Analyses of an early Neolithic genome from Spain

Below are the results of analyses of the sample I0410 from the early Neolithic Epicardial culture, found at the Pyrenean cave site of Els Trocs in Spain. The sample is dated to 5178–5066 BC.

I0410 belonged to Y haplogroup R1b1*(xR1b1a1, R1b1a2, R1b1c2, R1b1c3) and mitochondrial haplogroup pre-T2c1d2.

I0410 had large amounts of the K12b Atlantic Med and Caucasus components, which is typical for Europe’s first farmers. While all of the other samples from prehistoric Europe belonging to Y haplogroup R1 have shown a significant amount of the K12b Gedrosia component, I0410 didn’t have any of it. I think that after originating in the western Gravettians or their descendants, R1b1 people spread from Western Europe to, among other places, the eastern Mediterranean. There, over the course of many thousands of years, R1b1 Y chromosomes would lose their association with Gravettian autosomal DNA, which included a large amount of the Gedrosia component. People carrying these R1b1 Y chromosomes, like I0410, would then spread across Europe from the eastern Mediterranean during the early Neolithic.

globe4

  • 100.00% European
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Asian

globe10

  • 57.08% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 42.91% Southern
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 78.11% Mediterranean
  • 12.01% North_European
  • 9.78% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.09% Australasian
  • 0.01% West_Asian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African

K7b

  • 52.44% Southern
  • 47.56% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K10a

  • 76.48% Mediterranean
  • 22.69% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.83% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K12b

  • 74.26% Atlantic_Med
  • 18.37% Caucasus
  • 3.70% Southwest_Asian
  • 3.67% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Gedrosia
  • 0.00% North_European
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 67.94% Mediterranean
  • 22.30% West_European
  • 4.09% West_Asian
  • 4.07% Northwest_African
  • 1.60% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian

MDLP K=5

  • 76.04% Paleo-mediterranean
  • 23.95% Caucasian
  • 0.01% South-Asian
  • 0.00% East-Eurasian
  • 0.00% West-Eurasian

MDLP K=6

  • 75.28% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 24.70% Caucasian
  • 0.02% South-Asian
  • 0.00% East-Euroasian
  • 0.00% North-West-Eurasian
  • 0.00% West-Eurasian

MDLP K=7

  • 75.11% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 24.87% Caucasian
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.00% West-Eurasian

MDLP K=8

  • 65.10% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 28.16% West-European
  • 6.72% Caucasian
  • 0.01% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% Volga-Finnic

MDLP K=9

  • 66.19% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 24.72% West-European
  • 7.17% Caucasian
  • 1.91% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.01% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% Volga-Finnic

MDLP K=10

  • 63.23% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 20.68% Iberian
  • 9.61% British
  • 4.60% Caucasian
  • 1.87% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% Volga-Finnic

MDLP K=11

  • 63.32% Mediterranean
  • 20.05% Iberian
  • 10.39% Celto-Germanic
  • 4.37% Caucasian
  • 1.85% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic

MDLP K=12

  • 62.82% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 20.20% Iberian
  • 11.08% Celto-Germanic
  • 4.03% Caucasian
  • 1.86% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central Asian
  • 0.00% Alatic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Balto-Finnic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic

MDLP K=13

  • 20.37% Altaic
  • 16.54% Celto-Germanic
  • 14.14% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 10.01% East-Mediterranean
  • 9.62% South-Central-Asian
  • 7.32% Mediterrean
  • 5.95% East-European
  • 5.78% Baltic-Finnic
  • 5.71% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.94% Iberian
  • 1.36% Caucasian
  • 0.26% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European

MDLP K=14

  • 40.33% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 33.80% Mediterranean
  • 11.13% Iberian
  • 6.92% Celto-Germanic
  • 6.67% East-Mediterranean
  • 1.15% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.00% Altaic
  • 0.00% Balto-Finnic
  • 0.00% Balto-Slavic
  • 0.00% Caucasian
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Volga-Finnic

MDLP K=15

  • 40.17% West-Mediterranean
  • 33.94% Balkanic-1
  • 11.10% Iberian
  • 6.99% Celto-Germanic
  • 6.67% East-Mediterranean
  • 1.13% Balkanic-2
  • 0.00% Balto-Finnic
  • 0.00% Balto-Slavic
  • 0.00% Caucasian
  • 0.00% East-Altaic
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.00% West-Altaic

MDLP World-22

  • 65.00% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 22.36% Near_East
  • 12.63% North-East-European
  • 0.01% West-Asian
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian

MDLP Ancient Roots K17

  • 61.62% Ancestral_Mediterranean_EEF
  • 32.96% West_European_HG
  • 3.94% Ancestral_East_European_ANE
  • 1.24% Caucasian-Basal
  • 0.07% Uralic
  • 0.06% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.05% Ancestral_Sami-Finnic
  • 0.01% Ancestral_North_Indian
  • 0.01% Ancestral_South_Indian
  • 0.01% Ancestral_West_Siberian
  • 0.01% Archaic_African
  • 0.01% Circumpolar
  • 0.01% Near-East-Basal
  • 0.00% African_Sub_Saharian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Ancestral_East_Siberian
  • 0.00% South_East_Asian

MDLP Ancient Roots K18

  • 54.75% Mediterranean
  • 39.90% North_West_European
  • 3.87% Afroasiatic
  • 0.73% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.70% Caucasian
  • 0.05% Roma
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Archaic_African
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% East_Siberian
  • 0.00% Sami-Finnic
  • 0.00% South_Central_Asian
  • 0.00% South_East_Asian
  • 0.00% South_Indian
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.00% West_Siberian

MDLP K23b

  • 64.99% European_Early_Farmers
  • 20.88% Caucasian
  • 8.64% North-African
  • 4.88% Near-East
  • 0.58% European_Hunters_Gatherers
  • 0.02% Austroloid
  • 0.01% Melano-Polinesian
  • 0.00% African-Pygmy
  • 0.00% Altaiс
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Ancestral-North-Eurasian
  • 0.00% Ancestral-North-Indian
  • 0.00% Ancestral-South-Indian
  • 0.00% Archaic-African
  • 0.00% Archaic-Human
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-African
  • 0.00% East-Siberian
  • 0.00% Khoisan
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% South-East-Asian
  • 0.00% Subsaharian
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