The cause of homosexuality

Homosexuality is a disease that greatly reduces Darwinian fitness, and yet it afflicts somewhere between 1 to 10 percent of people in almost every population on earth.

For over 10 years Greg Cochran has been pushing his theory that homosexuality is caused by a pathogen as an explanation for the above observation.

But there are many other observations about homosexuality that collectively Cochran’s theory fails to explain.

One of these observations is that homosexuality does not occur in hunter-gatherer populations.

In this paper on the sexual behavior of Biaka, or Aka, pygmies, the authors write

Another reason we conducted a study of sexual behavior was that several years ago we asked Aka men about homosexuality and masturbation and were surprised that they were not aware of these practices, did not have terms for them and how difficult it was to explain both sexual practices. They laughed as we tried to explain and describe the sexual activities. We thought that maybe they were shy or embarrassed individuals, but this would have been uncharacteristic of the Aka we had known so long.

All Aka and Ngandu indicated that homosexuality (gay or lesbian) was unknown or rare. The Aka, in particular, had a difficult time understanding the concept and mechanics of same sex relationships. No word existed and it was necessary to repeatedly describe the sexual act.

The abstract of this paper reads

Predictions were tested using the Human Relations Area Files database that (a) homo-sexuality would be rarer in hunter-gatherer societies and (b) psychosocial stressors of women would predict its increased frequency. Homosexual frequency decreased as a function of amount of gathering practiced and increased with size of the local community, supporting the first prediction. Lack of control by women in sexual matters predicted increased homosexuality, supporting the second prediction. These data constitute the first quantitative cross-cultural evidence for (a) environmental mediation of homosexuality and (b) Domer’s theory that maternal stress causes homosexuality. The data suggest that homosexuality would have been rarer in our hunter-gatherer ancestors.

In this paper, the author writes

These results strongly support the idea that homosexuality is increasingly likely to be present as population pressure increases. The percentages demonstrating the presence of homosexuality: 0 (Low, hunting and gathering), 33 (Low, hunting, gathering, and fishing), 44 (Medium, Horticulture, etc.), 57 (High, Intensive agriculture) demonstrate a marked correlation between the presence of homosexuality and the intensity of a society’s adaptation to the environment. That none of the exclusively hunter-gatherer societies had any significant manifestations of homosexuality is particularly noteworthy, especially considering that over half of high population pressure societies have significant expressions of homosexuality in their culture.

Another observation is the one made in this comment. Homosexuality occurs at a rate of 8% in male domesticated sheep, but it does not occur in the wild ancestor of the sheep, the mouflon.

In this comment the observation was made that homosexuality occurs at a higher rate in Negroids and Mestizos than in Caucasoids and non-Amerindian Mongoloids.

And in this comment, Peter Frost observed that homosexuality occurs at a higher rate in Nordics than in Mediterraneans.

Cochran’s theory requires us to believe in a pathogen that has infected every agricultural and industrial population that has ever existed, and no hunter-gatherer population that has ever existed.

A pathogen that induces homosexuality in two domesticated species, sheep and modern man, but not in any wild species on earth.

A pathogen that does not infect Biaka pygmy hunter-gatherers or Bushmen hunter-gatherers, but that does infect all of the agricultural Negroid populations that surround them.

A pathogen that infects Negroids and Mestizos at a higher rate than Caucasoids and non-Amerindian Mongoloids, wherever they are on earth.

A pathogen that infects Nordics at a higher rate than Mediterraneans, wherever they are on earth.

It’s absurd.

The only explanation that accounts for all of the above observations is that homosexuality is caused by agricultural and industrial diets.

Humans and their domesticated animals are the only species on earth that consume large amounts of grain and grain-derived foods.

They are the only species on earth that consume food that can be stored indefinitely without rotting.

Hundreds of millions of years of evolution designed animals to consume one kind of food, and humans and their domesticated animals consume something quite different.

And they only started doing so in the past 11,000 years.

Agricultural and industrial diets cause all of the misnamed “diseases of longevity”, “diseases of civilization”, and “diseases of affluence”. These include gout, osteoporosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, heart disease, stroke, and cancer.

There is no doubt that what a pregnant mother consumes can have a profound effect on the development of her child. The number one cause of mental retardation in the Western world is fetal alcohol exposure.

Sheep are fed hay and grains, neither of which are eaten by mouflon.

The Wikipedia article on hay says that “when horses are fed low-quality hay, they may develop an unhealthy, obese, ‘hay belly’ due to over-consumption of ’empty’ calories”.

This is exactly analogous to the “wheat belly” caused by the consumption of wheat in humans.

The article then says that “If their type of feed is changed dramatically, or if they are fed moldy hay or hay containing toxic plants, they can become ill; colic is the leading cause of death in horses. Contaminated hay can also lead to respiratory problems in horses”.

This page on feeding sheep advises that “Average or poor quality hay should be fed during gestation, leaving the higher quality hay to be fed during lactation”.

It also says that “some producers feeding alfalfa hay to gestating ewes have experienced problems with vaginal prolapses, late term abortions, and milk fever”.

Mediterraneans in the Near East started practicing agriculture 11,000 years ago.

Mongoloids in China started practicing agriculture 9000 years ago.

Mediterraneans in southeastern Europe starting practicing agriculture 9000 years ago, but it took another 3000 years for agriculture to spread all the way to the Nordics in the northernmost parts of Europe.

Negroids and Amerindians didn’t start practicing agriculture until 5000 to 4000 years ago.

This means that Negroids and Amerindians have had 6000 to 7000 years less time to adapt to the harmful effects of an agricultural diet than Mediterraneans have had, 4000 to 5000 years less than non-Amerindian Mongoloids have had, and at least 1000 to 2000 years less than Nordics have had.

And it means that Nordics have had as much 5000 years less time to adapt to the harmful effects of an agricultural diet than Mediterraneans have had.

Another unnatural substance that started to be consumed as part of an agricultural diet is alcohol.

Humans are the only species on earth that drink alcohol.

It has been observed that Italians, Jews, Greeks, Portuguese, Spaniards, and the Chinese have high rates of alcohol consumption, and yet have very low rates of alcoholism.

On the other hand, the Irish, the English, Slavs, and Scandinavians have lower rates of alcohol consumption, and yet have much higher rates of alcoholism.

And Amerindians and Eskimos have some of the worst problems with alcoholism of any populations on earth.

The above pattern of observations is exactly what we would expect based on the amounts of time that Mediterraneans, non-Amerindian Mongoloids, Nordics, and Amerindians have had to adapt to an agricultural diet.

Homosexuality was rampant among the elite of ancient Greece and ancient Rome.

And this is exactly what we would expect.

The elite of ancient Greece and ancient Rome was comprised of the descendants of the Nordics who brought Indo-European languages to those areas, while the proletariat was comprised of the descendants of the earlier Mediterranean inhabitants of those areas.

And the Nordic elite of ancient Greece and ancient Rome had 1500 to 3000 years less time to adapt to an agricultural diet than Nordics of today.

We know that the ancient Jews had problems with homosexuality, because their writings contain numerous references to and injunctions against it.

For example, Leviticus 18:22:

Do not have sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman; that is detestable.

And Leviticus 20:13:

If a man has sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. They are to be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads.

And of course there’s the story of Yahweh destroying Sodom and Gomorrah because the men there tried to homosexually rape some angels.

I predict that parents who eat a Paleolithic diet will have a much lower rate of homosexual children than the general population.

I can’t say that the rate will be zero, because there are now many unnatural substances in our environment, such as bisphenol A, that very likely also cause homosexuality.

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14 comments on “The cause of homosexuality
  1. aquila says:

    “The elite of ancient Greece and ancient Rome was comprised of the descendants of the Nordics who brought Indo-European languages to those areas, while the proletariat was comprised of the descendants of the earlier Mediterranean inhabitants of those areas.

    And the Nordic elite of ancient Greece and ancient Rome had 1500 to 3000 years less time to adapt to an agricultural diet than Nordics of today.”

    Any proof of this? Latin and Greek are Indo-European languages. And I am aware the ancient Latins did come from Austria, but those people are not the same as the Austrians of today, nor the Germanic tribes that invaded Rome nearing its fall.

    And any proof that the elite of Greece and Rome really were Nordic?
    Liked the article tho. 🙂

  2. genetiker says:

    And I am aware the ancient Latins did come from Austria

    The Latins and other Italics were descended from R1b Western Europeans. There wouldn’t have been any need for them to go as far east as Austria to reach Italy.

    More specifically, the Italics were R1b-S28. The distribution of R1b-S28, shown in (c) here, shows that the highest frequencies are to the west of Austria.

    And any proof that the elite of Greece and Rome really were Nordic?

    I recommend reading the following articles by Karl Earlson:

    Nordic Hellas

    Nordic Italy

    Pigmentation of the Early Roman Emperors

    It was reported here that mitochondrial haplogroups X, K, J, H, and T were found in Mesolithic and Neolithic Greece, but no U was found there. But U is found at a frequency of 14.8% in Greece today, so a new, different people must have entered Greece after the Neolithic, presumably during the Bronze Age.

    The Greeks were R1b-L23*, and we know from the Mal’ta 1 genome that Y haplogroup R was associated with mitochondrial haplogroup U.

    The Thracians were another Indo-European people who inhabited what is today Bulgaria, just to the north of Greece. They had blue eyes and red hair. My post here showed that Thracians belonged to mitochondrial haplogroups U and HV. HV (or its ancestor R0) has also been found in samples from Upper Paleolithic Europe, along with U.

    The Greeks (that is, the original speakers of the Indo-European Greek language) distinguished themselves from the Pelasgians, who were the earlier non-Indo-European, Mediterranean inhabitants of Greece.

  3. You make a compelling argument. I’d like to hear what Cochran makes of it. A friend just linked me to your blog, and I’d like to read more on this hypothesis if you’ve built on it since.

    To distill it, you’re saying that evolutionarily-novel stress causes a low-testosterone womb environment. This causes son to be feminized. We know that homosexuals have a feminized digit ratio (long index finger, short ring finger) and that, in the US, males born in rural areas are less likely to be homosexuals. Presumably rural-dwelling women are under less evolutionarily-novel stress, and possibly even eating better (not sure). We also know that male testosterone levels have been dropping precipitously since WWII, just as women have entered the workforce in ever greater numbers. Perhaps part of that downard trend line is a low T priming, that after a certain low threshold, causes homosexuality.

    What’s needed is a dataset. Does the general social survey ask about mother’s profession? Or homosexuality of offspring? Doubt it. This is a worthy question and it’s a shame well-funded research institutions won’t touch it.

    Anyway, like I said, compelling.

  4. Diet may, indeed, be valid factor. Other relevant factors include artificially elevated estrogen levels in meat and dairy products, and the “coincidental” (!?!?!?!?!?!?) problem of bottling and packaging materials that exude estrogen mimicing chemicals.

    • Genetiker says:

      I agree with you about estrogen in the food supply and about estrogen mimicking chemicals. I would also add birth control pills, smoking, and drugs like aspirin and Tylenol taken during conception or pregnancy to the list of modern causes of homosexuality. But none of those things can explain the occurrence of homosexuality in ancient times, the occurrence of homosexuality in sheep, or the different rates of homosexuality in different races and populations. Only my theory that homosexuality is primarily caused by agricultural and industrial diets explains all of those things.

      I’ll also note that alcoholic beverages contain estrogen-like substances, so alcohol may be a particularly important part of agricultural and industrial diets when it comes to causing homosexuality in humans throughout history and prehistory.

  5. I do not, otherwise, encourage people with this inclination to act upon it, and the social pathologies among homosexuals are, indeed, real and serious causes for concern. That being said, some convincing studies do indicate a developmental cause. Animal studies have demonstrated that male offspring of specimens subjected to external stressors during the early stages of fetal development (1) do not develop the normal masculine morphology of the hypothalamus (a phenomenon which was already known to occur in homosexual/effemenate human males). This has been explained as a result of high levels of androstenedione in the mother’s bloodstream. Under these conditions, androstenedione can function as a testosterone blocker.

  6. @genetiker

    Question 1: Is there any marker in Y-DNA, mt-DNA, at-DNA which shows some information/forecast about homosexuality of person or about person’s children?
    If it’s disease (likewise obesity, schizophrenia, etc) it should be reflected in some SNP-marker to be tested.

    Question 2: If agriculture-born/like/grown person stops eating as he has been eating so far, and starts new diet, like hunter-gatherer diet, would it reflect on his children with receiving stronger resistance to homosexuality disease (testosterone/estrogen level changes AFAIK).

    Question 3: I assume “bisphenol A” is mainly related to plastic. So if we decrease usage of plastic products, could it be helpful for population to reduce homosexuality in future descendants? Is this somehow can be correct statement/question?

    Question 4 (2d4d)
    I’ve read this article and a few other and so far my left hand has 2D = 4D (sign of female), and right hand 2D < 4D (sign of male). And I am 100% male 🙂 with no homosexual or any other feminine things. So how correct is this 2D/4D stuff?

    PS. 'm not expert in this bio-geno-chemi stuff, but I like genealogy and genetics, and interested in many things. So excuse me in advance, if my statements are not correct.

  7. Genetiker says:

    Answer 1:

    Sexual orientation has been estimated to be 34–39% genetic in men and 18–19% genetic in women. This study found two regions of the genome linked to homosexuality in men, one on chromosome 8 and one on the X chromosome. It’s important to understand though, that alleles that increase the likelihood of homosexuality are only doing so as a result of interaction with the new, unnatural environment that humans started creating for themselves with the advent of agriculture 11,000 years ago. If these alleles had caused homosexuality in the pre-agricultural environment that humans lived in for millions of years, they would have been eliminated a long time ago by natural selection, because of the huge drop in Darwinian fitness caused by homosexuality. Natural selection has been working to reduce the frequency of these alleles over the past 11,000 years, but that hasn’t been enough time to eliminate them altogether.

    According to a new study that was reported on about a week ago, homosexuality in men could be correctly predicted 67% of the time based on epigenetic markers. This finding supports my theory of a dietary cause of homosexuality, because last year it was found that a mother’s diet around the time of conception and in early pregnancy has a permanent effect on her child’s epigenitic markers.

    Answer 2:

    I think that the behavior of the parents around the time of conception and during pregnancy is what has the strongest effect on the epigenetics and development of children, so yes, I think that if parents, and especially mothers, switched to a Paleolithic diet before conception, and stayed on it during pregnancy, it would go a long way to preventing the production of homosexual offspring.

    Answer 3:

    Yes, bisphenol A, or BPA, is used to make plastics. It is found in the coatings on the inside of many food and beverage cans, and another major source of exposure to BPA is the paper used for cash register receipts. BPA is just one example of a class of substances known as endocrine disrupting compounds, or EDCs, and many EDCs likely contribute to the present-day incidence of homosexuality. Reducing exposure to EDCs, especially around the time of conception and during pregnancy would significantly reduce the occurrence of homosexuality.

    Answer 4:

    Most sources say that it’s the length of the fingers on the right hand that should be measured, and this study found that the sex difference in digit ratio is greater for the right hand than for the left. But some sources say that the digit ratios for the right and left hands should be averaged.

    There is clear evidence that homosexual women have a lower digit ratio than heterosexual women, but the evidence for a relationship between digit ratio and homosexuality in men is conflicting. For a list of references, see the sexual orientation row in the table in the Wikipedia article on the digit ratio.

  8. kn83 says:

    I wouldn’t take self-report studies as hard evidence, since they tend to be highly inconsistent and prone to sample bias. Also, almost all empirical evidence (that isn’t self-reported) tends to show Caucasians having higher rates of male homosexuality than Negroids and Mongoloids, with Jews in particular having the highest.

    (REFS: Remafedi, Resnic Blum and Harris (1992) Demography of sexual orientation in adolescents. Pediatrics. 1992 Apr;89(4 Pt 2):714-21; Remafedi, Resnic Blum and Harris (1992) Demography of sexual orientation in adolescents. Pediatrics. 1992 Apr;89(4 Pt 2):714-21; Krieger and Sidney (1997) Prevalence and health implications of anti-gay discrimination. Int J Health Serv. 1997;27(1):157-76; Rust 2000, Bisexuality in the United States; Krieger and Sidney (1997) Prevalence and health implications of anti-gay discrimination. Int J Health Serv. 1997;27(1):157-76. Belkin and Bateman 2003. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: Debating the Gay Ban in the Military)

    Sure, blacks have higher rates of HIV/AIDS, but that’s mainly because they have sex the most often while using protection the least often. Most empirical evidence (self-report studies don’t count due to inconsistency) point to Jews and people of NW Euro descent having the most male homosexuals, so your right about Nordics.

    Also, J.P. Rushton pointed out in research ( that it is only in Europe and the Americas (where Caucasians predominate) that HIV/AIDS is predominately gay phenomenon. In East Asia, it is mostly with hemophiliacs, in SS Africa it is mostly from straight women (surprisingly) and in the rest of the world its largely rare.

    Also, male homosexuality is only 11%-22% genetic while lesbianism is about 33%.

  9. You are up to something :-). I also got a similar idea some time ago. I researched it and recently published an e-book: “Modern Diet and Stress Cause Homosexuality: A Hypothesis and a Potential Therapy”.

    As for the grains, I think they mainly contribute when they are eaten in excess and when they are turned into alcoholic drinks. Theoretically, they could also contribute to autoimmune disorders in the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis and disrupt the sexual hormones.

    • Genetiker says:


      I disagree with the idea that homosexuality can be cured after birth. I think that it can only be prevented, by avoiding non-Paleolithic agricultural and industrial foods and drinks (including alcohol), birth control pills, smoking, drugs (including aspirin and Tylenol), and exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds like bisphenol A, before and during conception and pregnancy.

      I think that the above things to be avoided pathologically alter epigenetic chromosomal modifications, like DNA methylation and histone modification, which in turn disrupts the development of every part of the fetus’s body, including most importantly the brain. The damage is done at that point, and no treatment after birth can repair it.

      Some homosexuals may have enough willpower to choose to not act on their impulses, and doing so would benefit both themselves and society, but I don’t think that any treatment after birth will ever be able to change their impulses, which are determined by the structure of their brains, which is in turn primarily determined by prenatal development.

      Instead of scientifically investigating the causes of homosexuality, and working toward the prevention of this horrible disease, Western academia and other institutions would rather spread the lie that there’s nothing pathological or even abnormal about it—one of the many lies that modern Western society is built upon.

  10. Some facts support the argument that post-natal factors (all those you mention and much more) are more important:

    – When one of the identical twins is homosexual, in 6% to 30% of the cases the other twin is also homosexual. That is less than 50%. Given that twins live in similar environments, the role of environment after birth may be even more important than the % suggests.

    -More than 80% of 11 year old boys who identify as homosexual, identify as heterosexual when grown up. Homosexual behavior is common in adolescents in different cultures, even in animals, but it is outgrown by most adolescents (humans or animals).

    -Females have even more fluid sexual orientation.

    -Bisexuals progress to homosexuality, or to heterosexuality, or back and forth, over the course of years.

    -Conversion therapy is successful in a % of cases.

    -Hormone-treated transsexuals and castrates report a shift in sexual orientation.

    -The brain continues to sexually differentiate at least until the end of puberty. The sexually dimorphic nucleus in the medial preoptic area (SDN-POA), which regulates the thrusting movements during sex, and might have the central role in homosexuality, increases to 5 times its size by age 4. Its size gets smaller in females after age 4 until puberty, due to lack of testosterone. It gets smaller in adult castrated males. It gets bigger during puberty in males, due to testosterone.
    -The brain develops during sleep. The SDN-POA probably develops during the nocturnal erections, and today’s youth do not sleep well because of artificial light and noise.

    There is a habit among modern adolescents, which I think is fueling the homosexuality epidemic: masturbation. It brings orgasm without the use of thrusting movements. It makes redundant the SDN-POA, at the time when it is supposed to develop and mature, that is during puberty. Masturbation during puberty was thought by Von Crafft Ebing, the austrian psychiatrist, to cause homosexuality. It was used by the Native Indians to make homosexual an otherwise heterosexual man (as narrated by Hammond).

    The sexual orientation seems fixed, because few therapies begin early after homosexual attractions arise, and even fewer therapies address the stress sources beyond emotional stress. None of the therapies, as far as I know, address diet, or circadian disruption as stress source. Although I know of two doctors, one living in Serbia, and one in Manila, who use diet to treat homosexuals.


  11. You can read the e-book for free on my website:

    I took it down from, so as it can be more freely available. Homosexuality is a disease like no other: homosexuals consider themselves healthy and fight tooth and nail any attempt to change sexual orientation, while heterosexuals keep a distance from it until they or their family is personally affected. So, there is little interest in finding the cause and even if the cause is identified, there is little interest in any therapy.

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