It’s amazing that so many people were so credulous and so stupid that they actually believed David Reich et al. when they proclaimed that Nordics are Caucasoid-Mongoloid hybrids. All of the big names in the “HBD community” were among the duped. Witness the stupidity on display in the following posts from last year. The titles alone are incredibly stupid:
There’s Razib Khan’s post “Across the sea of grass: how Northern Europeans got to be ~10% Northeast Asian“. In this post Razib Khan tells all of his Nordic readers that “You’re Asian. Yes, you!”. He speculates in bold that “perhaps the Indo-Europeans were mongrels!”. He exclaims in bold that “it turns out that white people were always 10% non-white! We just didn’t know”.
Dienekes is a Mediterraneanist and was therefore thrilled to hear the claim by Reich et al. that Nordics are mongrels. He did a whole series of posts on the supposed racial impurity of Nordics, all of them chock-full of stupidity:
Then there’s Greg Cochran’s post entitled “Injun-Europeans“. In that post Cochran says that “The French (and the Germans, and the Dutch and Irish) are closer to pure-blooded South American Indians than Italians are”. Reich et al. told him that was because Nordics are part Amerindian, and he believed them. It never occurred to him what an absolutely absurd notion that is. Later he observes that “Amerindians have the East Asian skin color genes, along with some of their own – as far as I know, you don’t see these at all in Europeans”, and that “there is zero overlap between Amerindian mtDNA haplotypes and those found in ye olde hunter-gatherers in Europe”. Doesn’t quite add up, does it Cochran? Then he notes the presence of the European mitochondrial haplogroup X and European Y-chromosome haplogroups in Amerindians, but fails to draw the obvious conclusion. Toward the end Cochran repeats the slur made by his good buddy Razib Khan, saying “maybe the Indo-Europeans were a mixed people”.
There are also these posts by Davidski:
Later, when a paper came out showing that the Mongoloid EDAR mutation is completely absent in European populations, Davidski began to dimly perceive that something wasn’t quite right about the picture that Reich et al. had painted, and posted “Ancient Amerindian-like admixture in Europe – something doesn’t add up“. He still didn’t get what was going on though, so the post contains a lot of convoluted nonsense attempting to explain the facts.
What makes the credulity and stupidity of all these people so amazing is that all anyone has to do to see that the claims made by Reich et al. are false is to simply look at the people they are making claims about.
There is nothing at all about the physical features of Nordics that is even remotely Mongoloid. Indeed, Nordics are the most ultra-Caucasoid of all Caucasoids. Their phenotype is more derived, more divergent from that of their Veddoid ancestors, than that of all other Caucasoids.
On the other hand, it’s obvious that Amerindians don’t look like pure Mongoloids. It’s obvious that they all look like Mongoloid-Caucasoid hybrids.
Though simply looking at people is sufficient to expose the falsity of the claims made by Reich et al., there are plenty of physical anthropological data that expose it even further.
An important paper containing such data is “Observations on the face and teeth of the North American Indians“, published in 1931 in the Anthropological Papers of The American Museum of Natural History. This paper contains qualitative data on the physical features of full-blood Indians, mixed-blood Indians, Eskimos, American Whites, North Europeans, South Europeans, Hawaiians, Asiatics, Mexicans, and Negroes. The eight physical features studied were intercanthus distance (distance between the corners of the eyes), nasal bridge, the epicanthic eyefold, the palpebral fissure (the opening between the eyelids), the enamel rim, Carabelli’s cusps, the number of molar cusps, and skin color.
The most important pattern that emerges from the data is that Indians are intermediate between Whites and Asiatics in the frequencies of the traits studied.
Eskimos are much more Mongoloid than Indians, and Indians have higher frequencies of narrow intercanthus distance than Eskimos. Full-blood Indians have lower frequencies of narrow intercanthus distance than mixed-blood Indians.
Whites have high frequencies of high nasal bridge, Asiatics have low frequencies of high nasal bridge, and Indians have intermediate frequencies of high nasal bridge.
Asiatics have about a 100% frequency of the epicanthic eyefold, Europeans have about a 0% frequency of the epicanthic eyefold, and Indians have intermediate frequencies of the epicanthic eyefold.
The enamel rim is a feature of the shoveled incisors characteristic of Sinodonty. Sinodonty is one of the pleiotropic effects of the Mongoloid EDAR mutation. Asiatics have high frequencies of the enamel rim, Whites have low frequencies of the enamel rim, and Indians have intermediate frequencies of the enamel rim.
If the claims made by Reich et al. were true, then we would expect the trait frequencies of Asiatics and Indians to be the same and at one extreme, the trait frequencies of South Europeans to be at the other extreme, and the trait frequencies of North Europeans to be intermediate between those of Asiatics and Indians and those of South Europeans. But of course the claims made by Reich et al. aren’t true, and of course that is not at all the pattern that we observe. What we observe is that the trait frequencies of Asiatics are at one extreme, the trait frequencies of North Europeans and South Europeans are at the other extreme, and the trait frequencies of Indians are intermediate between those of Asiatics and those of Europeans. And in fact, the trait frequencies of South Europeans are slightly closer to those of Asiatics than the trait frequencies of North Europeans are. South Europeans have a slightly lower frequency of high nasal bridge than North Europeans, and a slightly higher frequency of the epicanthic eyefold than North Europeans.
A second pattern that emerges is that some groups of Indians have trait frequencies closer to those of Whites than other groups of Indians, across multiple traits. The final remark of the paper is “One curious relation observed is that if the European is taken as the basis of comparison, the village tribes are nearer the whites than are the other Indians, or perhaps one should say the Mexicans and mixed-Indians”. The “village tribes” are the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. Compared to the other Indians, the Pueblo Indians tend to have lower frequencies of wide intercanthus distance, higher frequencies of high nasal bridge, lower frequencies of the epicanthic eyefold, lower frequencies of the enamel rim, and higher frequencies of light skin color.
Among the Pueblo Indians, the Zuni tribe in particular stands out from the rest. Of all the Indian tribes, the Zuni have the lowest frequency of wide intercanthus distance, the highest frequency of high nasal bridge, the lowest frequency of the epicanthic eyefold, and among the highest frequencies of light skin color.
The following photographs of Zuni Indians show that many of them have a very Caucasoid appearance. (Click to enlarge.)
In the photograph of a group of Zuni Indians below, the boy on the right in the foreground and the girl at the upper-right look especially Caucasoid.
And in the photograph of Zuni Indians below, the boy and the man holding the boy look especially Caucasoid.
Given that the Zuni tribe stands out from the other Pueblo Indian tribes as being especially Caucasoid, it is interesting that, unlike the languages of the other Pueblo Indian tribes, the Zuni language does not belong to any language family, but is a language isolate.
After the Pueblo Indians, the tribe with the trait frequencies closest to those of Whites is the Navajo tribe. Based on the findings of the K = 17 admixture analysis of Amerindians and the K = 16 admixture analysis of Mongoloids, this is likely the result of a greater amount of Y C3-M217 proto-Caucasoid admixture in the Navajo.
A third pattern in the data is that while Indians have trait frequencies that are intermediate between those of Whites and those of Asiatics, Hawaiians have trait frequencies that are intermediate between those of Whites and those of Indians. This pattern is seen for frequencies of high nasal bridge, the epicanthic eyefold, and the enamel rim. For Carabelli’s cusps, Asiatics and Indians have frequencies that are about the same, while Hawaiians have a frequency that is intermediate between the frequencies for Asiatics and Indians and the frequency for Whites. These observations are due in part to Hawaiians being primarily Polynesoid and not Mongoloid, but they are also due in part to Caucasoid admixture in Hawaiians.
In the White Gods post I pointed out that the Wikipedia article on mummies mentions the Andeans, the Egyptians, and the Guanches as the only three ancient peoples that practiced artificial mummification. But in his 1971 article “The Bearded Gods Speak”, Thor Heyerdahl noted a fourth ancient people that practiced artificial mummification: the Polynesians. Here is an excerpt from the article:
This means that modern archaeologists have direct evidence of the remarkable fact that true mummification was practiced by the very founders of the earliest pre-Inca civilization in Peru. In fact, true mummification—with evisceration through the anus and rubbing with resinous and oily preservatives—was common both to Peru and adjacent Polynesia, while it was totally unknown in Indonesia. But whereas hundreds of actual mummies are still available from the desert region of Peru, we have mainly the written records of early voyagers to attest to the wide distribution of the practice of mummifying royal persons throughout the far-flung islands of Polynesia—from Easter Island in the East, to Hawaii in the north, to New Zealand in the southwest. The very widespread occurrence of this elaborate practice in a tropical island area whose damp climate prevents lasting success shows that it must have spread from a common cultural source outside the island area. Since mummification cannot have reached the islands from Southeast Asia, it is all the more noteworthy that two most elaborate royal mummy-bundles recently brought from a cave in Hawaii to the Bishop Museum in Honolulu correspond in striking detail with the sophisticated mummy-bundles of the pre-Inca Tiahuanaco culture.
You can read the entire article, and see a photograph of a Hawaiian mummy casket, on this page.
The K = 5 craniometric admixture analysis showed that the Polynesoid component is modal for the skulls from the Mokapu Peninsula of the Hawaiian island of Oahu, and that many of those skulls have significant amounts of the Mongoloid component, but it also showed that many of those skulls have significant amounts of the Caucasoid component. The Caucasoid component also appears in the other two corners of Polynesia, in some of the skulls of the Māori of New Zealand and the Moriori of the Chatham Islands, and in a couple of the skulls of the Easter Islanders.
A fourth pattern in the data is that the frequencies of several traits that characterize Mongoloids decrease with age, while the frequencies of the opposite traits, which characterize Caucasoids, increase with age. Specifically, the frequencies of wide intercanthus distance, flat nasal bridge, and the epicanthic eyefold, all characteristic of Mongoloids, decrease with age. The frequencies of narrow intercanthus distance, high nasal bridge, and the absence of the epicanthic eyefold, all characteristic of Caucasoids, increase with age.
This confirms the observation that has been made by many anthropologists many times before, that Mongoloids are the most pedomorphic of the three major races. Negroids are the second most pedomorphic, and Caucasoids are the least pedomorphic. Among Caucasoids, Mediterraneans are more pedomorphic than Nordics. Veddoids are more pedomorphic than Mediterraneans.
A fifth pattern in the data is that the frequencies of wide intercanthus distance and flat nasal bridge, both characteristic of Mongoloids, tend to be higher in females than in males. This is consistent with the idea that Mongoloids are the most feminized of the three major races.
Both Negroids and Mongoloids have low nasal bridges, while a high nasal bridge is a characteristically Caucasoid trait. Some people with a high nasal bridge are said to have an aquiline nose. According to the Wikipedia article on aquiline noses, Samuel George Morton wrote in his 1839 work Crania Americana that the aquiline nose is primarily found among Mediterraneans, Middle Easterners, and North Africans. The article also says that William Z. Ripley wrote in his 1899 work The Races of Europe that an aquiline nose is a characteristic of the Teutonic (Nordic) race. It’s clear, then, that an aquiline nose is a characteristically Caucasoid trait. On the Wikipedia page you can see a large gallery of famous Caucasoids with aquiline noses. There are no non-Caucasoids in that gallery. But as the article notes, Morton also wrote in Crania Americana that Amerindians are “marked by a brown complexion; long, black, lank hair; and deficient beard. The eyes are black and deep set, the brow low, the cheekbones high, the nose large and aquiline, the mouth large, and the lips tumid and compressed”. The aquiline nose of Amerindians is the strongest sign of their obvious Caucasoid admixture.