At the bottom of this post is a K = 17 ADMIXTURE plot for all of the Old World populations in the HGDP dataset. Above it is an admixture plot for the HGDP Amerindian populations based on results from a DIYDodecad calculator created from the ADMIXTURE analysis.
The mean admixture proportions, in percent, are below. I’ve used the modal populations as the names for most of the components. The two European components are Nordic and Mediterranean.
Surui Colombian Maya Karitiana Pima Japanese 34.57 32.11 28.72 31.80 31.27 Yakut 31.00 30.31 27.99 31.96 31.58 Nordic 12.14 14.11 18.98 12.16 14.37 Burusho 12.82 12.27 11.03 13.34 12.44 Dai 4.34 5.58 5.05 6.28 5.65 Kalash 3.48 3.10 3.13 3.33 3.33 Brahui 1.04 0.57 0.97 0.52 0.45 Yoruba 0.03 0.93 1.47 0.04 0.18 Melanesian 0.37 0.77 0.53 0.44 0.48 Druze 0.10 0.03 1.23 0.00 0.02 San 0.02 0.11 0.18 0.04 0.08 Mozabite 0.01 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.01 Mediterranean 0.00 0.08 0.23 0.00 0.01 Papuan 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.03 0.10 Mbuti 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.02 0.04 Bedouin 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.02 0.00 Palestinian 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00
The Caucasoid admixture in the Japanese is probably causing the Caucasoid admixture in the Amerindians to be underestimated.
The Burusho component, along with the Kalash and Brahui components, made up a lot of the Caucasoid admixture found in the previous analyses. I think the presence of these components is the result of the Na-Dené migration to the Americas. The language spoken by the Burusho, Burushaski, has been related to the Yeniseian and Na-Dené language families. The Y haplogroup associated with the Na-Dené languages, C3-M217, is found at a frequency of 8.2% in the Burusho.
In this comment, Gregory76 associated haplogroups with Amerindian races. He associated Y Hg C with Veddoids speaking Algonquian–Wakashan and Equatorial languages, and Y Hg Q with Mongoloids speaking Na-Dené languages, among others. In a reply I pointed out the clear association of C with Na-Dené languages, noting that C is found everywhere Na-Dené is found. But C is also found in conjunction with the languages mentioned by Gregory76 as being associated with Veddoids and C. It’s found in the Cheyenne, the Chippewa, and the Algonquians, all of whom speak Algonquian–Wakashan languages. It’s also found in the Wayúu, whose language belongs to the Arawakan family, a subfamily of the Equatorial family.
There is no doubt that Y Hg C was originally a Veddoid haplogroup. Apparently the autosomal DNA of the people who carried C to the Americas was essentially Caucasoid, but they probably still had a rather Veddoid phenotype. The Burusho of today have substantial Indo-Iranian Nordic admixture, but as the photograph of Burusho below shows, they still have some Veddoid features.
You can also see Veddoid features in the photographs below of Apache, whose language belongs to the Na-Dené family.
The Navajo also speak a language belonging to the Na-Dené family, and as the photographs below show, they too have Veddoid features.
I would expect that the genomes of speakers of Na-Dené, Algonquian–Wakashan, and Arawakan languages would show more of the Burusho, Kalash, and Brahui components than any of the HGDP Amerindian genomes, and that in general those components would be positively correlated with the frequency of C3-M217 in the Americas.
The small amounts of the Melanesian component indicate some gene flow between Oceania and the Americas.
The Druze component, found especially in the Maya, is probably from Phoenicians. Ancient Phoenicia was located in modern Lebanon, and Lebanon has the second largest population of Druze in the world today.
There are three possible sources for the Nordic component: the Amurians, the Solutreans, and the White Gods. Determining how much of the component each source contributed will require more analysis, and probably more ancient DNA as well.
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