Amerindians have both Mongoloid and Caucasoid physical features

It’s amazing that so many people were so credulous and so stupid that they actually believed David Reich et al. when they proclaimed that Nordics are Caucasoid-Mongoloid hybrids. All of the big names in the “HBD community” were among the duped. Witness the stupidity on display in the following posts from last year. The titles alone are incredibly stupid:

There’s Razib Khan’s post “Across the sea of grass: how Northern Europeans got to be ~10% Northeast Asian“. In this post Razib Khan tells all of his Nordic readers that “You’re Asian. Yes, you!”. He speculates in bold that “perhaps the Indo-Europeans were mongrels!”. He exclaims in bold that “it turns out that white people were always 10% non-white! We just didn’t know”.

Dienekes is a Mediterraneanist and was therefore thrilled to hear the claim by Reich et al. that Nordics are mongrels. He did a whole series of posts on the supposed racial impurity of Nordics, all of them chock-full of stupidity:

Hints of East/Central Asian admixture in Northern Europe

Estimating admixture proportions and dates with ADMIXTOOLS (Patterson et al. 2012)

The tangled web of humanity

ADMIXTURE tracks Amerindian-like admixture in northern Europe

Then there’s Greg Cochran’s post entitled “Injun-Europeans“. In that post Cochran says that “The French (and the Germans, and the Dutch and Irish) are closer to pure-blooded South American Indians than Italians are”. Reich et al. told him that was because Nordics are part Amerindian, and he believed them. It never occurred to him what an absolutely absurd notion that is. Later he observes that “Amerindians have the East Asian skin color genes, along with some of their own – as far as I know, you don’t see these at all in Europeans”, and that “there is zero overlap between Amerindian mtDNA haplotypes and those found in ye olde hunter-gatherers in Europe”. Doesn’t quite add up, does it Cochran? Then he notes the presence of the European mitochondrial haplogroup X and European Y-chromosome haplogroups in Amerindians, but fails to draw the obvious conclusion. Toward the end Cochran repeats the slur made by his good buddy Razib Khan, saying “maybe the Indo-Europeans were a mixed people”.

There are also these posts by Davidski:

They had blond hair and light eyes, and came from the north…but they were racially impure

Europeans are a three-way mix, with a whopping 20-40% ancient North Asian ancestry

Later, when a paper came out showing that the Mongoloid EDAR mutation is completely absent in European populations, Davidski began to dimly perceive that something wasn’t quite right about the picture that Reich et al. had painted, and posted “Ancient Amerindian-like admixture in Europe – something doesn’t add up“. He still didn’t get what was going on though, so the post contains a lot of convoluted nonsense attempting to explain the facts.

What makes the credulity and stupidity of all these people so amazing is that all anyone has to do to see that the claims made by Reich et al. are false is to simply look at the people they are making claims about.

There is nothing at all about the physical features of Nordics that is even remotely Mongoloid. Indeed, Nordics are the most ultra-Caucasoid of all Caucasoids. Their phenotype is more derived, more divergent from that of their Veddoid ancestors, than that of all other Caucasoids.

On the other hand, it’s obvious that Amerindians don’t look like pure Mongoloids. It’s obvious that they all look like Mongoloid-Caucasoid hybrids.

Though simply looking at people is sufficient to expose the falsity of the claims made by Reich et al., there are plenty of physical anthropological data that expose it even further.

An important paper containing such data is “Observations on the face and teeth of the North American Indians“, published in 1931 in the Anthropological Papers of The American Museum of Natural History. This paper contains qualitative data on the physical features of full-blood Indians, mixed-blood Indians, Eskimos, American Whites, North Europeans, South Europeans, Hawaiians, Asiatics, Mexicans, and Negroes. The eight physical features studied were intercanthus distance (distance between the corners of the eyes), nasal bridge, the epicanthic eyefold, the palpebral fissure (the opening between the eyelids), the enamel rim, Carabelli’s cusps, the number of molar cusps, and skin color.

The most important pattern that emerges from the data is that Indians are intermediate between Whites and Asiatics in the frequencies of the traits studied.

Eskimos are much more Mongoloid than Indians, and Indians have higher frequencies of narrow intercanthus distance than Eskimos. Full-blood Indians have lower frequencies of narrow intercanthus distance than mixed-blood Indians.

Whites have high frequencies of high nasal bridge, Asiatics have low frequencies of high nasal bridge, and Indians have intermediate frequencies of high nasal bridge.

Asiatics have about a 100% frequency of the epicanthic eyefold, Europeans have about a 0% frequency of the epicanthic eyefold, and Indians have intermediate frequencies of the epicanthic eyefold.

The enamel rim is a feature of the shoveled incisors characteristic of Sinodonty. Sinodonty is one of the pleiotropic effects of the Mongoloid EDAR mutation. Asiatics have high frequencies of the enamel rim, Whites have low frequencies of the enamel rim, and Indians have intermediate frequencies of the enamel rim.

If the claims made by Reich et al. were true, then we would expect the trait frequencies of Asiatics and Indians to be the same and at one extreme, the trait frequencies of South Europeans to be at the other extreme, and the trait frequencies of North Europeans to be intermediate between those of Asiatics and Indians and those of South Europeans. But of course the claims made by Reich et al. aren’t true, and of course that is not at all the pattern that we observe. What we observe is that the trait frequencies of Asiatics are at one extreme, the trait frequencies of North Europeans and South Europeans are at the other extreme, and the trait frequencies of Indians are intermediate between those of Asiatics and those of Europeans. And in fact, the trait frequencies of South Europeans are slightly closer to those of Asiatics than the trait frequencies of North Europeans are. South Europeans have a slightly lower frequency of high nasal bridge than North Europeans, and a slightly higher frequency of the epicanthic eyefold than North Europeans.

A second pattern that emerges is that some groups of Indians have trait frequencies closer to those of Whites than other groups of Indians, across multiple traits. The final remark of the paper is “One curious relation observed is that if the European is taken as the basis of comparison, the village tribes are nearer the whites than are the other Indians, or perhaps one should say the Mexicans and mixed-Indians”. The “village tribes” are the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. Compared to the other Indians, the Pueblo Indians tend to have lower frequencies of wide intercanthus distance, higher frequencies of high nasal bridge, lower frequencies of the epicanthic eyefold, lower frequencies of the enamel rim, and higher frequencies of light skin color.

Among the Pueblo Indians, the Zuni tribe in particular stands out from the rest. Of all the Indian tribes, the Zuni have the lowest frequency of wide intercanthus distance, the highest frequency of high nasal bridge, the lowest frequency of the epicanthic eyefold, and among the highest frequencies of light skin color.

The following photographs of Zuni Indians show that many of them have a very Caucasoid appearance. (Click to enlarge.)

















In the photograph of a group of Zuni Indians below, the boy on the right in the foreground and the girl at the upper-right look especially Caucasoid.


And in the photograph of Zuni Indians below, the boy and the man holding the boy look especially Caucasoid.


Given that the Zuni tribe stands out from the other Pueblo Indian tribes as being especially Caucasoid, it is interesting that, unlike the languages of the other Pueblo Indian tribes, the Zuni language does not belong to any language family, but is a language isolate.

After the Pueblo Indians, the tribe with the trait frequencies closest to those of Whites is the Navajo tribe. Based on the findings of the K = 17 admixture analysis of Amerindians and the K = 16 admixture analysis of Mongoloids, this is likely the result of a greater amount of Y C3-M217 proto-Caucasoid admixture in the Navajo.

A third pattern in the data is that while Indians have trait frequencies that are intermediate between those of Whites and those of Asiatics, Hawaiians have trait frequencies that are intermediate between those of Whites and those of Indians. This pattern is seen for frequencies of high nasal bridge, the epicanthic eyefold, and the enamel rim. For Carabelli’s cusps, Asiatics and Indians have frequencies that are about the same, while Hawaiians have a frequency that is intermediate between the frequencies for Asiatics and Indians and the frequency for Whites. These observations are due in part to Hawaiians being primarily Polynesoid and not Mongoloid, but they are also due in part to Caucasoid admixture in Hawaiians.

In the White Gods post I pointed out that the Wikipedia article on mummies mentions the Andeans, the Egyptians, and the Guanches as the only three ancient peoples that practiced artificial mummification. But in his 1971 article “The Bearded Gods Speak”, Thor Heyerdahl noted a fourth ancient people that practiced artificial mummification: the Polynesians. Here is an excerpt from the article:

This means that modern archaeologists have direct evidence of the remarkable fact that true mummification was practiced by the very founders of the earliest pre-Inca civilization in Peru. In fact, true mummification—with evisceration through the anus and rubbing with resinous and oily preservatives—was common both to Peru and adjacent Polynesia, while it was totally unknown in Indonesia. But whereas hundreds of actual mummies are still available from the desert region of Peru, we have mainly the written records of early voyagers to attest to the wide distribution of the practice of mummifying royal persons throughout the far-flung islands of Polynesia—from Easter Island in the East, to Hawaii in the north, to New Zealand in the southwest. The very widespread occurrence of this elaborate practice in a tropical island area whose damp climate prevents lasting success shows that it must have spread from a common cultural source outside the island area. Since mummification cannot have reached the islands from Southeast Asia, it is all the more noteworthy that two most elaborate royal mummy-bundles recently brought from a cave in Hawaii to the Bishop Museum in Honolulu correspond in striking detail with the sophisticated mummy-bundles of the pre-Inca Tiahuanaco culture.

You can read the entire article, and see a photograph of a Hawaiian mummy casket, on this page.

The K = 5 craniometric admixture analysis showed that the Polynesoid component is modal for the skulls from the Mokapu Peninsula of the Hawaiian island of Oahu, and that many of those skulls have significant amounts of the Mongoloid component, but it also showed that many of those skulls have significant amounts of the Caucasoid component. The Caucasoid component also appears in the other two corners of Polynesia, in some of the skulls of the Māori of New Zealand and the Moriori of the Chatham Islands, and in a couple of the skulls of the Easter Islanders.

A fourth pattern in the data is that the frequencies of several traits that characterize Mongoloids decrease with age, while the frequencies of the opposite traits, which characterize Caucasoids, increase with age. Specifically, the frequencies of wide intercanthus distance, flat nasal bridge, and the epicanthic eyefold, all characteristic of Mongoloids, decrease with age. The frequencies of narrow intercanthus distance, high nasal bridge, and the absence of the epicanthic eyefold, all characteristic of Caucasoids, increase with age.

This confirms the observation that has been made by many anthropologists many times before, that Mongoloids are the most pedomorphic of the three major races. Negroids are the second most pedomorphic, and Caucasoids are the least pedomorphic. Among Caucasoids, Mediterraneans are more pedomorphic than Nordics. Veddoids are more pedomorphic than Mediterraneans.

A fifth pattern in the data is that the frequencies of wide intercanthus distance and flat nasal bridge, both characteristic of Mongoloids, tend to be higher in females than in males. This is consistent with the idea that Mongoloids are the most feminized of the three major races.

Both Negroids and Mongoloids have low nasal bridges, while a high nasal bridge is a characteristically Caucasoid trait. Some people with a high nasal bridge are said to have an aquiline nose. According to the Wikipedia article on aquiline noses, Samuel George Morton wrote in his 1839 work Crania Americana that the aquiline nose is primarily found among Mediterraneans, Middle Easterners, and North Africans. The article also says that William Z. Ripley wrote in his 1899 work The Races of Europe that an aquiline nose is a characteristic of the Teutonic (Nordic) race. It’s clear, then, that an aquiline nose is a characteristically Caucasoid trait. On the Wikipedia page you can see a large gallery of famous Caucasoids with aquiline noses. There are no non-Caucasoids in that gallery. But as the article notes, Morton also wrote in Crania Americana that Amerindians are “marked by a brown complexion; long, black, lank hair; and deficient beard. The eyes are black and deep set, the brow low, the cheekbones high, the nose large and aquiline, the mouth large, and the lips tumid and compressed”. The aquiline nose of Amerindians is the strongest sign of their obvious Caucasoid admixture.

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43 comments on “Amerindians have both Mongoloid and Caucasoid physical features
  1. Jackson Devoni says:

    Very interesting reading. Would you ever be able to run my 23andme data through an ADMIXTURE calculator to see my proportions of ancient Caucasoid and Mongoloid ancestry? I am 25% Italian, 25% Finnish and 50% Irish/British. I think my Finnish side may harbour some distant Mongoloid ancestry.

  2. genetiker says:

    I would just use Dienekes’ globe13 calculator. The ADMIXTURE analysis on which it’s based shows Finns as having ~6% of the Mongoloid Siberian component and ~1% of the Mongoloid Arctic component. It would be able to detect the same components in your data.

  3. Jackson Devoni says:

    Okay well this is easy as I am already a member of the Dodecad Project so Dienekes ran my results for me when he did the original globe13 analysis. I am DOD018 and I score 1.6% in the Siberian component and 0.9% in the Arctic component. I don’t know if these results are noise or real though since they are so small. I mean 1.6% Siberian is not very much. What do you think?

  4. genetiker says:

    I think that ADMIXTURE and DIYDodecad give accurate estimates of even very small levels of admixture. I think that very little of what they detect is noise.

    Since you’re 25% Finnish, you would be expected to have ~1.5% of the Siberian component and ~0.25% of the Arctic component. Your admixture estimates are in the ballpark of what would be expected.

  5. Jackson Devoni says:

    And here are my Dodecad globe4 ADMIXTURE results in which Dienekes thought he could track the Amerindian/Northeast Asian results that Patterson found in their study using the f4 analysis.

    90.08% European
    1.13% Asian
    0.22% African
    8.57% Amerindian

    As you can see I score 8.57% in the Amerindian component although I have no known Amerindian ancestry. As I mentioned above I am 25% Italian, 25% Finnish and 50% Irish/British by known ancestry. So does my 8.57% Amerindian score from the Dodecad globe4 calculator above just indicate very ancient shared ancestry with Amerindian peoples?

  6. genetiker says:

    You’re actually 98.65% Caucasoid. The 8.57% of your genome that ADMIXTURE is identifying as Amerindian is actually Nordic Caucasoid.

    The Amerindian component in the K = 4 ADMIXTURE analysis is a composite of Mongoloid and Nordic Caucasoid genetic elements. As a result Nordics show up as having some of the Amerindian component.

    In other words, the Amerindian admixture that Nordics appear to have in ADMIXTURE analyses (and in other analyses) is spurious.

  7. Jackson Devoni says:

    Okay so this 8.57% Amerindian/Nordic Caucasoid score that I get in the globe4 analysis comes form a very ancient Northern European population that shares some ancestry with present day Amerindians then?

  8. genetiker says:

    The 8.57% is just Nordic. There’s no reason to think it’s any different from the rest of your Nordic genetic material that happens not to be identified as Amerindian by ADMIXTURE.

    Nordics crossed the Atlantic long before the Vikings and contributed part of the genetic material of present-day Amerindians. Part of this genetic material is from the Solutreans and part of it is from the White Gods. And there may have been other pre-Viking Nordic waves besides those two.

  9. Jackson Devoni says:

    Okay and so back to the Dodecad globe13 analysis then. What type of old genetic ancestry does the North_European component represent do you think?

  10. genetiker says:

    The “North European” component is the Nordic component.

    Races are biological entities. The whole idea of referring to biological entities with geographical terminology is idiotic. It’s enforced by political correctness because political correctness denies the existence of races.

    Nordics are Nordics whether they’re in Northern Europe or anywhere else on earth. And there are now a lot of people in Northern Europe who aren’t Nordics.

    So for example, the components in a K = 3 ADMIXTURE analysis should be called Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid. But Dienekes calls them “European”, “Asian”, and “African”, because Dienekes conforms to the idiotic demands of political correctness.

  11. Jackson Devoni says:

    Okay thanks yet again. I am finding this conversation very interesting actually. Here are my Dodecad globe13 results below.

    Siberian: 1.6%
    Amerindian: 0.8%
    West_African: 0%
    Palaeo_African: 0%
    Southwest_Asian: 6.4%
    East_Asian: 0.2%
    Mediterranean: 28.1%
    Australasian: 0.5%
    Arctic: 0.9%
    West_Asian: 10.6%
    North_European: 50.8%
    South_Asian: 0.1%
    East_African: 0%

    So based on these results then the majority of my genes are Nordic correct?

  12. Jackson Devoni says:

    And what would you call the Mediterranean and West_Asian components from this globe13 analysis? Like you call North_European Nordic what would you call these other two components?

  13. genetiker says:

    The “Mediterranean” component corresponds to the Mediterranean race. In this case the geographical term and the biological term happen to coincide. There was a massive influx of Mediterraneans from the Near East into Europe during the Neolithic, and this influx was primarily associated with the E1b1b Y haplogroup.

    The “West Asian” component corresponds to the race that has been called the Alpine or Alpinid race in Europe and the Assyroid or Armenid race in the Middle East. It’s the same race in both places, but there’s a European variety and a Middle Eastern variety. This race entered Europe from Asia Minor during the Neolithic. It’s associated primarily with the G Y haplogroup, but also with the J2 Y haplogroup.

  14. Jackson Devoni says:

    Okay that does make some sense. And when do you think the North_European Nordic component entered Europe?

  15. genetiker says:

    Nordics never entered Europe. They’re indigenous to Europe. They evolved from Mediterraneans in Northern Europe between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago.

  16. Jackson Devoni says:

    So the North_European component represents autosomal genetic ancestry inherited from the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Europe right?

  17. Jackson Devoni says:

    Polako and Dienekes seem to think that the North_European component is a composite mixed component made up of European Mesolithic hunter-gatherer alleles and some early Neolithic farmer alleles. What do you think?

  18. genetiker says:

    Nonsense. Nordics were the native hunter-gatherers and Mediterraneans and Alpines were the immigrant farmers. ADMIXTURE has no trouble identifying the genetic signatures of these different races. The components that emerge from the analysis correspond exactly to the races that had been identified by physical anthropologists over 100 years ago.

  19. Jackson Devoni says:

    Very interesting stuff for sure. So then basically the North_European component descends pretty much fully from the aboriginal Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Europe and both the Mediterranean and West_Asian components came later to Europe totally with waves of Neolithic farmers originating in the Near East correct?

  20. genetiker says:

    Basically correct. There was some Mediterranean presence in Europe prior to the Neolithic, but it was much smaller than what it became in the Neolithic, and it was mainly in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkan peninsula. It’s doubtful whether it extended to Italy. It didn’t extend to Iberia. Today Iberia is the most racially Mediterranean place in Europe behind Sardinia, but prior to the Neolithic Iberia was Nordic. It was flooded with Mediterraneans from North Africa during the Neolithic.

    Nordics evolved in Northern Europe, and that was their original homeland, but when the Last Glacial Maximum set in around 25,000 years ago, much of Northern Europe became too cold to inhabit, and the Nordics went south to Southern Europe. The Nordics who went south into Iberia continued further south into North Africa. Prior to the Neolithic, all of North Africa, from Morocco to Egypt, was Nordic.

    It was during the Last Glacial Maximum that the Nordic Solutreans in Iberia and France crossed the Atlantic and populated the Americas.

  21. Jackson Devoni says:

    Okay well that would explain then why the ancient Mesolithic samples that were recovered from La Brana in Spain come out to be majority North_European in the Dodecad globe13 analysis.

    So then there may have been some small presence of the Mediterranean component in Southeastern Europe during the Mesolithic? But it spread out mostly later during the Neolithic with farming from both the Balkans and the Near East?

  22. genetiker says:

    The Mediterraneans who were in the Balkans prior to the Neolithic didn’t play any significant part in what happened in the Neolithic. Agriculture began in the Near East 2000 years before it started in the Balkans, and once it got underway the Mediterranean population of the Near East exploded. Waves of Mediterraneans from the Near East then spread out over Nordic North Africa and Nordic Europe.

    And yes, the La Brana samples confirm what I’m saying.

  23. Jackson Devoni says:

    If the North_European component is of 100% European Mesolithic hunter-gatherer background and the West_Asian component is of 100% Neolithic West Asian/Near Eastern background then how are they or how can they be so close to each other when it comes to FST distances?

  24. genetiker says:

    Alpines inhabited the parts of the Middle East closest to Europe, Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. There was gene flow between Nordic hunter-gatherers and Alpine hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic.

  25. Jackson Devoni says:

    Ahhh I see okay then. But the West_Asian component itself then only made it to Europe during the Neolithic and later correct?

  26. genetiker says:

    Based on all of the available evidence (that I’m aware of), that is correct.

  27. Jackson Devoni says:

    Okay I think one of the main reasons that Dienekes and Davidski think the North_European component is a hybrid component made up of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer and early Neolithic farmer alleles is because the La Brana Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Swedish Neolithic hunter-gatherer samples/specimens that have been tested for autosomal DNA have been found by the scientists who tested them initially to be outside of the range of modern variation. On the other hand the Neolithic farmer remains that have been tested such as GOK4 and Oetzi have been found to be within the modern range of variation. What do you think about this?

  28. genetiker says:

    None of that makes any sense.

    First, ADMIXTURE doesn’t produce “hybrid components” for admixture events that took place in the past few thousand years, as is the case with Nordics and Mediterraneans. That’s the whole point of ADMIXTURE: to resolve the elements that mixed.

    Second, Europeans are more mixed today than they were thousands of years ago, so a mixed sample would be more likely to fall within the range of modern variation, not less.

    Third, of course the La Brana hunter-gatherers would fall further outside the range of modern variation than the others: they’re 2000 years older.

    Fourth, of course the Swedish hunter-gatherers would fall further outside the range of modern variation than the Swedish farmer: the Swedish farmer is more mixed than the Swedish hunter-gatherers.

    Fifth, the claim that Oetzi is within the modern range of variation is false.

    Sixth, if there’s a PCA plot that includes the La Brana hunter-gatherers, the Swedish hunter-gatherers, the Swedish farmer, and Oetzi, I haven’t seen it. I don’t know how anyone makes valid comparisons between all of them without one.

  29. Jackson Devoni says:

    Have you seen the work that Vadim Verenich has done with these ancient samples? He apparently found an ADMIXTURE component which he calls North-European-Mesolithic that was modal in the La Brana samples ad today only found in high frequencies in the Sami people of Scandinavia and then Finns. It is only found in very small percentages on all other European populations. The La Brana samples score I would say over 80% in this component. It seems very different from the North_European component that Dienekes and Davidski have found in their different ADMIXTURE analysis. In Vadim Verenich’s MDLP-World 22 analysis the component that matches the North_European component found by both Dienekes and Davidski in their various analysis is called North-East-European and is quite different from the North-European-Mesolithic component which dominates the La Brana and Swedish hunter-gatherer samples. They hardly show and of the North-East-European component. Here is a link to that analysis below. Thoughts?

  30. genetiker says:

    The “North-European-Mesolithic” component is the Cro-Magnon Nordic component.

    The Cro-Magnon Y haplogroup is I.

    The Wikipedia article on Finns notes that “Of modern nationalities, Finns are closest to Cro-Magnons in terms of anthropological measurements”.

    If you look at the photograph of the skull at the top of the Wikipedia Cro-Magnon article, and then compare it with the photographs at the top of the Wikipedia article on the Sami, you’ll notice the obvious similarities. Ole Henrik Magga especially looks like a Cro-Magnon. Helga Pedersen and Renée Zellweger also have the Cro-Magnon look. The wide jaw is characteristic.

    The “North-East-European” component is the Aryan Nordic component. The Aryans were the Nordics who lived on the Pontic-Caspian steppe and spoke Proto-Indo-European.

    The Aryan Y haplogroups are R1a and R1b.

    The majority of the DNA of present-day Nordics is from Aryans. A minority is from Cro-Magnons.

    The “North_European” component encompasses both the Cro-Magnon Nordic component and the Aryan Nordic component.

    One of the commenters said he is pure Irish, and that he has 48.89% of the “North-East-European” component and 6.41% of the “North-European-Mesolithic” component. Irish have on average ~59% of the “North_European” component, so it’s the sum of the “North-East-European” component and the “North-European-Mesolithic” component that is equivalent to the “North_European” component.

  31. Jackson Devoni says:

    Hmmm okay i see how that can work. So the North-East-European ”Aryan” Nordic component from this MDLP analysis is also descended from European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers correct? It seems to be very similar to the North_European component that both Dienekes and Davidski have found in their various analysis.

  32. genetiker says:

    Both Cro-Magnon Nordics and Aryan Nordics evolved in Northern Europe during the Paleolithic. They’ve been in Europe ever since.

    The “North_European” component corresponds to the general Nordic race. The Cro-Magnon race and the Aryan race are the two major subraces of the Nordic race, and separate components emerge for each of them in higher K ADMIXTURE analyses.

    At the present day the Nordic component is dominated by the Aryan subcomponent, but it does nevertheless also include the Cro-Magnon subcomponent.

  33. […] May 28: Amerindians have both Mongoloid and Caucasoid physical features […]

    • Genetiker said: There was a massive influx of Mediterraneans from the Near East into Europe during the Neolithic, and this influx was primarily associated with the E1b1b Y haplogroup.

      This claim is in no way supported by ancient DNA. The Cardium pottery culture (the south European stream of early famers) and the cultures derived from it were clearly dominated by G2a (26 specimens so far). In comparison E-V13 was only found in 1 specimen. And the Linear Pottery culture (the Danubian stream of early farmers) so far yielded only 2 F and 1 G2a.

      Genetiker said: The “West Asian” component corresponds to the race that has been called the Alpine or Alpinid race in Europe and the Assyroid or Armenid race in the Middle East. It’s the same race in both places, but there’s a European variety and a Middle Eastern variety. This race entered Europe from Asia Minor during the Neolithic.

      It’s absolutely nonsensical to equate the West Asian component with Alpinids. First of all the West Asian component is very strong in Iran and Pakistan, two rather leptodolichomorphic countries. Second, if you look at the most recent reconstruction of Ötzi, you’ll note that he looked rather Alpine. Although he possibly wasn’t brachycephalic (?), facially he looks more Alpinid than Mediterranid. And the same can be observed on many Sardinians, his closest living relatives. Such Alpinid-like, but longheaded Sardinians are usually classified as Berid. Third, France, which does have some relatively Alpinid areas is comparatively little West Asian admixed. It would make sense to regard the Alpinids partly as brachycephalized Berids. Fourth, while there are certainly many Alpinid looking people in the Caucasus, in Turkey and southeastern Europe, you can also find many Dinarid looking people there. They look very different from Alpinids, but their distribution in Europe also correlates with West Asian admixture. Now you could conclude that West Asian is a conglomerate of brachycephalic Alpinids and Dinarids (or Armenids), just as you suggested. But then I point out again that the West Asian component is very strong in all of Iran, not just the brachycephalic northern fringe, and Pakistan. And that during the Iron Age and the Roman age the Near and Middle East, also the parts that are now brachycephalic, was dominated by longheaded people. And I would also point out that in Italy the South and Sicily are much more West Asian than the North, and yet the South and Sicily are at the same time more longheaded than the North, the latter being rather brachycephalic. Yet it does make sense that the South is more West Asian, you can see it in the facial features. So I conclude that the South was influenced by a rather longheaded West Asian influence.

      Genetiker said: Today Iberia is the most racially Mediterranean place in Europe behind Sardinia, but prior to the Neolithic Iberia was Nordic. It was flooded with Mediterraneans from North Africa during the Neolithic.

      According to the dominant view among modern archaeologists, the Iberian Neolithic stemmed from the Cardium Pottery culture which came from the east. An influence from northern Africa is controversial.

      Genetiker said: Alpines inhabited the parts of the Middle East closest to Europe, Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. There was gene flow between Nordic hunter-gatherers and Alpine hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic.

      Is there any cranial evidence for Alpines in the Middle East during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic?

      Genetiker said: First, ADMIXTURE doesn’t produce “hybrid components” for admixture events that took place in the past few thousand years, as is the case with Nordics and Mediterraneans. That’s the whole point of ADMIXTURE: to resolve the elements that mixed.

      Yet, in the case of the Amerindian component you claim that it is hybrid…

      Genetiker said: The “North-European-Mesolithic” component is the Cro-Magnon Nordic component.
      The Cro-Magnon Y haplogroup is I.
      The “North-East-European” component is the Aryan Nordic component. The Aryans were the Nordics who lived on the Pontic-Caspian steppe and spoke Proto-Indo-European.

      The suggestion that the North-European-Mesolithic component is Cro-Magnon related and the North-East-European component Aurignacoid does appear to make some sense. Baltic hunter-gatherers were particularly long-faced, and the North-East-European component peaks in the Baltic. And while western European hunter-gatherers tended to be more Cromagnoid, there have been Aurignacoids in western Europe since the Paleolithic, so the results of your analyses of the La Brana genomes are in line with this. However, note that the Swedish hunter-gatherers tested so far all had y-haplogroup I. So it does not appear to have been exclusively a Cro-Magnon haplogroup. No R has been found in Europe prior to the Chalcolithic. Also I have to point out that it’s not at all proven that the Proto-Indo-Europeans were Aurignacoid Nordics. Moreover, the hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of the Pontic-Caspian steppe were not Aurignacoid. The hunter-gatherers were strongly Cromagnoid, the pastoralists were partly mesomorphic, but according to a recent paper rather dark pigmented…

      • Joss Beaumont said: The suggestion that the North-European-Mesolithic component is Cro-Magnon related and the North-East-European component Aurignacoid does appear to make some sense. Baltic hunter-gatherers were particularly long-faced, and the North-East-European component peaks in the Baltic. 

        On a second thought, this doesn’t make sense either. Because even though the Baltic hunter-gatherers were particularly longfaced, the modern Baltic populations are not. This is because of the westward migrations of the eastern Baltic Latgalians and Lithuanians who assimilated the western Baltic Curonians, Semigallians and Selonians. Hence, the modern Latvians and Lithuanians are not overly Skando-Nordid, although that type is certainly still present there; but it’s mixed with a more broad-faced Cromagnoid eastern type. More generally I think it’s quite obvious that northeastern Europe isn’t the peak of the Skando-Nordid type. So, what is this MDLP World-22 North European-Mesolithic component? As your analysis of the complete La Brana genomes has shown, it isn’t the legacy of the western European hunter-gatherers, in contrast to later „Aryan“ expansions either, because the western European hunter-gatherers were predominantly Northeast European, too. All we can say so far, is that it is something Sami-related.

        The Dodecad Globe10 analysis showed:
        The Northern component peaks in Lithuanians, Finns, Swedes and Norwegians. Hence it is East Baltid and Skando-Nordid, but also Fälid, which is apparently related with the East Baltid type.
        The Southern component peaks in Saudis, Mozabites, Moroccans and Bedouins. Hence it is Arabid and South Mediterranid.
        The West Asian component peaks in Georgians, Abkhaz, Brahui, Makrani and Balochi. Hence it is Mtebid and Irano-Afghan. Related is the Dinarid type.

        If you now look at the K12b analysis, it becomes apparent that:
        The North European component peaks in Lithuanians and Finns, followed by Belorussians and Russians. It is just East Baltid.
        The Atlantic-Med component peaks in Basques and Sardinians, followed by Spaniards. It is Mediterranean, but also strong in the entire West of Europe. Hence H.F.K. Günther’s habit of calling the Mediterranid type „Westisch“ makes sense.
        The Northwest African component peaks in Mozabites, followed by Moroccans. It is Saharid.
        The Southwest Asian component peaks in Saudis, followed by Bedouins. It is Arabid.
        The Caucasus component peaks in Georgians, followed by Abkhaz. It’s Mtebid.
        The Gedrosia component peaks in Brahui, Makrani and Balochi. It’s Irano-Afghan.

        But where in this K12b analysis are the Skando-Nordids? They’ve disappeared. Obviously, in this analysis they are a blend of the North European and the Atlantic-Med components.

        If you now think the K12b analysis is obsolete, then take the Globe13 analysis instead. It’s very similar. Norway is 28,9% Mediterranean in Globe13. Sweden is 26,1% Mediterranean. Lithuania is 13 – 14,4% Mediterranean, Finland 9,8 – 10,2%. That makes the difference between the more East Baltid Finns and Lithuanians and the more Skando-Nordid Swedes and Norwegians.

  34. Genetiker said: First, ADMIXTURE doesn’t produce “hybrid components” for admixture events that took place in the past few thousand years, as is the case with Nordics and Mediterraneans. That’s the whole point of ADMIXTURE: to resolve the elements that mixed.

    In fact, the Globe13 Mediterranean component is a hybrid component: It is mixed of the Globe10 Southern and Northern („Atlantic-Baltic“) components.

    This can be seen in the fact that the Basques in Globe13 are 59,5% Mediterranean, but only 21,8% Southern in Globe10. So a large part of their Globe13 Mediterranean component is actually Northern.

    Similarly, the Sardinians are 71% Mediterranean in Globe13, but only 39% Southern in Globe10.

    And this leads us to the real reason why the La Brana samples had some Mediterranean admixture in Globe13. The reason is not that they were mixed with incoming Mediterraneans. Because in Globe10, La Brana 1 had 0% of the Southern component and 96,5% of the Northern (Atlantic-Baltic) component. The real reason for the Mediterranean component in La Brana is that these alleles were incorporated into the Mediterranean component. So these are alleles of northern, European hunter-gatherer origin which became part of the Mediterranean component.

  35. genetiker says:

    I acknowledged that G is associated with the Mediterranean component in this comment.

    I have been aware for a long time that some of my associations of phenotype-based classifications with autosomal components were problematic. Your criticism forcefully reminded me of the problems, and has led me to decide to abandon them.

    Associating the West Asian component with Alpines wasn’t completely nonsensical.

    If you look at this map of the MDLP World-22 West Asian component and compare it with the inset of this map from Madison Grant’s The Passing of the Great Race (which was based on William Z. Ripley’s tripartite system), you’ll see that all the populations for which the West Asian component is modal were classified as Alpine.

    According to the Wikipedia article on the Alpine race, “Ripley argued that the Alpines had originated in Asia, and had spread westwards along with the emergence and expansion of agriculture, which they established in Europe”. And this map from Grant’s book shows Alpines entering Europe from Asia Minor and Transcaucasia during the Bronze Age. These ideas are consistent with the Neolithic or Bronze Age introduction of the West Asian component to Europe.

    Armenians have one of highest levels of the West Asian component, and in The Passing of the Great Race Grant wrote “The Armenoids constitute an Alpine subdivision and may possibly represent the ancestral type of this race which remained in the mountains and high plateaux of Anatolia and western Asia”.

    Egon von Eickstedt considered the Alpinid race to include West-Alpinids and Lappids, and he classified Alpinids along with Dinarids, Armenids, and Turanids as all belonging to the larger race Homo sapiens albi brachimorphi, inhabiting what he called the mountain race belt. You can see that on his map of European races here.

    But as you correctly pointed out in the case of France, the West Asian component is not modal for any of the European populations that were always classified as Alpine.

    And as you also correctly pointed out in the case of Iran and Pakistan, there are populations for which the West Asian component is modal that cannot be classified as Alpine given the fact that brachycephaly was the main defining characteristic of the Alpine race.

    One has to conclude that the cephalic index was simply never a good criterion to use for racial classification, because brachycephaly has evolved independently in so many different places and at so many different times.

    I know that the Cardium pottery culture entered Iberia from the east, but it’s hard to imagine the earlier La Almagra pottery culture of Andalusia coming from anywhere but North Africa.

    Note that I said that ADMIXTURE doesn’t produce hybrid components for admixture events that took place in the past few thousand years. Actually, for a sufficiently high K value, ADMIXTURE will produce a hybrid component for any mixed population, but the further back in time the admixture event that produced that population occurred, and the more genetic drift there was after that admixture event, the lower the K value required. The admixture event that produced Amerindians occurred a very long time ago (over 15 ka), and there was a lot of genetic drift in Amerindians after that event, so it only takes a K value of 4 for ADMIXTURE to produce a hybrid component for Amerindians. The mixing of hunter-gatherers and farmers in Europe took place much more recently, and it took place during and after the Neolithic, when population sizes were much larger, and when there was therefore much less genetic drift. So it will take a significantly higher K value for ADMIXTURE to produce hybrid components for Europeans.

    I had never even seen the term “Aurignacoid” before reading your comments. It’s a horrible term for a racial type that is supposed to be contrasted with Cro-Magnons, because the Cro-Magnons were the Aurignacians. The first page that a search for the term turns up is this one. It says that the “Aurignacoid” type is based on the Combe Capelle skull. First, the belief that the Combe Capelle skull was from the Aurignacian time period was shown to be erroneous when accelerator mass spectrometry was used in 2011 to date it to 7575 BC. Second, the Comb Capelle skull is one of the most freakish, alien-looking things I have ever seen. The idea that anyone would use it as the holotype for a race is crazy.

    Just to be clear, I think that the Cro-Magnons of the Aurignacian were I, and that the Gravettians were R1 Indo-Europeans. So I think that starting with the Gravettian there was a mix of I and R1 throughout Europe. The finding that some of the hunter-gatherers in Sweden 8,000 years ago were I does not contradict this scenario.

    You say that no R has been found in Europe before the Copper Age. The Bell Beaker site at Kromsdorf where R1b was found and the Corded Ware site at Eulau where R1a was found were actually both late Neolithic sites.

    We only have six Y haplotypes from Mesolithic Europe, and they have already shown heterogeneity (I and C), and we don’t have any Y haplotypes from Paleolithic Europe, so it’s way too premature to be suggesting that there was no R in Europe during these time periods.

    And we now know that the mammoth hunters of Siberia 24,000 years ago were R. The idea that there was no R in Europe during the Paleolithic requires us to believe that although mammoths ranged from Iberia to Siberia, the R men who hunted those mammoths did not, but instead confined themselves to Siberia.

    I don’t believe that the Western European hunter-gatherers of 7,000 years ago were distinct from Indo-Europeans. I think that they were autosomally predominantly Indo-European.

    The North European Mesolithic component is obviously related to the Sami, and to a lesser extent Finns and other Finnic peoples. But as I pointed out in the comments above, and also in this post, the Sami have cranial features which are similar to those of Cro-Magnons. And the analysis of craniometric data in this paper showed that of all the populations analyzed, Sami and Finns had skulls that were the most similar to those of Cro-Magnons.

    Also, if the North European Mesolithic component is just a Sami component, then why does La Braña 1, a hunter-gatherer from Iberia 7,000 years ago, have more of that component than any modern European population except for Sami, Finns, and other Finnic peoples?

    In the past I have interpreted the globe13 North European component as being associated with the European hunter-gatherers, and the globe13 Mediterranean component as being associated with the European farmers.

    You’re saying that it’s the globe10 Atlantic Baltic component that’s associated with the hunter-gatherers, and the globe10 Southern component that’s associated with the farmers, and that the globe13 Mediterranean component is a hunter-gatherer and farmer hybrid component.

    Your explanation of the Mediterranean component in La Braña 1 had occurred to me before, and it is true that there is no way that it can be ruled out. But nor can my explanation of it as being genuine farmer admixture be ruled out, because it is a fact that the farmers of the La Almagra pottery culture had entered Iberia long before the time of La Braña 1.

    If we had DNA from Iberian hunter-gatherers from before 8,000 years ago, and it showed some of the Mediterranean component, then that would be compelling evidence for your interpretation. If such DNA didn’t show any of the Mediterranean component, it would be compelling evidence for my interpretation. Without any such evidence, both interpretations can only be considered conjectures.

    And I actually now think that it’s likely that neither interpretation is really all that accurate.

    I’ve come to the view that many of the subracial autosomal components are reflections of genetic gradients or clines that cannot sensibly be related to discrete, typological, phenotype-based subracial categories.

    Some of the subracial components may genuinely correspond to distinct populations, but these are often populations that existed many thousands of years ago, long before the formation of the historical and present-day European race.

    Associating such components with many of the traditional subraces is impossible, because many of the phenotypic traits that were used to define those subraces have emerged only relatively recently.

    As an example, Nordics were defined in part by their fair skin, while Mediterraneans were defined in part by their darker skin. But we now know that even just the alleles for basic white skin, as opposed to brown or tan skin, were still in the process of rising in frequency to fixation in Europe as late as the Bronze Age.

    Brachycephaly, one of the defining traits of Alpines, is likely another example of a trait that evolved in certain regions of Europe only relatively recently.

    • I don’t know much about the Almagra culture. And certainly the genetic evidence on the Iberian peninsula allows for some North African admixture. But for the European Neolithic in general, Northern Africa wasn’t an important source. The two main waves of the early European Neolithic were the Danubian one, giving rise to the LBK in central Europe, and the Mediterranean wave, represented by the Cardium / Impressa pottery, which can be traced back to Greece.

      I don’t believe you had never seen the term „Aurignacoid“ before, you must have forgotten about it. I agree though, that the name is problematic, considering that the Aurignacian is the early Upper Paleolithic culture of Europe in general. But note that judging from the C14 dating of associated grave goods, the human remains from the site of Cro-Magnon appear to be Gravettian rather than Aurignacian.

      Indeed, the Combe Capelle skull turned out to be Mesolithic, which explains why it looks relatively modern, compared to early UP finds.

      When I used the term Aurignacoid I was of course thinking of more leptomorphic types, in contrast to the very eurymorphic Cro-Magnon I skull. Albeit Combe Capelle is now out of the question, there are other more leptomorphic finds of comparable age as those from Cro-Magnon; Predmost 3 or Sungir 1 for instance:

      Just to make it clear: The Copper Age is a subsection of the Neolithic; it coincides with the late to final Neolithic (in central Europe). So yes, in the late Neolithic, R1a and R1b were present in central Europe. But before that, there is no shred of evidence of them, in all the samples from the Mesolithic to the earlier Neolithic, so far. Two mesolithic hunter-gatherers from western Europe were I2a and C; four mesolithic hunter-gatherers from Scandinavia were I or I2. Apparently I was rather common among mesolithic European hunter-gatherers, but there is also the surprising finding of the nowadays very uncommon C. If there was any R1 present, which is hard to rule out, it surely wasn’t common. In my view R1a and R1b were more eastern, they may have been present in eastern European hunter-gatherers. The recent study by Lazaridis et al. that you despise so much, did in fact show that there was a post-mesolithic and post-early neolithic admixture event with a (or several) population(s) that was more Ancient North Eurasian-admixed than the western and north European hunter-gatherers and the early European farmers. It would make sense if this was associated with an influx of R1a and R1b, because Ancient North Eurasian means Mal’ta 1-like, and as you say, he was R.

      As for the Indo-Europeans, that’s a linguistic, and to some extent, cultural category. Biologically, Indo-Europeans vary a lot. The Irish, the Norwegians, the Latvians, the Spaniards are all Indo-Europeans, as are the Greeks and the Armenians, the Pathans and the Persians, the Singhalese etc., etc. On the other hand, non-IE Basques are not far away genetically from IE western Europeans, the non-IE Estonians are not far at all from IE Latvians, etc. What’s true is that the Proto-Indo-Europeans must have been a homogenous population, but it’s not quite clear where they lived and what they were like. Some respected linguists have presented good linguistic evidence for an IE homeland in western Asia. And the Dodecad experiments have shown that IE Europeans, even in the far west and north do have some seizable West Asian admixture, whereas the non-IE Basques and Finns don’t. And recently the Corded people, regarded by many scholars as early IEs, proved to have mt-DNA with links to the Caucasus and trans-Caucasus. The custom of erecting Kurgans arose south of the Caucasus anyway. So even if you’re not convinced of a West Asian homeland of the Proto-IEs, you can’t dismiss the possibility offhandedly.

      And I have to say, the association of R1b with IE, at least as far as western Europe is concerned, is illusory. In southwestern Europe, R1b is actually stronger in areas where IE was introduced late, by the Romans (or not at all, in the case of the Basques), than in the old Celtic and „para-Celtic“ areas. That’s exactly the opposite of what we would expect if R1b was introduced by the IEs. From northwestern Europe we don’t have any non-IE languages, because writing was introduced too late. But I noted that in northwestern Europe I2b, a central European variant of I2, must have arrived after R1b, because they have complementary distributions, with R1b being strongest in refuge areas. And I2b doesn’t exclusively correlate with Germanic influence, but is found at similar frequencies in Celtic areas where Germanic influence was minimal. And since I2b came from central Europe, to me it’s clear that it was brought to northwestern Europe with the Celtic invasions – so they arrived there when R1b was already in place, and the whole association of Italo-Celtic with R1b is spurious. And in other IE populations, R1b isn’t that predominant.

      The paper that is supposed to show the similarity between Cro-Magnons and Sami and Finns uses the term Cro-Magnon in a very wide sense, so that it actually means nothing more than European hunter-gatherers. If you check the skulls that the author included into his Cro-Magnon sample, these were (with ages in brackets):

      Cro-Magnon 1 (27,7k), Predmost III (26 – 27k), Pavlov I (25,5 – 27k), Obercassel I (14k), Chancelade I (17k), and Cheddar I (7k).

      So the study demonstrated that Sami and Finns are close to European hunter-gatherers, but that’s rather uncontroversial.

      Finally, if you look at the aDNA samples with Globe10:
      Ötzi is 42,2% Southern.
      Gok4 is 33,7% Southern.
      Bra1, Ajv52 and Ajv70 are all 0% Southern.

      The only reasonable conclusion being that the Southern component was brought by the early farmers, the European hunter-gatherers didn’t have it.
      And since Bra1 had 0% Southern he could hardly have any farmer admixture.

  36. genetiker says:

    I think that Sungir 1 was Y R, which leads me to believe that the leptomorphic type of Sungir 1 and Predmost 3 was associated with R and introduced to Europe during the Gravettian, and that the eurymorphic type of Cro-Magnon 1 was associated with I and introduced to Europe during the Aurignacian.

    I is the most common haplogroup in the Sami after N, and I think that Sami crania look like a brachycephalized version of the Cro-Magnon 1 cranium.

    The Copper Age is thought of as part of the Neolithic by some people, but certainly not by everybody. The first paragraph of the Wikipedia article on the Copper Age states

    “The Chalcolithic period or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic/Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus ‘of bronze’), is a phase of the Bronze Age before metallurgists discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze. The Copper Age was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. However, because it is characterized by the use of metals, the Copper Age is considered a part of the Bronze Age rather than the Stone Age.”

    It goes on to say that

    “In 1884 Gaetano Chierici, perhaps following the lead of Evans, renamed it in Italian as the Eneo-litica, or ‘Bronze-stone’ transition. This phrase was never intended to mean that the period was one in which both bronze and stone were used. The Copper Age features the use of copper, excluding bronze; moreover, stone continued to be used throughout both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. ‘Litica’ simply names the Stone Age as the point from which the transition began and is not another -lithic age. The Eneolithic was never part of the Stone Age, which ended conclusively the moment the first smelter succeeded in obtaining copper from copper ore for the first time.”

    The Wikipedia article on the Neolithic says that

    “It ended when metal tools became widespread (in the Copper Age or Bronze Age; or, in some geographical regions, in the Iron Age).”

    Later it says

    “The Chalcolithic period began about 4500 BC, then the Bronze Age began about 3500 BC, replacing the Neolithic cultures.”

    It also says

    “The clothing worn in the Neolithic Age might be similar to that worn by Ötzi the Iceman, although he was not Neolithic (since he belonged to the later Copper age).”

    The Copper Age is defined here as

    “a cultural period between the Neolithic and the Bronze ages, marked by the development and use of copper tools.”

    And it’s defined here as

    “a short prehistoric period after the Stone Age and preceding the Bronze Age, when some tools and weapons were made of copper”

    The sole criterion determining whether the Kromsdorf and Eulau sites were Neolithic or Copper Age, as those periods are defined above, is the type of artifacts found in association with the human remains. The artifacts found at those two sites were made out of stone, not copper, so by the above definitions, they were Neolithic sites, not Copper Age sites.

    The fact that R1b and R1a have been found at Neolithic sites is important, because in Marija Gimbutas’ version of events, Copper and Bronze Age IE-speaking pastoralists from the steppes of Eastern Europe invaded and conquered the inhabitants of Central and Western Europe. That idea is undermined by the existence of R1b and R1a (which are associated with IE languages) at sites where there were only stone artifacts and no copper or bronze weapons.

    To see just how absurd Gimbutas’ account is, you can look at this map and this map. The first map shows that the steppes of Eastern Europe, above the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, were the last places in Europe that agriculture spread to, so the population density of Central and Western Europe was much higher, at a much earlier time, than that of the steppes of Eastern Europe. The second map shows that metallurgy existed along the Danube, in Central Europe, and in parts of Western Europe long before it existed in the steppes of Eastern Europe. The idea that the high population density areas of Central and Western Europe were invaded and conquered by people from Eastern Europe who developed agriculture thousands of years later, and who developed metallurgy hundreds of years later, is ridiculous.

    Not to mention the fact that there’s zero archeological evidence of a Copper or Bronze Age invasion of Western Europe by Eastern Europeans.

    The sample of Y haplotypes of Mesolithic Europeans that we currently have is too small to draw any meaningful conclusions about the presence or prevalence of R1b and R1a during that time period.

    The idea that R and its descendants were confined to Siberia, or to Siberia and Eastern Europe, until the Copper or Bronze Age doesn’t make any sense.

    During the Upper Paleolithic, the steppe-tundra ecoregion stretched from the Atlantic coast of Europe to Lake Baikal. Mammoths roamed the steppes over that entire region. There’s absolutely no reason why the R mammoth hunters at the eastern end of that area wouldn’t have expanded to fill the entire area; indeed, that is exactly what we would expect.

    In addition to the ecological continuity from the Atlantic to Lake Baikal, there was cultural continuity. Venus figurines are found over the entire area.

    And there is also genetic continuity over the entire area. Mitochondrial haplogroup U has been found from one end to the other.

    It doesn’t make any sense to think that there was ecological continuity, cultural continuity, and maternal genetic continuity across the whole steppe-tundra region, but no paternal genetic continuity.

    Also, the distributions of R1b and R1a don’t make any sense if one supposes that they each originated in Asia, or in Eastern Europe, and then spread across Europe. If that were the case, then they would both have similar distributions, with a decreasing gradient from east to west. What we see instead is a partitioning of the two into separate regions, with R1b concentrated in Western Europe, and R1a concentrated in Eastern Europe. The frequency of R1a drops precipitously at around 15°E, as though its further expansion had been repelled, and the frequency of R1b sharply rises at around the same longitude.

    The distributions do however make complete sense if one supposes that R entered Europe at some very remote time in the past, and that R1b then originated somewhere in Western Europe, and R1a somewhere in Eastern Europe. Over time R1b and R1a would have expanded from their points of origin, with the expansion of one acting to repel the expansion of the other at around 15°E. Although it must be noted that R1b was apparently more successful in repelling R1a than vice versa, because the distribution of R1b extends far to the east.

    And this scenario is consistent with what we know from archeology and genetics. It was estimated here that Q and R diverged from each other 33,000 years ago, which is not long before the beginning of the Gravettian. The latest estimate for the divergence of R1b and R1a is 25,000 years ago, which coincides perfectly with the start of the Last Glacial Maximum. The LGM would have split the R1 in Europe into one population occupying a Western European refuge, where R1b would have originated, and another population occupying an Eastern European refuge, where R1a would have originated.

    David Reich and his associates show no understanding of the simple concept that Loschbour and Mal’ta 1 being separated by 16,000 years of time means that they’re separated by 16,000 years of evolution. Mal’ta 1 appears to be a mix of North European Caucasoid, West Asian Caucasoid, and Veddoid components not because he’s the product of interbreeding between multiple populations, but because he’s a representative of an intermediate stage in the process by which some Veddoids evolved into Caucasoids. Mal’ta 1 shows some of the West Asian component because at that point in time the evolutionary divergence of Upper Paleolithic Europeans from Upper Paleolithic West Asians had not progressed to the point that it ultimately would 16,000 years later. Afontova Gora 2 shows more of the North European component and less of the Veddoid South Asian component not because of some admixture event, but because he was 7,000 years further up the path of Upper Paleolithic European evolution.

    It makes absolutely no sense to calculate how much Mal’ta 1 (“ANE”) ancestry there is in a modern-day Caucasoid individual or population, because no modern-day Caucasoid individual or population is directly descended from a representative of such an early stage of Caucasoid evolution. It would be just as nonsensical for a modern-day Mongoloid to calculate how much Tianyuan ancestry he has. Tianyuan shows more of the Veddoid South Asian component than any other component, but most Mongoloid populations today don’t have any Veddoid DNA. But of course the fact that such calculations are utterly nonsensical hasn’t deterred David Reich and his associates or Davidski and his mindless followers from going right on ahead and making them.

    More generally, it doesn’t make any sense to base entire autosomal admixture components on single individuals widely separated in time and space. But that’s exactly what David Reich and his associates idiotically did when they based “ANE” on Mal’ta 1, “WHG” on Loschbour, and “EEF” on Stuttgart.

    The admixture that entered Europe after the early Neolithic that is seemingly related to Mal’ta 1 is nothing but the West Asian component, which has nothing to do with R or Indo-Europeans. The distribution of the West Asian component shows that its presence in Europe is the result of demic diffusion from Asia Minor to Greece and Italy and then into the rest of Europe. Basques don’t have any of the West Asian component because they’ve been isolated since the Neolithic.

    Comparing the distribution of J2 with the distribution of the West Asian component shows that there’s a very strong relationship between the two. No other haplogroup shows such a strong relationship with the West Asian component. R1b and R1a certainly don’t. And it only makes perfect sense that the West Asian component was brought to Europe by J2 men, because J2 is the dominant haplogroup in the same part of West Asia where the West Asian component is the dominant autosomal component.

    If one supposes that the only Y haplogroup that was prevalent among Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europeans was I, and that the only mitochondrial haplogroup that was prevalent among them was U, then the amounts of the North European autosomal component that one finds across Europe don’t make any sense. There’s far too much of it to have been contributed only by I males and U females. Most of the mitochondrial haplogroups in Europe today are from the farmers, with U only being found at low frequencies across most of Europe. And R1b and R1a are the dominant haplogroups in most of the areas of Europe where there’s a lot of the North European component. The haplogroup frequencies and autosomal composition of Europeans make far more sense if R1b and R1a were Paleolithic and Mesolithic European haplogroups.

    The earliest studies on R1b-M269 concluded that it was in Europe during the Paleolithic. In 2010 this paper found that STR haplotype diversity for R1b-M269 decreased from Asia Minor to Western Europe, and claimed that R1b-M269 was therefore brought to Europe during the Neolithic by farmers from the Near East. The findings of this paper were contradicted later in 2010 by this paper, which supported the presence of R1b-M269 in Europe during the Paleolithic. Then in 2011 this paper also contradicted the findings of the first 2010 paper by looking at a much larger sample of R1b-M269 Y chromosomes and finding no geographical trends in haplotype diversity.

    The association of R1b with Indo-European languages is not “illusory”. It’s quite real.

    It’s obvious to everybody that R1a is associated with Indo-European languages. Its distribution is clearly a reflection of the Aryan invasion of India. (Note that the distribution of the North East European component in Asia parallels that of R1a, and that it is unique in doing so.)

    But it is only the satem Indo-European languages that have a distribution that coincides with that of R1a. It’s just as clear that the centum Indo-European languages have a distribution that coincides with that of R1b.

    And it’s not just that the two major divisions of the IE languages correspond to the two major divisions of R1. The subdivisions of these two main divisions of IE correspond to the subdivisions of R1b and R1a.

    The distribution of R1b-S21 corresponds to the distribution of Germanic languages.

    The distribution of R1b-P312 corresponds to the distribution of Italo-Celtic languages.

    The distribution of R1a-Z282 corresponds to the distribution of Balto-Slavic languages.

    The distribution of R1a-Z93 corresponds to the distribution of Indo-Iranian languages.

    And the subdivisions of R1b-P312 correspond to the subdivisions of Italo-Celtic languages.

    The distribution of R1b-L21 corresponds to the distribution of Insular Celtic languages.

    The distribution of R1b-S28 corresponds to the distribution of Gaulish and Italic languages.

    The distribution of R1b-DF27 corresponds to the distribution of Hispano-Celtic languages.

    In Iberia there’s a decreasing gradient of R1b from the northeast to the southwest. The reason for that is that starting in the Neolithic E, G, J, and T entered Iberia from North Africa, displacing the indigenous R1b.

    Basques are unlike other populations having high frequencies of R1b in that they have the second highest level of the Mediterranean autosomal component in all of Europe. The Mediterranean component makes up about 70% of Sardinian DNA and about 60% of Basque DNA. Sardinians spoke a non-IE language up until the arrival of the Romans, and there is evidence that this language was related to the Basque language. Basques represent a unique case of hunter-gatherer men adopting the language of their farmer wives.

    Absolutely nothing can be inferred about the presence or absence of IE or non-IE languages in Northwestern Europe from the late introduction of writing there.

    The distribution of I2a2 (formerly I2b) clearly coincides with the distribution of Germanic languages. More specifically, I2a2a-M223, which makes up over 90% of I2a2, is associated with Germanic languages, while I2a2b-L38 is associated with Alpine Celts. The complementary distributions of R1b and I2a2 in Northwestern Europe is the result of I2a2 making up part of the Germanic lineages that displaced the earlier R1b Celtic lineages.

    The Welsh are about 90% R1b, and the Welsh language is an IE language. No haplogroup but R1b can possibly be associated with the Welsh language.

    Since R1b men were the originators of the centum IE languages, we know that the Kurgan hypothesis is false, because the Bell Beaker people were R1b, and the Bell Beaker culture was definitely not considered to be part of the “Kurgan culture” of Gimbutas’ account.

    The admixture plot here makes it clear that La Braña 1 did not have any farmer admixture.

    But it’s not possible to say that the globe10 Southern component is the farmer component, or that the globe13 Mediterranean component is the farmer component. In the above plot, there are components from K = 9 to K = 18 that are similar to the globe10 Southern component, and there are components at K = 19 and K = 20 that are similar to the globe13 Mediterranean component. All of the hunter-gatherers lack all of these components. Stuttgart has varying levels of them depending on the K value. It’s impossible to single out one of these components as being the farmer component, especially considering the fact that the analysis only includes a single farmer data point from the huge extent of space and time occupied by the European Neolithic.

    • I wouldn’t rely too much on Wikipedia. While it’s generally a valuable source of information, it’s not completely free of errors, especially in rather esoteric topics, where only few people are really informed.

      As far as European prehistory is concerned, the Copper Age doesn’t belong to the fundamental divisions. The sequence is: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, etc, with further subdivisions respectively. So basically the Neolithic ends just with the beginning of the Bronze Age.

      There are various opinions regarding the terminology and chronological division of the Neolithic subsections. A reasonable division in my view was suggested by J. Lüning. According to him the sequence in central Europe was:
      Early Neolithic 5500 – 5000 BC
      Middle Neolithic 5000 – 4400 BC
      Upper Neolithic 4400 – 3500 BC
      Late Neolithic 3500 – 2800 BC
      Final Neolithic 2800 – 2200 BC
      And then followed the Early Bronze Age.

      So nowhere there is a section called Copper Age. It’s a vague term which roughly encompassed the Upper, the Late and the Final Neolithic, when copper was used as a material for tools and ornaments, but throughout which stone remained by far the more important resource. (Which is why it makes more sense to ascribe it to the Neolithic.)

      Of course these divisions are not absolute, but strongly dependent on the region in question. In northern Germany the sequence was different:
      Early Neolithic 4400 – 3300 BC
      Middle Neolithic 3300 – 2380 BC
      Late Neolithic 2380 – 1800 BC.
      Then followed the Bronze Age.

      Saying that the Bronze Age began about 3500 BC, as the wikipedia article does, is of course complete nonsense. In some areas it started around 3500 BC, in other areas it started long after that. This is a prime example of the misconceptions that half informed people carry around, and it’s a common mistake that even scientists make. The reason is that they mistake these relative divisions for absolute.

      Recently a preprint of a scientific paper called Ötzi even a Bronze Age farmer. This is completely and utterly wrong. He was Neolithic, late Neolithic to be precise, and of course also from the Copper Age.

      Both the Corded Ware culture and the Bell Beaker culture (to which the Eulau and the Kromsdorf findings respectively belong) belong to the Final Neolithic and at the same time to the Copper Age. These cultures definitely made use of copper, there’s no point in questioning that. But as I said, throughout the Copper Age, stone remained much more important.

      You’re really making a twisted, pointless argument when you’re trying to squeeze out any valid conclusions regarding Gimbutas’ theory from picking on that copper-bronze entanglement and from mixing in R1a and R1b. But let me explain step by step:

      Gimbutas wasn’t an idiot, she knew well what technological era the cultures she was speaking about, belonged to. Basically she was speaking of Neolithic cultures. I know that the guy from Eupedia, Maciamo, consistently speaks of the Bronze Age and Bronze Age cultures, he also calls the Corded Ware a Bronze Age culture, which is nonsense. Obviously Maciamo isn’t an archeologist. So don’t confuse Maciamo’s account of the Kurgan theory with Gimbutas’ account. It’s clear that the Yamnaya culture also made some use of copper. Its neighbours to the south and southwest were very advanced with copper metallurgy, and they definitely exerted some influence on the Yamnaya culture.

      Maciamo appears to explain the expansion of the Kurgan cultures, which he equates with the early Indo-Europeans, with their superior metallurgical skills, among other things. However, afaik the classical Kurgan theory propagated by Gimbutas, and more recently by David Anthony, said no such thing. It would be rather silly, in light of the early advanced metallurgical knowledge of the Balkans, which no serious archeologist would deny. I think Gimbutas and Anthony put much more weight on horse domestication and horse riding. That’s a questionable argument too, but at least it makes no reference to bronze technology or copper. In fact, there is no reconstructed Proto-Indo-European word for bronze, that’s why linguists concluded that the proto-language must have split before the Bronze Age.

      No serious Kurganist would claim that the Kurgan people from the Pontic steppe conquered Europe up to the Atlantic in one sweep. Instead they speak of a step-by-step process. Generally they believe that the Celts reached the Atlantic late, in the Bronze Age or even as late as the Iron Age. So there you have the Bronze Age in play, but not in connection with the earliest Kurgan groups from the steppe.

      As I said, there is no argument on whether the Corded Ware or the Bell Beaker culture were Copper Age cultures. They definitely were. The Bell Beaker culture was especially rich in copper, and one of its aims appears to have been the securing of copper trade routes. And even the Funnel Beaker cultures of central-northern Europe predating the Corded Ware had used some copper, though more rarely.

      And as I said, I wouldn’t conclude from the presence of R1b to the presence of Indo-Europeans. But more about that later.

      Actually it’s questionable if the people in the Pontic steppe ever became real farmers, the climate isn’t well suited for farming. It’s been discussed if they once had limited farming, but eventually they preferred to become pastoralists. The farmers from the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture expanded some way eastwards, but not behind the Dnieper and lower Don. But this makes the Steppe folks an excellent candidate for the later North European and Anient North Eurasian admixture that mixed into the Sardinian- and Basque-like Neolithic Europeans. Another important source are probably the more northern hunter-gatherers of eastern Europe that became assimilated by the Corded Ware. Although the Steppe people were not farmers, they were nonetheless quite populous. As Mallory pointed out, at Khvalynsk on the Volga there have been found about 200 burials + cattle and sheep, dating to the middle of the 5th millennium BC.

      But I admit that the Kurgan theory as presented by Gimbutas and Mallory is nonetheless very problematic and has to be evaluated critically. I think while it may contain some good ideas, it’s most probably not entirely right.

      By the way there is an interesting post regarding R1a, with subsequent discussion of Indo-European origins and the Kurgan theory here:

      Interesting, you simply brush the paleo-genetic evidence aside, with the excuse that the sample is too small. I would give the direct evidence much more weight than any hypothetical constructs. In two very different places of Europe, haplogroup I was found, and almost all the mesolithic haplotypes so far were I. Yet you say it wasn’t predominant?? And do you really believe that, if you pick out one random haplotype from a population (like mesolithic Iberia), it’s plausible to assume that the haplogroup by chance is a very rare one? No, if you pick out just one haplotype, chances are good, that you get one that is quite common. So, it’s reasonable to assume that C wasn’t rare in mesolithic Iberians, it presumably was common. Yes, it isn’t common today, but can’t you imagine that frequencies of haplogroups can change over the millennia? I won’t exclude that there may have been some R in mesolithic western Europe, as I said, it’s hard (or even impossible) to disprove, but so far 2 of 2 mesolithic western Europeans were something else, casting serious doubt on the assumption that R was common at that time and place.

      I still think that R1b originated in the east. The reason why it’s more common in the west may be founder effects and drift. By chance there was a limited period of time when R1b males were far more successful than I males. I think that explanation would suffice. Once R1b was very common, it couldn’t be supplanted by later invasions, and chances that any highly successful clan leader in later times coincidentally happened to be R1b were higher than that he wasn’t, so he would only have increased the incidence of R1b further.
      The reason for the sharp border in R1a/R1b proportions is that to the east and to the west of it are different populations, Germanics and Slavs respectively, with each having their own prehistory and ethnogenesis. Also, the border may have been slightly less sharp before the expulsion of Pomeranian, Silesian and Prussian Germans and the reshaping of the German borders after WW2.

      Well, „Reich and his associates“ had more than just one sample for their concept of ANE, WHG and EEF. They had 3 EEFs, 3 WHGs and 2 ANEs, and these clearly formed clusters.

      You say the Mal’ta 1 related admixture that entered Europe is nothing but the West Asian component. However I note that in the PCA in fig. 1B, many European populations are shifted towards ANE without a clear tendency towards the West Asian cline on the right hand-side of the plot. There is rather a European cline from EEF towards ANE that kind of parallels the cline in the Near East, between the Bedouins and the Caucasus peoples. Only the strongly West Asian admixed populations like the Greeks and South Italians are inbetween these clines, with a clear tendency towards West Asia. And according to the admixture model, the Scottish for instance are among the most strongly ANE admixed populations of Europe, even though their West Asian admixture is very modest. In the updated version of the paper there is also a PCA where the principal components are based on Loschbour, Stuttgart and MA1 and the West Eurasian populations are projected onto it. There are clearly two seperate peaks approaching MA1. One is composed of Mordovians and Russians, the other one of Lezgins.

      I agree that at least R1a was associated with the populations that dramatically increased the North European component in Europeans. Obviously I1 did so as well, since there isn’t that much R1a in Scandinavia.

      As for the origin of R1b-M269 and of R1b in general, I think it’s more instructive to look at the phylogeography than at minor variations in the STR variance. First of all, what are the basic divisions of R1b? There is V88, present in the Levant and in Africa. There is M335, present in Anatolia. And there is P297, which subsequently split into M73, common in Hazaras and Bashkirs, and into M269, which is most common in western Europe. But the M269 in western Europe belongs mostly to further derived variants. We have to look where R1b-M269* is most common, and that is in the Balkans: In Kosovo it reaches a frequency of 7.9%. So this points to an origin of R1b somewhere in West Asia and of M269 in the Balkans. The path to the haplogroups that dominate western Europe goes via L23. L23* has a frequency of 27% in the Valais, in the Swiss Alps. So we can see the path of R1b from the Balkans to central Europe, presumably in the Copper Age. Via some further mutations we reach R1b-P310/L11*. This is most common in central England, eastern Denmark and northern Poland. And this was the direct ancestor of R1b-U106 and P312 that now dominate western Europe. But note that already P310/L11, their direct ancestor, had a distribution and a centre of weight that was clearly more to the east, quite well coinciding with the Bell Beaker East group, in central-northern Europe rather than in the west. And that’s where R1b was first found in the paleogenetic record. I think its explosive expansion occured in the Bell Beaker culture and immediately succeeding cultures.

      I agree that R1a correlates quite well with Indo-European languages. However I don’t agree on the satem/centum dichotomy being paralleled by R1a and R1b respectively. The Armenians are satem, yet they have quite some R1b, and nearly no R1a. The Germanics are centum, yet R1a isn’t uncommon among them, and there are R1a branches that are purely Germanic. Moreover, apart from the predominance of R1b in Celtic and Italic populations, there is no clear association of R1b with centum Indo-European. There is quite some R1b in Anatolia, but so is J2, and so it’s not clear which is from the ancient Anatolian branch of IE. The idea that the Tocharians were R1b is speculation. The Tarim mummies at least are R1a. And Germanics are a mix of I, R1b and R1a.

      I agree that R1b-S21 correlates extremely well with Germanic influence. But how do you know that it doesn’t stem from a formerly non-IE R1b substrate that eventually became IE, and then the S21 mutation arose in a population that had evolved into speaking proto-Germanic?

      R1b-P312 does not correlate with Italo-Celtic. In southwestern Europe it peaks in areas that adopted an Italo-Celtic language late, from the Romans, and in the non-IE Basques. Note that there had been several IE and non-IE languages on the pre-Roman Iberian peninsula. IE were Celt-Iberian and Lusitanian, and they were in regions where the incidence of R1b varies from more than 50% to more than 60%. The definitely non-IE languages were Iberian and Basque. Tartessian was presumably an additional non-IE language, but that is controversial. Now, Iberian was present along the entire eastern coast up to the Pyrenees. The frequencies of R1b in this area vary from more than 50% in the south to more than 80% in Catalonia. In the Basque country it’s also more than 80%. So the peaks are clearly associated with non-IE Iberians and Basques while the IE Celt-Iberian and Lusitanian areas have a somewhat reduced incidence of R1b.

      Yes, R1b-L21 corresponds to Insular Celts, but that’s probably the legacy of the pre-Celtic substrate that became assimilated.

      R1b-S28 is indeed associated with Gaulish, IE Ligurian and Italic, but I see it as the legacy of a non-IE substrate exactly like it’s Germanic cousin R1b-S21.

      As for the Iberian DF27, the Eupedia maps show it strongest in the east and in the north along the Pyrenees, and that’s exactly where pre-IE Iberian and Basque were spoken. The IE languages of Iberia had their focus in the northwest, west and centre, roughly speaking, where the frequency of DF27 is reduced. I would take these hints very seriously. And the early Neolithic Cardium pottery culture came in from the east and it brought along lots of G2a and also some E-V13. I’m not sure about J, at least J2 probably came later, from the east and is strongest in the south.

      It’s extremely unlikely that Proto-Indo-European split up somewhere in the Paleolithic or Mesolithic. The reconstructed vocabulary points clearly to the Copper Age. And even Bayesian approaches calculating with the average pace of word replacement don’t reach an age that high; the latest calculation that I know of arrived at an age of about 8000 years. So Hispano-Celtic cannot be the relic of Iberian hunter-gatherers.

      And by the way, Basque mt-DNA contains a lot of hunter-gatherer haplotypes.

      About the ancient Sardinian language close to nothing is known. Ancient Iberian may have been related with Basque, but even this is controversial.

      I’d say the Basques are like Copper Age Europeans before the arrival of genetically more North European people from the east. They had their R1b from the old Balkan Copper cultures, they were basically Mediterranean like all early European Farmers, and they had acquired some western European hunter-gatherer ancestry evidenced in their mt-DNA and their slight north European component, which makes them more western than many other populations in the PCA, and which differentiates them from the earliest farmers and from the Sardinians.

      Yes, I2a2 is relatively strong in England, likely because of Anglo-Saxon input. But did you see that it’s equally strong in southwestern Scotland, in the Scottish Lowlands, and in the west of Ireland? The Germanic contribution in these areas was very limited and certainly not comparable to the Germanic input in England. So I stand by my interpretation that it was brought by central European early Celts.

      Celtic was presumably brought to Wales by British R1b people who had been Celticized.

      As for your your argument regarding the Bell Beakers, R1b and the Kurgan theory; IMO the Bell Beaker culture wasn’t Indo-European, at least not predominantly and certainly not originally. It originated in the Iberian peninsula, one of the places that became Indo-Europeanized latest. And whatever the language of R1b people originally was, they were assimilated by this Iberian culture and subsequently incorporated into the Basque gene pool. So I’d rather turn the argument the other way round: The fact that Bell Beakers were R1b speaks against R1b being Indo-European. But who knows, maybe they just switched languages.

      With reference to the admixture plot of La Brana 1, I just say: Q.E.D. I’ve never claimed it had farmer admixture. But indeed, the Globe10 Southern component isnt’ the farmer component either, it was just brought in by the farmers. But this doesn’t mean that they were purely southern. Not even Bedouins and Saudis are purely Southern, so why should Early Farmers have been? I hadn’t intended to suggest such a mad thing.

  37. Hang on!
    I’ve just had an enlightenment!

    I think you’re probably right that R1b in western Europe came with the Italo-Celtic branch of IE, and isn’t the legacy of a non-IE substrate.

    But let me elaborate:

    That recent study by Underhill et al. on R1a, which I linked you to, came to the conclusion that R1a originated somewhere near the Turkey/Iran border.
    Presumably its sister branch R1b originated not too far away. And this is indicated by the phylogeography:

    The basic branches of R1b are:
    V88 = Levant, Africa
    M335 = Anatolia
    P297 = ? It split into:
    M73 = Hazaras, Bashkirs, i.e. an eastern branch
    and into M269* = Balkans, Armenia, i.e. a western branch

    Now, interestingly M269* isn’t purely western, but it’s also present in 2.4% of Bashkirs. So it must have been present in the West Asian ancestors of the Bashkirs when they started to migrate eastwards.

    From M269* followed L23*, whose distribution is similar to that of M269*, just a little wider. It isn’t only common in the Valais in Switzerland, but also in Kosovo, Armenia and notabene in Bashkirs! So it must have already existed at the time when the West Asian ancestors of the Bashkirs started to migrate eastwards.

    So this L23* had a very wide belt-shaped distribution, ranging from central Europe, across the Balkans, West Asia and from there probably through central Asia to the Urals, where the Bashkirs live.

    Now I have to make a step to another category of evidence. The Dodecad K12b analysis had two West Asian components: A western, Caucasus component, and an eastern, Gedrosia component which peaked in Balochistan. I’ve always had the impression that the Gedrosia admixture in Europe is linked with R1b. In Europe, Gedrosia is strongest in the Northwest, especially on the British Isles. In the K12b analysis, the European peak of Gedrosia was in Argyll (western Scotland). It’s particularly strong in insular Celtic populations, and on the continent follow, in descending order, the Bretons, Denmark, the Dutch and interestingly the Basques, who have lots of R1b.

    This Gedrosia component isn’t just nonsense, because it’s closely replicated by the MDLP World-22 Indo-Iranian component. This too has a secondary peak in northwestern Europe, particularly in Wales it seems.

    These autosomal components were not present in the old European hunter-gatherers, and neither in the Neolithic farmers. They arrived later. It may seem puzzling that this admixture apparently links northwestern Europe with the eastern part of West Asia. But I think it makes sense. Let me elaborate further:

    It has been observed before by linguists that the Italo-Celtic branch of IE has similarities with Tocharian. From this, some have concluded that the Tocharians must have originated in central Europe. Others have suggested that the similarities are merely the result of the early split of both branches from the IE mainstream. (Linguists agree that Italo-Celtic and Tocharian both split early from the remainder of IE.) But Gamkrelidze and Ivanov suggested that there really once was a common Tocharo-Celto-Italic branch of IE, besides Anatolian and the still undifferentiated rest.

    Now, Tocharian was spoken in the Tarim basin in the west of modern China, hence very far in the east.

    And modern archeology has more and more evidence that the forebears of the Tocharians arrived there from western Asia via the Silk Road, rather than being an eastern extension of Pontic-Caspian Kurgan tribes.

    And although the Tarim mummies were R1a, R1b is also present in the Uighurs who live in the area now. The Tocharian language may have been brought by R1b people from western Asia. It’s noteworthy that Tocharian has a rich agricultural vocabulary which doesn’t fit with a steppe origin.

    To me it seems very plausible that the Tocharo-Celto-Italic branch of IE migrated from western Asia along the Silk Road and was rich in R1b-L23* and the Gedrosia/Indo-Iranian autosomal component.

    The archeologist Stanislav Grigoriev has suggested that the forebears of the Tumulus culture (central Europe, middle Bronze Age) have originated in southern Siberia, between the Urals and the Irtysh. To my knowledge, the origins of the Tumulus culture are not quite certain. So it seems possible that Grigoriev’s interpretation is right. In other words: The Italo-Celtic branch arrived late in central Europe, in the middle Bronze Age, and it came from southern Siberia. From there it brought R1b-L23* and the Gedrosia/Indo-Iranian autosomal admixture.

    It should also be noted that recent paleo-genetic evidence has indicated that western European hunter-gatherers, early European farmers and Kurgan people from the Pontic steppe all were relatively dark pigmented (except for light eyes in western hunter-gatherers). Genetic evidence of Bronze Age South Siberians however showed that they were light-pigmented. So this would also explain the light-mixed pigmentation of Celtic populations.

    And these late immigrants probably alsoo boosted the North European component in northwestern and central Europe.

    I would also point to mt-DNA haplogroup K2b. This was found in Bronze Age south Siberians. Obviously K isn’t an old hunter-gatherer haplogroup but originated probably in western Asia. Most K, at least K1 already entered Europe with the early Farmers. But later Siberian invaders may have brought K2b, which is now common in central, northern and western Europe.

    But there the question arises what about the Bell Beaker people of Kromsdorf? They were already R1b at a much earlier date?! Well, that is correct, but as I had pointed out above, R1b-L23* had a very wide, belt-shaped distribution that included central Europe and the Balkans. So it’s no surprise that it was found in German Bell Beaker people. But there is no evidence that these already spoke Italo-Celtic. And although they may have diffused their R1b somewhat further, there is no evidence that M412, L11 and the subsequent haplogroups descended from them.

    And what about the evidence of the complementary distribution of R1b and I2b in northwestern Europe? Well, according to linguists there were several different waves of Celtic in northwestern Europe, it may be simply the case that a later wave had more I2b than previous ones.

    And what about the negative correlation of R1b with IE languages in southwestern Europe? Well, I’ve once read somewhere that isolated, small populations are more susceptible to drift, and that mutations can get more easily fixed there. So R1b may have drifted more in the isolated Iberians and Basques.

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