Two pigmentation SNPs from prehistoric Europe

Below are the genotypes for the SNP rs1042602 in the gene TYR for prehistoric European samples. The derived A allele of this SNP is associated with light skin and an absence of freckles. As the graph here shows, the derived allele has a frequency of around 25–50% in modern European populations. The derived allele is absent in the hunter-gatherer samples and the Yamna samples, but it appears in some of the early Neolithic samples, and it is found later in the Bell Beaker, Corded Ware, and Unetice samples.

AG2                     AG2            --
Alberstedt_LN           I0118          CC
Baalberge_MN            I0559          CC
Baalberge_MN            I0560          --
Baalberge_MN            I0807          --
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0060          --
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0108          CC
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0111          CC
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0112          AA
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0113          CC
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0806          --
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0058          CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0059          --
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0171          --
Corded_Ware_LN          I0049          CC
Corded_Ware_LN          I0103          AA
Corded_Ware_LN          I0104          CC
Corded_Ware_LN          I0106          --
Esperstedt_MN           I0172          AA
Halberstadt_LBA         I0099          CC
HungaryGamba_BA         BR1            CC
HungaryGamba_BA         BR2            CC
HungaryGamba_CA         CO1            CC
HungaryGamba_EN         KO2            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE1            CC
HungaryGamba_EN         NE2            AA
HungaryGamba_EN         NE3            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE4            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE5            AA
HungaryGamba_EN         NE6            CC
HungaryGamba_EN         NE7            CC
HungaryGamba_HG         KO1            CC
HungaryGamba_IA         IR1            CC
Iceman                  Iceman         CC
Karelia_HG              I0061          CC
Karsdorf_LN             I0550          --
Kostenki14              Kostenki14     CC
LaBrana1                LaBrana1       CC
LBK_EN                  I0022          CC
LBK_EN                  I0025          CC
LBK_EN                  I0026          CC
LBK_EN                  I0046          CC
LBK_EN                  I0048          --
LBK_EN                  I0054          CC
LBK_EN                  I0056          CC
LBK_EN                  I0057          --
LBK_EN                  I0100          CC
LBK_EN                  I0659          CC
LBK_EN                  I0795          CC
LBK_EN                  I0821          --
LBKT_EN                 I0176          --
Loschbour               Loschbour      CC
MA1                     MA1            CC
Motala_HG               I0011          CC
Motala_HG               I0012          CC
Motala_HG               I0013          CC
Motala_HG               I0014          CC
Motala_HG               I0015          CC
Motala_HG               I0016          CC
Motala_HG               I0017          CC
Samara_HG               I0124          CC
Spain_EN                I0409          CC
Spain_EN                I0410          CC
Spain_EN                I0411          CC
Spain_EN                I0412          CC
Spain_EN                I0413          CC
Spain_MN                I0405          CC
Spain_MN                I0406          CC
Spain_MN                I0407          CC
Spain_MN                I0408          CC
Starcevo_EN             I0174          --
Stuttgart               Stuttgart      AC
SwedenSkoglund_MHG      StoraForvar11  --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem2        CC
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem4        --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem5        --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem7        --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide52       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide53       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide58       CC
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide59       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide70       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ire8           --
Unetice_EBA             I0047          CC
Unetice_EBA             I0114          --
Unetice_EBA             I0115          AA
Unetice_EBA             I0116          CC
Unetice_EBA             I0117          AA
Unetice_EBA             I0164          CC
Unetice_EBA             I0803          CC
Unetice_EBA             I0804          --
Yamnaya                 I0231          CC
Yamnaya                 I0357          CC
Yamnaya                 I0370          CC
Yamnaya                 I0429          CC
Yamnaya                 I0438          CC
Yamnaya                 I0439          CC
Yamnaya                 I0441          --
Yamnaya                 I0443          CC
Yamnaya                 I0444          --

Next are the genotypes for the SNP rs1393350, also in the gene TYR. The derived A allele of this SNP is associated with blond hair and blue eyes. The graph here shows that the derived allele has a frequency of around 25% in modern European populations. Here again, the derived allele is absent in the hunter-gatherer samples and the Yamna samples. It first appears in a sample from the early Neolithic Linear Pottery culture. It is absent in the Corded Ware and Unetice samples, but it is common in the Bell Beaker samples. The Bell Beaker people, belonging to Y haplogroup R1b-P312, spoke a language ancestral to the Celtic and Italic languages. Blond hair was common among the Celts, and, as noted in the articles by Karl Earlson here and here, blond hair and blue eyes were also common among the elite of ancient Rome.

AG2                     AG2            --
Alberstedt_LN           I0118          GG
Baalberge_MN            I0559          --
Baalberge_MN            I0560          --
Baalberge_MN            I0807          --
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0060          --
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0108          AA
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0111          GG
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0112          AA
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0113          AA
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0806          --
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0058          --
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0059          GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0171          GG
Corded_Ware_LN          I0049          GG
Corded_Ware_LN          I0103          GG
Corded_Ware_LN          I0104          GG
Corded_Ware_LN          I0106          --
Esperstedt_MN           I0172          GG
Halberstadt_LBA         I0099          AA
HungaryGamba_BA         BR1            GG
HungaryGamba_BA         BR2            GG
HungaryGamba_CA         CO1            GG
HungaryGamba_EN         KO2            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE1            GG
HungaryGamba_EN         NE2            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE3            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE4            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE5            GG
HungaryGamba_EN         NE6            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE7            GG
HungaryGamba_HG         KO1            GG
HungaryGamba_IA         IR1            AA
Iceman                  Iceman         GG
Karelia_HG              I0061          GG
Karsdorf_LN             I0550          AA
Kostenki14              Kostenki14     GG
LaBrana1                LaBrana1       GG
LBK_EN                  I0022          --
LBK_EN                  I0025          GG
LBK_EN                  I0026          GG
LBK_EN                  I0046          GG
LBK_EN                  I0048          GG
LBK_EN                  I0054          AA
LBK_EN                  I0056          GG
LBK_EN                  I0057          GG
LBK_EN                  I0100          GG
LBK_EN                  I0659          --
LBK_EN                  I0795          --
LBK_EN                  I0821          --
LBKT_EN                 I0176          --
Loschbour               Loschbour      GG
MA1                     MA1            --
Motala_HG               I0011          GG
Motala_HG               I0012          GG
Motala_HG               I0013          GG
Motala_HG               I0014          GG
Motala_HG               I0015          GG
Motala_HG               I0016          GG
Motala_HG               I0017          GG
Samara_HG               I0124          --
Spain_EN                I0409          GG
Spain_EN                I0410          GG
Spain_EN                I0411          --
Spain_EN                I0412          GG
Spain_EN                I0413          GG
Spain_MN                I0405          --
Spain_MN                I0406          GG
Spain_MN                I0407          --
Spain_MN                I0408          GG
Starcevo_EN             I0174          GG
Stuttgart               Stuttgart      GG
SwedenSkoglund_MHG      StoraForvar11  --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem2        GG
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem4        --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem5        --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem7        --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide52       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide53       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide58       GG
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide59       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide70       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ire8           --
Unetice_EBA             I0047          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0114          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0115          --
Unetice_EBA             I0116          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0117          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0164          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0803          --
Unetice_EBA             I0804          GG
Yamnaya                 I0231          GG
Yamnaya                 I0357          GG
Yamnaya                 I0370          GG
Yamnaya                 I0429          GG
Yamnaya                 I0438          --
Yamnaya                 I0439          --
Yamnaya                 I0441          --
Yamnaya                 I0443          GG
Yamnaya                 I0444          --
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One comment on “Two pigmentation SNPs from prehistoric Europe
  1. Matt says:

    Interesting that NE7 shows up as ancestral for the blonde hair/blue eyes allele, in Felix’s analysis of the genome he predicted blonde hair and blue eyes, which would be the oldest confirmed occurrence of both of these traits in a single individual.

    http://www.fi.id.au/2014/10/ancient-hungarian-genome-ne7-analysis.html

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