Analyses of Iron and Bronze Age Bulgarian genomes

Below are the results of analyses of four Iron and Bronze Age Bulgarian genomes.

This paper gives the following descriptions of the four samples:

Sample P192-1 was found at the site of a pit sanctuary near Svilengrad, Bulgaria, excavated between 2004 and 2006. The pits are associated with the Thracian culture and date to the Early Iron Age (800–500 BC) based on pottery found in the pits. A total of 67 ritual pits, including 16 pits containing human skeletons or parts of skeletons, were explored during the excavations. An upper wisdom tooth from an adult male was used for DNA analysis.

Sample T2G2 was found in a Thracian tumulus (burial mound) near the village of Stambolovo, Bulgaria. Two small tumuli dating to the Early Iron Age (850–700 BC) were excavated in 2008. A canine tooth from an inhumation burial of a child (c.12 years old) inside a dolium was used for DNA analysis.

Sample V2 was found in a flat cemetery dating to the Late Bronze Age (1500–1100 BC) near the village of Vratitsa, Bulgaria. Nine inhumation burials were excavated between 2003 and 2004. A molar from a juvenile male (age 16–17) was used for DNA analysis.

Sample K8 was found in the Yakimova Mogila Tumulus, which dates to the Iron Age (450–400 BC), near Krushare, Bulgaria. An aristocratic inhumation burial containing rich grave goods was excavated in 2008. A molar from one individual, probably male, was used for DNA analysis.

These samples include both human DNA and DNA from environmental contaminants such as bacteria and fungi, which introduces a great deal of noise into the data. The very small number of SNPs for these samples also contributes to the noise in the data. This noise shows up in the results below as Negroid or Mongoloid admixture.

In spite of the noise, a few things can be learned. The two samples from the Thracian tumuli, T2G2 and K8, and the Bronze Age sample V2 had significant amounts of the K12b Gedrosia component. The amounts of the Gedrosia component seen in these samples are much larger than the 1.5–3.3% of the Gedrosia component seen in Bulgarians today. Note that the Gedrosia component is associated with R1b but not with R1a.

All of the samples have significantly more of the dv3 West European component than the dv3 East European component. Note that Thracians were typically described by ancient writers as having blue eyes and red hair, and that red hair is a predominantly Western European trait.

P192-1

globe4

  • 90.47% European
  • 9.53% African
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Asian

globe10

  • 85.37% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 10.34% Palaeo_African
  • 4.29% West_Asian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern

globe13

  • 45.10% Mediterranean
  • 42.11% North_European
  • 9.71% Palaeo_African
  • 3.08% West_Asian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African

K7b

  • 75.63% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 16.32% Southern
  • 4.11% African
  • 3.94% West_Asian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian

K10a

  • 48.93% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 44.15% Mediterranean
  • 6.91% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K12b

  • 45.82% Caucasus
  • 26.87% Atlantic_Med
  • 21.68% North_European
  • 2.36% Sub_Saharan
  • 2.01% Northwest_African
  • 1.26% Siberian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Gedrosia
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

dv3

  • 42.86% Mediterranean
  • 19.81% West_European
  • 19.50% West_Asian
  • 9.70% East_European
  • 7.77% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.36% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • 32.35% Austronesian
  • 27.04% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 17.80% North-East-European
  • 15.94% Indo-Iranian
  • 6.88% Samoedic
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% Near_East
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.00% West-Asian

Old World 26

  • 15.97% Sardinian
  • 14.70% Finnish
  • 10.85% Palestinian
  • 9.94% Dai
  • 7.98% Yakut
  • 7.27% Gujarati
  • 7.14% Naxi
  • 6.57% Yoruba
  • 6.39% Kenya-Bantu
  • 5.06% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 2.96% Archaic
  • 1.90% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 1.62% Kalash
  • 0.95% She
  • 0.50% Melanesian
  • 0.16% Japanese
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% San

T2G2

globe4

  • 76.67% European
  • 23.32% African
  • 0.01% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Asian

globe10

  • 53.38% West_Asian
  • 20.22% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 17.12% Palaeo_African
  • 9.28% Australasian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern

globe13

  • 51.47% West_Asian
  • 15.94% North_European
  • 11.78% Palaeo_African
  • 8.80% East_African
  • 7.12% Australasian
  • 4.89% Arctic
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African

K7b

  • 60.48% West_Asian
  • 23.69% African
  • 14.49% South_Asian
  • 1.33% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% Southern

K10a

  • 35.95% West_Asian
  • 15.13% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 15.01% Palaeoafrican
  • 14.33% South_Asian
  • 13.64% Mediterranean
  • 3.14% East_Asian
  • 2.81% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian

K12b

  • 54.44% Gedrosia
  • 19.46% Sub_Saharan
  • 13.43% Atlantic_Med
  • 11.30% South_Asian
  • 1.34% Caucasus
  • 0.03% East_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% North_European
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

dv3

  • 51.27% West_Asian
  • 33.26% West_European
  • 7.63% Neo_African
  • 6.95% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.89% Palaeo_African
  • 0.01% South_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • Insufficient SNPs

Old World 26

  • 18.90% Finnish
  • 14.14% Kenya-Bantu
  • 12.32% Yoruba
  • 10.35% Gujarati
  • 8.43% Yakut
  • 7.03% Palestinian
  • 6.90% Archaic
  • 6.71% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 6.70% Dai
  • 4.18% Naxi
  • 2.72% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 1.21% Kalash
  • 0.18% Bedouin
  • 0.17% San
  • 0.04% She
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Japanese
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% Sardinian

V2

globe4

  • 58.89% European
  • 20.61% Asian
  • 11.91% African
  • 8.59% Amerindian

globe10

  • 43.70% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 24.26% West_Asian
  • 12.27% East_Asian
  • 11.29% Neo_African
  • 8.47% Australasian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern

globe13

  • 39.58% North_European
  • 27.22% West_Asian
  • 12.61% West_African
  • 12.60% East_Asian
  • 7.56% Australasian
  • 0.42% Arctic
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

K7b

  • 44.14% West_Asian
  • 28.34% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 18.46% African
  • 5.72% East_Asian
  • 3.34% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern

K10a

  • 60.73% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 16.10% Sub_Saharan
  • 10.95% West_Asian
  • 6.53% East_Asian
  • 5.68% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.01% Siberian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% South_Asian

K12b

  • 44.15% North_European
  • 20.14% Sub_Saharan
  • 15.06% Gedrosia
  • 9.62% Siberian
  • 7.67% Caucasus
  • 3.35% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.01% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Med
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

dv3

  • 42.02% West_Asian
  • 37.17% West_European
  • 11.74% Neo_African
  • 5.15% Southeast_Asian
  • 3.93% East_European
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • 46.09% North-East-European
  • 22.90% Sub-Saharian
  • 16.90% West-Asian
  • 8.74% Mesoamerican
  • 5.37% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Near_East
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African

Old World 26

  • 23.45% Sardinian
  • 19.42% Finnish
  • 17.05% Gujarati
  • 8.80% Yoruba
  • 6.84% Basque
  • 6.75% Yakut
  • 6.35% She
  • 5.73% Kenya-Bantu
  • 3.36% Archaic
  • 1.13% San
  • 0.75% Melanesian
  • 0.37% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Dai
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Japanese
  • 0.00% Kalash
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Naxi
  • 0.00% Palestinian
  • 0.00% Papuan

K8

globe4

  • 97.86% European
  • 1.65% Amerindian
  • 0.49% African
  • 0.00% Asian

globe10

  • 46.81% West_Asian
  • 36.90% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 13.62% Southern
  • 2.68% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian

globe13

  • 39.15% West_Asian
  • 36.95% Mediterranean
  • 20.05% North_European
  • 2.99% Palaeo_African
  • 0.85% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African

K7b

  • 46.44% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 36.25% West_Asian
  • 17.30% Southern
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian

K10a

  • 47.35% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 32.21% West_Asian
  • 18.41% Mediterranean
  • 2.02% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

K12b

  • 32.79% Atlantic_Med
  • 29.27% Gedrosia
  • 17.54% North_European
  • 17.50% Caucasus
  • 2.90% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 39.88% West_European
  • 24.25% East_European
  • 14.34% West_Asian
  • 12.79% Mediterranean
  • 5.86% South_Asian
  • 2.87% Palaeo_African
  • 0.01% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • 75.04% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 9.27% Melanesian
  • 9.00% West-Asian
  • 6.68% South-African
  • 0.02% North-East-European
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% Near_East
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian

Old World 26

  • 35.08% Finnish
  • 20.05% Yakut
  • 17.38% Basque
  • 10.37% Bedouin
  • 6.09% Gujarati
  • 4.40% Yoruba
  • 3.70% Archaic
  • 2.44% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 0.47% Naxi
  • 0.01% Kalash
  • 0.00% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Dai
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Japanese
  • 0.00% Kenya-Bantu
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Palestinian
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% Sardinian
  • 0.00% She
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2 comments on “Analyses of Iron and Bronze Age Bulgarian genomes
  1. Interesting work!

    It seems like I was correct with my assessment of individual P192-1 in the comment section on Dienekes’ blog, but quite wrong with K8.

    But let’s look at them step by step:
    – V2 seems to be North European with strong West Asian admixture (Gedrosia), but it’s very noisy.
    – T2G2 seems to be predominantly West Asian (Gedrosia), but again very noisy.
    – P192-1 is more Southern than present-day Bulgarians and Frenchmen, but more Northern than Greeks and Portuguese, while the West Asian component is astoundingly weak.
    – K8 in contrast has a very strong West Asian admixture, and besides that he’s quite Mediterranean, and also somewhat Northern.

    Even though P192-1 and K8 are both from Iron Age Bulgaria, they look as if they were from different ethnicities. And if they really were both Thracians, then P192-1 may have been rather from a Thracicized, maybe pre-IE substrate.

  2. […] This post gives more information about the four samples, along with analyses of their autosomal DNA. […]

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