Analyses of an Early Bronze Age Hungarian genome

Below are the results of analyses of the BR1 sample from the Early Bronze Age Makó culture of Hungary. The sample is from the Kompolt-Kígyósér site, and it is dated to 1980–2190 BC.

BR1 was female and belonged to mitochondrial haplogroup K1c1.

BR1 had two copies of the major Caucasoid depigmentation mutation in the gene SLC24A5 and one copy of the other major Caucasoid depigmentation mutation in the gene SLC45A2. She likely had black or dark brown hair and brown eyes. She didn’t have any copies of the mutation that confers the ability to digest milk into adulthood.

BR1 had amounts of the K12b North European, Atlantic Med, and Southwest Asian components that are very similar to the amounts for modern-day Hungarians. She had 9.46% of the K12b Caucasus component, which is associated with Y haplogroups G, J2, and R1a. Modern-day Hungarians have 16.2%. She didn’t have any of the K12b Gedrosia component, which is associated with Y haplogroup R1b. Modern-day Hungarians have 4.1%.

globe4

  • 90.84% European
  • 6.57% Amerindian
  • 1.61% African
  • 0.98% Asian

globe10

  • 79.13% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 13.37% Southern
  • 2.54% West_Asian
  • 2.33% East_Asian
  • 1.78% Neo_African
  • 0.50% Australasian
  • 0.27% South_Asian
  • 0.04% Siberian
  • 0.03% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African

globe13

  • 57.06% North_European
  • 31.41% Mediterranean
  • 6.13% Southwest_Asian
  • 1.93% East_Asian
  • 1.05% West_Asian
  • 1.02% East_African
  • 1.00% West_African
  • 0.40% Australasian
  • 0.01% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian

K7b

  • 75.40% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 16.21% Southern
  • 4.94% West_Asian
  • 1.69% African
  • 1.34% East_Asian
  • 0.28% Siberian
  • 0.15% South_Asian

K10a

  • 63.51% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 29.02% Mediterranean
  • 2.47% Red_Sea
  • 2.07% West_Asian
  • 1.45% Sub_Saharan
  • 1.01% East_Asian
  • 0.34% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.07% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.06% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian

K12b

  • 48.74% North_European
  • 34.34% Atlantic_Med
  • 9.46% Caucasus
  • 3.87% Southwest_Asian
  • 1.12% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.78% South_Asian
  • 0.77% East_African
  • 0.63% East_Asian
  • 0.25% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.03% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Gedrosia
  • 0.00% Siberian

dv3

  • 42.33% West_European
  • 25.94% Mediterranean
  • 25.02% East_European
  • 3.02% Southwest_Asian
  • 1.27% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.96% Palaeo_African
  • 0.75% Neo_African
  • 0.69% Northwest_African
  • 0.02% West_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% South_Asian

MDLP K=5

  • 48.60% West-Eurasian
  • 36.77% Paleo-mediterranean
  • 10.83% Caucasian
  • 1.96% East-Eurasian
  • 1.83% South-Asian

MDLP K=6

  • 53.79% West-Eurasian
  • 30.25% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 9.78% Caucasian
  • 3.02% North-West-Eurasian
  • 1.85% East-Euroasian
  • 1.32% South-Asian

MDLP K=7

  • 53.28% West-Eurasian
  • 29.79% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 9.59% Caucasian
  • 2.98% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 1.60% Altaic-Turkic
  • 1.47% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.29% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=8

  • 46.41% East-European
  • 24.27% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 19.96% West-European
  • 2.71% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 2.59% Caucasian
  • 1.75% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.29% Altaic-Turkic
  • 1.02% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=9

  • 45.84% East-European
  • 24.26% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 18.74% West-European
  • 2.73% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 2.71% Caucasian
  • 1.77% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.67% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 1.26% Altaic-Turkic
  • 1.01% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=10

  • 39.33% East-European
  • 22.18% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 17.40% British
  • 12.18% Iberian
  • 2.62% Paleo-North-European
  • 1.73% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.60% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 1.21% Altaic-Turkic
  • 1.01% Caucasian
  • 0.76% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=11

  • 39.16% East-European
  • 22.16% Mediterranean
  • 16.74% Celto-Germanic
  • 12.01% Iberian
  • 3.50% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.47% Paleo-North-European
  • 1.59% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.81% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.77% Caucasian
  • 0.73% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.06% Uralic-Permic

MDLP K=12

  • 35.94% East-European
  • 21.30% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 16.20% Celto-Germanic
  • 11.36% Iberian
  • 8.14% Balto-Finnic
  • 3.28% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.48% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.81% Alatic-Turkic
  • 0.76% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.47% South-Central Asian
  • 0.24% Caucasian
  • 0.03% Uralic-Permic

MDLP K=13

  • 22.08% Altaic
  • 17.17% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 13.26% Celto-Germanic
  • 10.58% Mediterrean
  • 8.39% East-European
  • 8.24% East-Mediterranean
  • 6.17% South-Central-Asian
  • 5.20% Baltic-Finnic
  • 4.23% Iberian
  • 3.94% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.26% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.25% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.21% Caucasian

MDLP K=14

  • 32.61% Balto-Slavic
  • 14.57% Mediterranean
  • 14.14% Celto-Germanic
  • 12.69% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 8.63% Iberian
  • 7.50% Balto-Finnic
  • 4.51% East-Mediterranean
  • 2.99% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.17% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.57% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.55% Altaic
  • 0.04% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.02% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Caucasian

MDLP K=15

  • 32.71% Balto-Slavic
  • 14.49% Balkanic-1
  • 14.22% Celto-Germanic
  • 12.59% West-Mediterranean
  • 8.56% Iberian
  • 7.38% Balto-Finnic
  • 4.44% East-Mediterranean
  • 2.89% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.15% Balkanic-2
  • 0.71% East-Altaic
  • 0.52% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.29% West-Altaic
  • 0.04% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.01% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Caucasian

MDLP World-22

  • 58.03% North-East-European
  • 30.90% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 5.11% Near_East
  • 1.22% Melanesian
  • 1.20% North-Siberean
  • 1.08% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.90% Pygmy
  • 0.56% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.56% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.29% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.09% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.06% West-Asian
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian

MDLP Ancient Roots K17

  • 54.22% Ancestral_East_European_ANE
  • 17.88% West_European_HG
  • 17.54% Ancestral_Mediterranean_EEF
  • 2.90% Ancestral_Sami-Finnic
  • 1.66% Caucasian-Basal
  • 1.23% Uralic
  • 0.83% Ancestral_South_Indian
  • 0.70% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.50% Ancestral_North_Indian
  • 0.44% Amerindian
  • 0.42% Ancestral_West_Siberian
  • 0.32% Circumpolar
  • 0.31% African_Sub_Saharian
  • 0.30% Archaic_African
  • 0.30% Near-East-Basal
  • 0.26% South_East_Asian
  • 0.18% Ancestral_East_Siberian

MDLP Ancient Roots K18

  • 43.59% East_European
  • 23.73% North_West_European
  • 16.72% Mediterranean
  • 4.22% Sami-Finnic
  • 1.91% Afroasiatic
  • 1.90% South_East_Asian
  • 1.56% Roma
  • 1.45% Melano-Austronesian
  • 1.32% Amerindian
  • 1.21% South_Indian
  • 1.10% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.79% East_African
  • 0.36% Caucasian
  • 0.13% West_Siberian
  • 0.03% Archaic_African
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Central_Asian

MDLP K23b

  • 44.51% European_Hunters_Gatherers
  • 24.74% European_Early_Farmers
  • 22.20% Caucasian
  • 2.83% Near-East
  • 1.86% North-African
  • 1.14% Melano-Polinesian
  • 0.61% Archaic-Human
  • 0.44% East-African
  • 0.36% Austroloid
  • 0.27% South-East-Asian
  • 0.24% Ancestral-North-Eurasian
  • 0.19% African-Pygmy
  • 0.17% Ancestral-South-Indian
  • 0.15% Ancestral-North-Indian
  • 0.06% Arctic
  • 0.06% Austronesian
  • 0.06% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.04% Khoisan
  • 0.03% Altaiс
  • 0.03% Subsaharian
  • 0.02% East-Siberian
  • 0.01% Amerindian
  • 0.01% Archaic-African
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