Analyses of an Iron Age Hungarian genome

Below are the results of analyses of the IR1 sample from the pre-Scythian Iron Age Mezőcsát culture of Hungary. The sample is from the Ludas-Varjú-dűlő site, and it is dated to 830–980 BC.

IR1 was male. He belonged to Y haplogroup N and mitochondrial haplogroup G2a1, both of which are of Mongoloid origin. His Y-SNP calls show that he didn’t belong to N1a or N1c.

IR1 had two copies of both of the two major Caucasoid depigmentation mutations. He likely had light brown or dark blond hair and brown eyes. He had one copy of the mutation that confers the ability to digest milk into adulthood. He didn’t have any copies of the Mongoloid mutation in the gene EDAR that causes Sinodonty, stiff hair, small breasts, and higher sweat gland density. This mutation does occur in modern-day Hungarians at a frequency of 1.7%.

IR1 had 16.66% of the K12b Caucasus component and 15.22% of the K12b Gedrosia component. Within Europe, the Gedrosia component is associated with Y haplogroup R1b. Outside of Europe, the amount of the Gedrosia component decreases with increasing distance from Pakistan, but it shows no clear association with any haplogroup.

IR1 had 4.90% of the Mongoloid K12b Siberian component. Modern-day Hungarians have 0.7%. He had 3.30% of the Mongoloid K12b East Asian component. Modern-day Hungarians have 0.3%.

The people of the Mezőcsát culture to which IR1 belonged are thought to have been from ancient Iranian tribes. Iranian-speaking people were derived from the people of the Andronovo culture, which flourished from 1800 to 1400 BC in Central Asia. The modern-day peoples of Central Asia, such as the Tajiks, Turkmens, and Uzbeks, are similar to IR1 in that they have significant amounts of the Caucasus, Gedrosia, Siberian, and East Asian components. They’re also similar to IR1 in that Y haplogroup N and mitochondrial haplogroup G2a are found among them.

globe4

  • 82.00% European
  • 9.74% Amerindian
  • 6.78% Asian
  • 1.48% African

globe10

  • 51.66% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 22.86% West_Asian
  • 10.45% Southern
  • 6.63% Siberian
  • 3.20% Amerindian
  • 2.75% South_Asian
  • 1.56% Neo_African
  • 0.71% East_Asian
  • 0.17% Australasian
  • 0.02% Palaeo_African

globe13

  • 38.81% North_European
  • 22.25% Mediterranean
  • 20.09% West_Asian
  • 5.28% Southwest_Asian
  • 5.06% Siberian
  • 2.38% Amerindian
  • 2.00% Arctic
  • 1.78% South_Asian
  • 1.55% West_African
  • 0.61% East_Asian
  • 0.17% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African

K7b

  • 50.15% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 25.61% West_Asian
  • 12.04% Southern
  • 6.55% Siberian
  • 2.56% South_Asian
  • 1.78% East_Asian
  • 1.32% African

K10a

  • 43.83% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 22.30% West_Asian
  • 21.41% Mediterranean
  • 5.72% Siberian
  • 2.97% East_Asian
  • 2.22% South_Asian
  • 1.45% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.08% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.01% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Red_Sea

K12b

  • 34.63% North_European
  • 19.54% Atlantic_Med
  • 16.66% Caucasus
  • 15.22% Gedrosia
  • 4.90% Siberian
  • 3.30% East_Asian
  • 2.38% Southwest_Asian
  • 1.53% Northwest_African
  • 1.08% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.77% South_Asian
  • 0.01% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African

dv3

  • 34.36% West_European
  • 19.02% West_Asian
  • 17.85% Mediterranean
  • 12.89% East_European
  • 5.01% Northeast_Asian
  • 3.74% South_Asian
  • 2.61% Southeast_Asian
  • 2.01% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.93% Palaeo_African
  • 0.82% Northwest_African
  • 0.77% Neo_African
  • 0.00% East_African

MDLP K=5

  • 33.86% West-Eurasian
  • 26.65% Caucasian
  • 25.31% Paleo-mediterranean
  • 12.97% East-Eurasian
  • 1.21% South-Asian

MDLP K=6

  • 33.19% West-Eurasian
  • 25.61% Caucasian
  • 21.58% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 10.87% East-Euroasian
  • 8.03% North-West-Eurasian
  • 0.72% South-Asian

MDLP K=7

  • 33.04% West-Eurasian
  • 24.55% Caucasian
  • 21.35% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 10.15% Altaic-Turkic
  • 7.59% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.68% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.64% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=8

  • 26.98% East-European
  • 20.86% Caucasian
  • 16.66% West-European
  • 16.56% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 10.18% Altaic-Turkic
  • 7.09% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.12% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.55% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=9

  • 26.25% East-European
  • 20.67% Caucasian
  • 16.51% West-European
  • 16.32% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 10.15% Altaic-Turkic
  • 7.00% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.47% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 1.09% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.53% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=10

  • 20.44% East-European
  • 18.61% British
  • 18.10% Caucasian
  • 16.15% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 10.05% Altaic-Turkic
  • 6.86% Iberian
  • 6.84% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.46% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 1.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.47% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=11

  • 20.06% East-European
  • 18.18% Celto-Germanic
  • 17.85% Caucasian
  • 16.09% Mediterranean
  • 9.55% Altaic-Turkic
  • 6.57% Iberian
  • 4.71% Uralic-Permic
  • 4.23% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.45% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.86% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.43% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=12

  • 18.06% East-European
  • 17.60% Celto-Germanic
  • 17.28% Caucasian
  • 15.68% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 9.44% Alatic-Turkic
  • 6.16% Iberian
  • 5.09% Balto-Finnic
  • 4.61% Uralic-Permic
  • 4.08% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.42% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.35% South-Central Asian
  • 0.25% Paleo-North-European

MDLP K=13

  • 21.48% Altaic
  • 17.07% Celto-Germanic
  • 16.70% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 8.95% East-Mediterranean
  • 8.50% Mediterrean
  • 8.07% South-Central-Asian
  • 5.06% East-European
  • 4.50% Baltic-Finnic
  • 4.40% Volga-Uralic
  • 4.21% Iberian
  • 0.62% Caucasian
  • 0.35% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.09% Uralic-Permic

MDLP K=14

  • 16.28% Balto-Slavic
  • 15.89% Celto-Germanic
  • 14.63% Mediterranean
  • 11.97% Caucasian
  • 9.29% Altaic
  • 6.58% East-Mediterranean
  • 5.66% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 5.07% Iberian
  • 4.72% Balto-Finnic
  • 4.44% Uralic-Permic
  • 3.97% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.21% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.15% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.14% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=15

  • 16.40% Balto-Slavic
  • 15.91% Celto-Germanic
  • 14.56% Balkanic-1
  • 11.91% Caucasian
  • 7.40% West-Altaic
  • 6.41% East-Mediterranean
  • 5.52% West-Mediterranean
  • 4.97% Iberian
  • 4.67% Balto-Finnic
  • 4.40% Uralic-Permic
  • 3.83% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.61% East-Altaic
  • 1.20% Balkanic-2
  • 0.11% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.10% Paleo-North-European

MDLP World-22

  • 32.53% North-East-European
  • 22.33% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 18.25% West-Asian
  • 5.47% Samoedic
  • 5.27% Near_East
  • 3.72% Indo-Iranian
  • 2.61% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 2.16% Mesoamerican
  • 1.90% North-Amerind
  • 1.20% Indo-Tibetan
  • 1.17% East-South-Asian
  • 0.85% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.68% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.52% Pygmy
  • 0.48% North-Siberean
  • 0.27% East-Siberean
  • 0.23% South-African
  • 0.13% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.12% Indian
  • 0.11% Austronesian
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian

MDLP Ancient Roots K17

  • 34.24% Ancestral_East_European_ANE
  • 14.92% Ancestral_Mediterranean_EEF
  • 13.15% Caucasian-Basal
  • 11.87% West_European_HG
  • 6.53% Ancestral_North_Indian
  • 4.84% Uralic
  • 3.57% Ancestral_West_Siberian
  • 2.48% Amerindian
  • 2.02% Ancestral_East_Siberian
  • 1.78% Ancestral_Sami-Finnic
  • 1.44% Ancestral_South_Indian
  • 1.28% South_East_Asian
  • 0.79% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.34% Circumpolar
  • 0.32% African_Sub_Saharian
  • 0.20% Archaic_African
  • 0.20% Near-East-Basal

MDLP Ancient Roots K18

  • 22.11% East_European
  • 18.74% North_West_European
  • 15.12% Caucasian
  • 10.14% Mediterranean
  • 7.73% Volga-Uralic
  • 7.35% South_Central_Asian
  • 5.86% West_Siberian
  • 2.88% Afroasiatic
  • 2.73% Amerindian
  • 1.99% South_East_Asian
  • 1.36% Melano-Austronesian
  • 1.18% Sami-Finnic
  • 1.17% East_Siberian
  • 0.66% Roma
  • 0.49% South_Indian
  • 0.38% Archaic_African
  • 0.07% East_African
  • 0.02% Arctic

MDLP K23b

  • 27.27% Caucasian
  • 24.62% European_Hunters_Gatherers
  • 15.05% European_Early_Farmers
  • 9.41% Ancestral-North-Indian
  • 9.22% Ancestral-North-Eurasian
  • 3.77% East-Siberian
  • 3.08% Near-East
  • 1.65% Amerindian
  • 1.46% Arctic
  • 0.73% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.59% Altaiс
  • 0.58% North-African
  • 0.44% Ancestral-South-Indian
  • 0.39% Melano-Polinesian
  • 0.38% African-Pygmy
  • 0.34% Austroloid
  • 0.30% South-East-Asian
  • 0.28% Archaic-Human
  • 0.14% Subsaharian
  • 0.11% Austronesian
  • 0.09% Khoisan
  • 0.06% Archaic-African
  • 0.05% East-African
Advertisements
Posted in Uncategorized
4 comments on “Analyses of an Iron Age Hungarian genome
  1. motzart says:

    It would be interesting to see if Ust-Ishim carried the EDAR gene, do you know if Malta boy was a carrier?

  2. genetiker says:

    Mal’ta 1 had two copies of the ancestral, non-Mongoloid allele of rs3827760.

    All of the admixture, TreeMix, and principal component analyses show that Mal’ta 1 and Afontova Gora 2 were Caucasoid. There was nothing Mongoloid about them.

    Mal’ta 1 would have had brown rather than white skin, but his cranial morphology almost certainly would have been Caucasoid. The very earliest skulls from Europe, such as Mladeč 1 (31,000 ya), Predmost 3 (30,000 ya), and Cro-Magnon 1 (28,000 ya), are unmistakably Caucasoid in their morphology.

    I think that Cro-Magnon 1 belonged to Y haplogroup I, and I think that the eurymorphic (short and wide) face of Cro-Magnon 1 was originally characteristic of Y hg I people.

    I think that Predmost 3 belonged to Y haplogroup R, and I think that the leptomorphic (long and narrow) face of Predmost 3 was originally characteristic of Y hg R people. I think that Sungir 1 (30,000 ya), who also had a leptomorphic face, also belonged to Y hg R. The skull of Sungir 1 looks no different than the skull of many modern-day Europeans.

    We know that Mal’ta 1 (24,000 ya) belonged to Y hg R, and I think that he would have had a cranial morphology like that of Predmost 3 and Sungir 1.

    I’ll check the Ust’-Ishim data later, but I can already confidently predict that he didn’t have the Mongoloid EDAR mutation. It was estimated here that the mutation arose around 30,000 years ago, which was 15,000 years after Ust’-Ishim. Also, Ust’-Ishim was located near South Asians in the principal component analyses. He was Veddoid. Veddoids were the race from which both Caucasoids and Mongoloids evolved.

    Ust’-Ishim probably would have looked like the Veddas in this video, with brown skin, straight (but not stiff) black hair, and an absence of Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid physical features.

  3. motzart says:

    Very interesting, thank you for your response.

  4. […] for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype. Derived alleles are in bold. As I predicted in this comment, Ust’-Ishim didn’t have the Mongoloid EDAR mutation. The only derived alleles that […]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Categories
%d bloggers like this: