In my post on the EDAR SNP rs3827760 I said that the Mongoloid C allele of that SNP in Russians was from Mongols.
But I now think that most of the Mongoloid admixture in Russians is not from Mongols, but is from the same Mongoloids that the Mongoloid admixture in Finns is from.
Dienekes’ globe13 ADMIXTURE analysis shows the HGDP Mongol sample as having 35% of the Tungid (“Siberian”) component and 59.1% of the Sinid (“East_Asian”) component. It shows the Rasmussen Mongol sample as having 48.5% of the Tungid component and 28.6% of the Sinid component. It makes sense that the HGDP sample has more of the Sinid component, because the HGDP sample is from China.
But the HGDP Russian sample, which is from the Vologda region, has 6.7% of the Tungid component and none of the Sinid component. The Behar Russian sample has 3% of the Tungid component and 0.9% of the Sinid component, and the Dodecad Russian sample has 2.6% of Tungid component and 0.3% of the Sinid component. The Sinid component in these two samples may be from Mongol admixture. But the Tungid to Sinid ratio is 3.33 in the Behar sample and 8.67 in the Dodecad sample. These ratios are much higher than the 0.59 Tungid to Sinid ratio in the HGDP Mongol sample and the 1.70 ratio in the Rasmussen sample.
You can see these same autosomal patterns in the ADMIXTURE plot in the K = 17 admixture analysis of Amerindians post. It shows the modal component for the HGDP Mongols as being the component whose modal population is the Japanese, and the Mongoloid component in the HGDP Russians as being the component whose modal population is the Yakuts. In the globe13 analysis, the modal component for the Japanese is the Sinid component and the modal component for the Yakuts is the Tungid component.
The dominant Y haplogroup in Mongols, and indeed in all speakers of Mongolic languages, is C3-M217. In Mongols the frequency of C3-M217 is 53.8%. But I’ve never seen any data showing the presence of C3-M217 in Russians.
The Mongoloid Y haplogroup that is present in Russians is N. The three populations with the highest frequencies of haplogroup N are the Nenets (97.3%), the Nganasans (92.1%), and the Yakuts (88.4%). The Nganasans have the largest amount of the Tungid autosomal component in the globe13 analysis (88.5%), and the Yakuts have the third largest amount (81.3%). The Sinid component is completely absent in the Nganasans. The Nenets and the Nganasans both speak Uralic languages. In the Finns, who also speak a Uralic language, the frequency of haplogroup N is 63.2%. The frequency of N in Northern Russians is 41.3%. In other Russians the frequency of N is between 16% and 18%.
Running the ALDER program with the HGDP Russians as the test population, Orcadians as one reference population, and various Mongoloid populations as the other reference population gives the below years AD as the estimated times of admixture (assuming that the generation time is 29 years and that the sample individuals were born in 1980). All of the estimates are well before the first Mongol invasion of Europe in 1223.
ref B 2-ref 1-ref Dai 999 630 Daur 979 693 Han 856 476 Hezhen 977 399 Japanese 825 397 Lahu 1103 856 Miao 978 515 Mongola 760 549 Naxi 893 452 Oroqen 763 461 She 898 654 Tujia 807 440 Tu 901 514 Xibo 769 485 Yakut 817 387 Yi 975 590