −0.4483844 = 0.04555094
Pecos Pueblo: −0.2424531 − −0.2886349 = 0.04618184
Predmost IV: −0.006406278 − −0.05324906 = 0.04684278
EASTER I: −0.2635802 − −0.3156808 = 0.05210057
PHILLIPI: −0.3457524 − −0.3982085 = 0.05245612
Guam: −0.1316781 − −0.1848167 = 0.05313863
Elmenteita B: 0.09527617 − 0.04033647 = 0.05493969
Tsukumo #34: 0.006434211 − −0.04945266 = 0.05588687
N JAPAN: −0.3708795 − −0.4307031 = 0.05982368
Yakut: −0.2051147 − −0.2677302 = 0.06261551
AUSTRALI: −0.3516128 − −0.4147975 = 0.06318461
Buriat: −0.04929294 − −0.1145377 = 0.06524478
Natufian: −0.0312399 − −0.0997116 = 0.0684717
Bushman: −0.1937181 − −0.2626674 = 0.06894927
Uki: 0.05511046 − −0.01408342 = 0.06919388
Moyoro I.: −0.1078209 − −0.1773069 = 0.069486
Skhul V: −0.1128539 − −0.1856646 = 0.07281072
Willey’s Kopje II: 0.09132575 − 0.01769098 = 0.07363477
Fingira 2: −0.08394771 − −0.1587427 = 0.07479495
Peru: −0.1967437 − −0.272191 = 0.07544739
S JAPAN: −0.3425915 − −0.4209573 = 0.07836575
Loyalty Is: −0.2672801 − −0.3459688 = 0.0786887
Mladec 1: −0.1511631 − −0.2344247 = 0.08326162
Japanese?: −0.2398993 − −0.3242187 = 0.0843194
Avar: −0.2640388 − −0.3488643 = 0.08482548
Fish Hoek: 0.0968455 − 0.007093888 = 0.08975161
Indian Knoll: −0.3283336 − −0.4182914 = 0.08995776
Samoa: −0.1520835 − −0.242548 = 0.09046456
Teita: 0.0348226 − −0.05744426 = 0.09226686
HAINAN: −0.277623 − −0.3727251 = 0.09510206
Grimaldi: −0.07315315 − −0.1697043 = 0.09655113
Djebel Qafzeh 6: −0.1537982 − −0.2510029 = 0.09720468
Afalou-bou-Rhummel 5: −0.2984721 − −0.3960602 = 0.09758805
Folklo: −0.203436 − −0.3041644 = 0.1007284
Yami: −0.2046682 − −0.3054052 = 0.100737
Hainan Aboriginal: −0.1654879 − −0.2679511 = 0.1024631
TASMANIA: −0.4186788 − −0.5219183 = 0.1032395
SANTA CR: −0.3824131 − −0.487628 = 0.1052149
Kurgan #4: −0.1237996 − −0.2302351 = 0.1064355
ANYANG: −0.2788273 − −0.3852752 = 0.1064479
Teviec 11: −0.1780339 − −0.2851758 = 0.1071419
Tahiti: −0.1286824 − −0.2380401 = 0.1093576
PERU: −0.2977751 − −0.4103362 = 0.1125611
BUSHMAN: −0.2509345 − −0.3655691 = 0.1146345
Afalou-bou-Rhummel 9: −0.03849426 − −0.1603326 = 0.1218383
ANDAMAN: −0.173019 − −0.3013743 = 0.1283553
ATAYAL: −0.251844 − −0.381362 = 0.129518
Jebel Moya: −0.1404584 − −0.2715069 = 0.1310485
Easter I.: −0.2451415 − −0.3889175 = 0.143776
Hervey Is: −0.1372589 − −0.2896768 = 0.1524179
Santa Cruz: −0.2965389 − −0.4578341 = 0.1612952
TOLAI: −0.294345 − −0.462662 = 0.168317
Yayoi: −0.284045 − −0.4549201 = 0.1708751
Korea: −0.1934663 − −0.3651978 = 0.1717315
Paiwan: −0.03284216 − −0.2047201 = 0.1718779
Bushman?: −0.22277 − −0.3986746 = 0.1759046
Erteboelle: −0.0022313 − −0.1804696 = 0.1782383
Coloured: −0.08458247 − −0.2711568 = 0.1865743
Marianas: −0.2398947 − −0.4373789 = 0.1974841
Abri Pataud: −0.3358174 − −0.5528525 = 0.2170351
Ryukyus: −0.2609384 − −0.4802544 = 0.219316
Hotu #2: 0.3550051 − 0.1353799 = 0.2196252
San Miguel Channel Is: −0.3107667 − −0.5319735 = 0.2212068
Chinese: −0.1938458 − −0.4162107 = 0.2223649
Nicobar Is: −0.1674195 − −0.3924269 = 0.2250073
Marinduque, Pulo Tres Rey: 0.07281153 − −0.1649682 = 0.2377797
Andaman I?: 0.005394082 − −0.2876248 = 0.2930189

About these ads
Posted in Uncategorized
5 comments on “An end to simplicity
  1. genetiker says:

    I’m beginning to detect a pattern amidst all of the seeming chaos: Ainoids have Neanderthal admixture, while Mongoloids have eastern heidelbergensis admixture. Which would mean that the latter did not evolve from the former, but that each evolved independently from two different Veddoid groups.

  2. genetiker says:

    It now seems very likely that the Neanderthal range extended well to the east of the Altai Mountains.

  3. genetiker says:

    Birdsell classified Upper Cave 101 as purely Ainoid!

  4. [...] a comment on my End to simplicity post I said that the fact that the f3 statistics indicate that Ainoids (Polynesoids) and Mongoloids [...]

  5. [...] up frequently as components along with archaics for the largest negative f3 statistics in the End to simplicity post, because they have such low levels of archaic admixture. And now in the K = 5 analysis, the Rota [...]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

%d bloggers like this: