Phenotype SNPs from prehistoric Europe

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for the 69 newly available genomes from prehistoric Europe. Nonzero derived allele counts are in bold. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

One of the two major Caucasoid depigmentation mutations, in the gene SLC24A5, is now found at or near fixation in all Caucasoid populations, and the results below explain why this is the case. Two copies of this mutation were present in almost all of the samples, including the hunter-gatherers, whose ancestors inhabited Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, and the first farmers, whose ancestors inhabited the Middle East during the Upper Paleolithic. The presence of the mutation in both these groups implies that it must have spread throughout the Caucasoid race and risen in frequency to near fixation before the Mesolithic, during the Upper Paleolithic. This is consistent with the findings of this paper from 2013, which dated the coalescence of the SLC24A5 mutation at 28,000–22,000 years ago, and also with the findings of this paper from 2012, which estimated that the selective sweep for the SLC24A5 mutation started 19,000–11,000 years ago. It’s also consistent with my finding in this post that Afontova Gora 2, an Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer who lived 17,000 years ago in Siberia, had the SLC24A5 mutation. The estimates from the two papers may even be underestimates. The 2012 paper estimated that the selective sweep for the Veddoid depigmentation mutation in the gene KITLG started 30,000 years ago, but we know from my results for the 45,000-year-old Ust’-Ishim genome that selection for the Veddoid depigmentation mutations began far earlier.

The other major Caucasoid depigmentation mutation, in the gene SLC45A2, is now found at or near fixation in almost all European populations, but it is found at significantly lower frequencies in the Caucasoids of the Middle East and North Africa. Again, the results below explain why this is the case. They show that the farmers of the early and middle Neolithic had a significantly lower frequency of this mutation than the hunter-gatherers and the populations of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age, which had a large amount of hunter-gatherer ancestry. We can infer from this that the SLC45A2 mutation originated in the hunter-gatherers of Upper Paleolithic Europe, and that it has been present at higher frequencies in Europe than the Middle East and North Africa ever since. The 2012 paper estimated that the selective sweep for the SLC45A2 mutation started 16,000–13,000 years ago, but, again, this may be an underestimate.

The earlier DNA results for the Loschbour hunter-gatherer, who lived 8,000 years ago in Luxembourg, and the La Braña 1 hunter-gatherer, who lived 7,900 years ago in Spain, showed that neither of them had the SLC24A5 or SLC45A2 mutations. The results for Ötzi, a farmer who lived 5,200 years ago in Italy, showed that he did have both of the mutations. This early, very small sample led many rash people to the conclusion that the hunter-gatherers of Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe were dark-skinned, while the farmers of Europe were light-skinned. The results for the large sample below show that their conclusion was false, and that Loschbour and La Braña 1 were among a minority of hunter-gatherers who lacked the mutations. They show that the truth is just the opposite of what they had been so quick to conclude; that it was the hunter-gatherers who were on average lighter-skinned than the first farmers.

Of course, it wasn’t just rashness that led many to their erroneous conclusion. Many of these people believed what they did because it’s what they wanted to believe. When David Reich and his associates came out with their ludicrous pronouncement that Northern Europeans are Mediterranean-Amerindian mongrels, the Mediterraneanist fool Dienekes lapped it up, not because it made any sense, but because it gratified him. And Dienekes was thrilled again when the first few scraps of evidence seemed to suggest that the indigenous Europeans were darkies, and that the Mediterranean farmers were the world’s first white people. We can expect Dienekes to embrace the truth with considerably less enthusiasm than he did his Mediterraneanist fantasy.

The Mediterraneanist blogger “Racial Reality” published this embarrassing post just a few days before I began putting up the results from the new samples. He tells his readers that that the Mesolithic hunters had dark skin and that the Neolithic farmers had light skin. He shows a photograph of an artificially-darkened Mongoloid-admixed Lapp as being representative of all the Mesolithic hunters. He tells his readers that the Mesolithic hunters had broad faces and that the Neolithic farmers had narrow faces, oblivious to the fact that it was only the Y hg I Aurignacian-descended hunters who had broad faces, while the Y hg R1 Gravettian-descended hunters had narrow faces. When can we expect a retraction of this embarrassing post by “Racial Reality”? Ever?

Another blogger who ran with the dark-skinned hunter-gatherer idea is the ignoramus Greg Cochran, a member of the anti-White “HBD community”. As I pointed out in this post, Cochran was still ignorantly asserting that the SLC24A5 mutation was absent in the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers long after the DNA results for the Mesolithic hunter-gatherer Motala 12 showed that assertion to be false. And amazingly, Cochran was still claiming that the SLC24A5 mutation was brought to Europe by Middle Eastern farmers in this post from a few weeks ago, months after my post exposing his ignorance. Like all of the other psychopaths in the “HBD community”, Cochran is incapable of admitting that he was ever wrong about anything, so from now on he’ll just pretend like he never said what he’s long been saying, and his sycophantic followers will go right along with it.

And what has been the response of Dienekes and Cochran to the extremely important information disclosed in this post? It has been to pretend that my post never happened, and to go on posting their usual worthless crap.

An important lesson to be learned here is not to make sweeping generalizations based on only two prehistoric samples, especially when those generalizations are contradicted by all kinds of other evidence. If people had paid attention to the time estimates for the coalescences and the selective sweeps for the depigmentation mutations, and to the fact that Europeans, and especially Northern Europeans, are lighter-skinned than Middle Easterners, then they would have realized that the idea that pre-Neolithic Europeans were all dark-skinned didn’t make any sense.

Many people have made the same kind of foolish generalization based on the same Loschbour and La Braña 1 samples regarding the distribution of Y haplogroups in prehistoric Europe. They’ve concluded, since Loschbour belonged to Y haplogroup I and La Braña 1 belonged to Y haplogroup C1a2, that Y haplogroup R1b must have been absent in Mesolithic Western Europe. Among those that currently subscribe to this idiotic notion are David Reich and his associates, Greg Cochran, David “Davidski” Wesolowski, and J. Maciamo Hay. If these people would pay attention to the timing of the splits in the R1 tree, and to the current distributions of Y haplogroups in Europe, then they would realize that it makes absolutely no sense to think that R1b only spread to Western Europe in the Bronze Age or the Iron Age.

Splits in Y haplogroup trees are driven by the geographical separation of parts of a formerly continuous and uniform population, and the fact that the split between R1b and R1a happened over 25,000 years ago implies that a significant geographical separation between the R1b and R1a populations occurred at that time. The idea that R1b and R1a were both confined to Eastern Europe from 25,000 years ago to 5,500 years ago makes no sense.

The current distributions of R1b, I, and R1a, shown below, are obviously the result of the expansion of hunter-gatherer populations from Ice Age refuges at the start of the Holocene. The distribution of Y hg I shows that it is the result of the spread of the hunter-gatherers of the Balkan refuge north through Central Europe and into Scandinavia. The distribution of R1a, with its decreasing frequency gradient from east to west, and its sharp drop in frequency at 15°E, shows that it is the result of the spread of hunter-gatherers from an Eastern European refuge. And the distribution of R1b, with its decreasing frequency gradient from the Atlantic coast eastward into Central Europe and northeastward into Scandinavia, shows that it is the result of the spread of the hunter-gatherers who inhabited the Franco-Cantabrian refuge before the Holocene.

r1b

i

r1a

There are all kinds of other evidence scattered throughout my posts showing that R1b was in Western Europe long before the Bronze Age, but the above facts alone sufficiently demonstrate how absurd the alternative notion is.

The results for the Yamna samples are consistent with the results that appeared in this paper from last year for 63 Copper and Bronze Age samples from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. Those results showed frequencies for the light skin mutation in SLC45A2, the blue eyes mutation in OCA2/HERC2, and the light skin mutation in TYR that were lower than the frequencies found in modern-day Europeans. Needless to say, in his post on the paper, Dienekes said that he found it to be “very exciting”. But the paper didn’t report any results for the light skin mutation in SLC24A5, and as the results below show, that mutation was fixed in the Yamna population of the Pontic-Caspian steppe. One wonders if the authors of the paper actually did test for the SLC24A5 mutation, but withheld the results because they didn’t create the desired impression.

The fact that the mutations for light hair and light eyes were rare or absent in the Yamna samples leads me to believe that the Thracians and the Greeks were derived from some other R1b-Z2103 population, because the Thracians were typically described by ancient writers as having blue eyes and red hair, and, as noted in this article by Karl Earlson, light hair and light eyes were also common among the elite of ancient Greece. I think that the Thracians and Greeks were instead derived from a more western R1b-Z2103 population, located somewhere directly to the north of the Balkan peninsula. I think that these people moved south into the Balkans and Greece at the start of the Bronze Age, around 3200 BC. I’ll note, in connection with these ideas, the following quote from Carleton Coon’s work The Races of Europe:

On the whole, one is impressed, after looking at the portrait busts of Athenians, and the clay masks of Spartans, with their resemblance to present-day western Europeans.

The results show that the major mutation conferring the ability to digest milk into adulthood was present in only a single Bell Beaker sample and a single Unetice sample. It was completely absent in the Yamna and Corded Ware samples. For years the ignoramus Cochran and his sidekick Henry Harpending have been claiming that the mythical conquest of Europe by the Indo-Europeans from the Pontic-Caspian steppe was driven by their possession of this lactase persistence mutation. Time to add another item to the list of things that the psychopath Cochran will have to pretend that he never said.

The highest frequencies of the lactase persistence mutation are found in Northwestern European populations, and significantly lower frequencies of the mutation are found in the Slavic populations of Northeastern Europe. I think that when we start getting a significant number of samples from the prehistoric R1b populations of Western Europe, to the west of Germany, we’ll see higher frequencies of the lactase persistence mutation. I also think that those samples will show a higher frequency of the red hair mutations than the frequencies seen in the samples below, as the highest frequencies of red hair are also now found in Northwestern Europe.

The Mongoloid EDAR mutation was absent in all of the samples, except for four out of the seven Mesolithic hunter-gatherer samples from Motala, Sweden. The presence of the EDAR mutation in the Motala samples is puzzling. Mongoloids belonging to Y haplogroup N1c probably made up at least part of the population of the Kunda culture, which existed at the time of the Motala hunter-gatherers on the other side of the body of water that would later become the Baltic Sea. But aside from the EDAR mutation itself, the Motala hunter-gatherers show no signs of Mongoloid admixture. All of them belonged to Y haplogroup I and mitochondrial haplogroup U, which are Caucasoid haplogroups. And in the results of my analyses of the Motala genomes, none of the samples showed a significant amount of any of the Mongoloid components.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Alberstedt LN    I0118  5/5
Baalberge MN     I0560  1/1
Bell Beaker LN   I0111  1/1
Bell Beaker LN   I0112  3/3
Corded Ware LN   I0049  0/1
Corded Ware LN   I0103  5/8
Corded Ware LN   I0104  1/1
Esperstedt MN    I0172  12/12
Halberstadt LBA  I0099  4/4
Karelia HG       I0061  1/1
LBK EN           I0054  6/6
LBK EN           I0100  4/4
Motala HG        I0011  0/1
Motala HG        I0012  2/2
Motala HG        I0013  4/4
Motala HG        I0014  3/3
Motala HG        I0015  1/1
Motala HG        I0016  1/1
Motala HG        I0017  3/3
Spain EN         I0410  1/1
Spain EN         I0412  2/6
Spain EN         I0413  1/1
Spain MN         I0406  6/6
Spain MN         I0408  7/7
Unetice EBA      I0116  1/1
Unetice EBA      I0803  1/1
Yamnaya          I0231  1/3
Yamnaya          I0370  1/1
Yamnaya          I0443  1/1

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Corded Ware LN   I0103  0/1
Esperstedt MN    I0172  4/4
Halberstadt LBA  I0099  1/1
Karelia HG       I0061  1/1
LBK EN           I0100  2/2
Motala HG        I0011  0/1
Motala HG        I0012  1/1
Motala HG        I0013  1/1
Motala HG        I0014  1/1
Motala HG        I0017  4/4
Spain EN         I0412  0/1
Spain EN         I0413  1/1
Spain MN         I0408  1/1
Starcevo EN      I0174  1/1
Yamnaya          I0231  2/2

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/15
Baalberge MN            I0560  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/7
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/1
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/36
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/1
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/42
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/13
Karelia HG              I0061  0/5
LBK EN                  I0046  0/3
LBK EN                  I0054  0/19
LBK EN                  I0100  0/11
Motala HG               I0011  1/3
Motala HG               I0012  2/3
Motala HG               I0013  0/1
Motala HG               I0014  0/8
Motala HG               I0015  0/3
Motala HG               I0016  1/1
Motala HG               I0017  5/9
Spain EN                I0410  0/2
Spain EN                I0412  0/36
Spain EN                I0413  0/3
Spain MN                I0405  0/2
Spain MN                I0406  0/18
Spain MN                I0407  0/2
Spain MN                I0408  0/31
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0804  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/7
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/3

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/27
Baalberge MN            I0560  3/4
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/5
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  2/6
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/1
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/6
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/3
Corded Ware LN          I0049  0/1
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/35
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/13
Esperstedt MN           I0172  33/60
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/17
Karelia HG              I0061  0/3
LBK EN                  I0022  1/2
LBK EN                  I0025  6/6
LBK EN                  I0026  0/4
LBK EN                  I0046  0/6
LBK EN                  I0048  0/1
LBK EN                  I0054  0/68
LBK EN                  I0100  0/18
LBK EN                  I0659  0/2
Motala HG               I0012  3/3
Motala HG               I0013  3/3
Motala HG               I0014  4/4
Motala HG               I0016  1/2
Motala HG               I0017  9/9
Samara HG               I0124  1/1
Spain EN                I0410  2/5
Spain EN                I0412  6/21
Spain EN                I0413  0/3
Spain MN                I0406  0/15
Spain MN                I0407  0/2
Spain MN                I0408  0/43
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/4
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0115  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  3/3
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/10
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/13
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/4
Yamnaya                 I0443  6/16
Yamnaya                 I0444  1/2

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/25
Baalberge MN            I0560  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/3
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/6
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  0/1
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/2
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/18
Corded Ware LN          I0104  3/6
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/76
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/7
Karelia HG              I0061  0/7
Karsdorf LN             I0550  0/2
LBK EN                  I0025  0/3
LBK EN                  I0026  0/7
LBK EN                  I0046  0/1
LBK EN                  I0048  0/1
LBK EN                  I0054  0/43
LBK EN                  I0056  0/1
LBK EN                  I0100  0/15
LBK EN                  I0659  0/1
LBK EN                  I0821  0/1
Motala HG               I0011  0/1
Motala HG               I0012  0/4
Motala HG               I0013  0/5
Motala HG               I0014  4/6
Motala HG               I0015  0/1
Motala HG               I0016  0/2
Motala HG               I0017  0/17
Samara HG               I0124  2/2
Spain EN                I0409  0/2
Spain EN                I0410  0/6
Spain EN                I0412  0/22
Spain EN                I0413  0/4
Spain MN                I0405  0/1
Spain MN                I0406  0/6
Spain MN                I0407  0/6
Spain MN                I0408  0/21
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/9
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/12
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0439  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0441  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/12

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Alberstedt LN    I0118  5/5
Baalberge MN     I0559  1/1
Bell Beaker LN   I0111  1/1
Bell Beaker LN   I0112  3/3
Bell Beaker LN   I0113  1/1
Corded Ware LN   I0049  1/1
Corded Ware LN   I0103  7/7
Corded Ware LN   I0104  1/2
Esperstedt MN    I0172  24/25
Halberstadt LBA  I0099  0/2
Karelia HG       I0061  1/1
LBK EN           I0025  0/1
LBK EN           I0026  1/2
LBK EN           I0046  0/1
LBK EN           I0054  9/9
LBK EN           I0056  0/2
LBK EN           I0100  1/1
LBK EN           I0659  1/1
Motala HG        I0017  2/2
Spain EN         I0412  1/1
Spain MN         I0405  1/1
Spain MN         I0408  1/1
Starcevo EN      I0174  0/1
Unetice EBA      I0047  1/1
Unetice EBA      I0164  1/2
Yamnaya          I0231  1/1
Yamnaya          I0357  1/1
Yamnaya          I0443  4/4
Yamnaya          I0444  1/1

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/42
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/13
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/3
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/26
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/5
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/121
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/5
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/168
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/16
Karelia HG              I0061  0/13
LBK EN                  I0022  0/4
LBK EN                  I0025  1/9
LBK EN                  I0026  0/4
LBK EN                  I0046  0/3
LBK EN                  I0054  0/106
LBK EN                  I0056  0/1
LBK EN                  I0100  0/38
Motala HG               I0011  0/12
Motala HG               I0012  0/7
Motala HG               I0013  6/11
Motala HG               I0014  0/36
Motala HG               I0015  0/21
Motala HG               I0016  0/10
Motala HG               I0017  0/18
Samara HG               I0124  0/1
Spain EN                I0409  0/2
Spain EN                I0410  0/1
Spain EN                I0412  0/220
Spain EN                I0413  0/12
Spain MN                I0405  0/4
Spain MN                I0406  0/40
Spain MN                I0407  0/14
Spain MN                I0408  0/196
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/9
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0115  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/7
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0164  2/4
Unetice EBA             I0803  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/28
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/6
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0441  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/34
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/1

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Alberstedt LN           I0118  2/39
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/12
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/36
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/5
Corded Ware LN          I0103  1/139
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/5
Esperstedt MN           I0172  2/173
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/15
Karelia HG              I0061  0/13
LBK EN                  I0022  0/4
LBK EN                  I0025  2/8
LBK EN                  I0026  0/8
LBK EN                  I0048  0/1
LBK EN                  I0054  0/101
LBK EN                  I0056  0/1
LBK EN                  I0057  0/1
LBK EN                  I0100  1/43
Motala HG               I0011  0/6
Motala HG               I0012  0/6
Motala HG               I0013  0/6
Motala HG               I0014  1/27
Motala HG               I0015  0/15
Motala HG               I0016  0/9
Motala HG               I0017  1/14
Samara HG               I0124  0/1
Spain EN                I0409  0/1
Spain EN                I0410  0/5
Spain EN                I0412  4/203
Spain EN                I0413  0/6
Spain MN                I0405  0/3
Spain MN                I0406  0/42
Spain MN                I0407  1/13
Spain MN                I0408  3/208
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/10
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0115  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/12
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/3
Yamnaya                 I0231  2/25
Yamnaya                 I0357  0/0
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0439  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0441  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/30
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/1

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/13
Baalberge MN            I0559  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  1/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  0/1
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/6
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/2
Corded Ware LN          I0049  0/1
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/49
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/6
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/65
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/8
Karelia HG              I0061  0/5
LBK EN                  I0025  0/3
LBK EN                  I0026  0/4
LBK EN                  I0046  0/1
LBK EN                  I0054  31/48
LBK EN                  I0100  0/12
Motala HG               I0011  0/3
Motala HG               I0012  0/2
Motala HG               I0013  0/2
Motala HG               I0014  0/14
Motala HG               I0015  0/3
Motala HG               I0016  0/2
Motala HG               I0017  0/11
Samara HG               I0124  0/1
Spain EN                I0409  2/3
Spain EN                I0410  0/3
Spain EN                I0412  0/46
Spain MN                I0406  0/10
Spain MN                I0407  0/3
Spain MN                I0408  0/37
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/8
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0803  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0804  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/15
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/3
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/2

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/24
Baalberge MN            I0560  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/4
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  0/1
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/15
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/1
Corded Ware LN          I0049  0/1
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/146
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/10
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/176
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/22
Karelia HG              I0061  0/13
LBK EN                  I0025  0/6
LBK EN                  I0026  0/8
LBK EN                  I0054  0/76
LBK EN                  I0100  0/32
LBK EN                  I0821  0/1
Motala HG               I0011  0/11
Motala HG               I0012  0/7
Motala HG               I0013  0/5
Motala HG               I0014  0/18
Motala HG               I0015  0/8
Motala HG               I0016  0/4
Motala HG               I0017  0/23
Spain EN                I0409  0/3
Spain EN                I0410  0/12
Spain EN                I0411  0/1
Spain EN                I0412  0/195
Spain EN                I0413  0/7
Spain MN                I0405  0/1
Spain MN                I0406  0/15
Spain MN                I0407  0/18
Spain MN                I0408  0/157
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/4
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/4
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/7
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0803  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/18
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/16

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/47
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/11
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  1/3
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  1/40
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/7
Corded Ware LN          I0103  1/150
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/8
Esperstedt MN           I0172  1/193
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  7/15
Karelia HG              I0061  0/17
LBK EN                  I0022  0/5
LBK EN                  I0025  0/10
LBK EN                  I0026  0/8
LBK EN                  I0046  0/3
LBK EN                  I0048  0/1
LBK EN                  I0054  3/111
LBK EN                  I0056  0/1
LBK EN                  I0100  0/43
Motala HG               I0011  0/10
Motala HG               I0012  1/7
Motala HG               I0013  0/12
Motala HG               I0014  1/33
Motala HG               I0015  0/20
Motala HG               I0016  1/10
Motala HG               I0017  0/17
Samara HG               I0124  0/1
Spain EN                I0409  0/2
Spain EN                I0410  0/5
Spain EN                I0412  4/248
Spain EN                I0413  0/13
Spain MN                I0405  0/4
Spain MN                I0406  0/54
Spain MN                I0407  1/17
Spain MN                I0408  3/238
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/9
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0115  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/9
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/4
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/5
Unetice EBA             I0803  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  1/32
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/6
Yamnaya                 I0438  1/2
Yamnaya                 I0441  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/35
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/1

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/32
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/11
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/3
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/12
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/4
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/82
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/4
Esperstedt MN           I0172  3/106
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  1/12
Karelia HG              I0061  0/11
LBK EN                  I0022  0/2
LBK EN                  I0025  0/6
LBK EN                  I0026  0/3
LBK EN                  I0046  0/3
LBK EN                  I0054  1/87
LBK EN                  I0056  0/1
LBK EN                  I0100  0/30
Motala HG               I0011  0/11
Motala HG               I0012  0/6
Motala HG               I0013  0/10
Motala HG               I0014  1/36
Motala HG               I0015  0/18
Motala HG               I0016  1/8
Motala HG               I0017  0/22
Samara HG               I0124  0/1
Spain EN                I0409  0/1
Spain EN                I0411  0/1
Spain EN                I0412  1/157
Spain EN                I0413  0/7
Spain MN                I0405  0/2
Spain MN                I0406  0/21
Spain MN                I0407  0/10
Spain MN                I0408  1/118
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/5
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0115  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/4
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0803  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/23
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/4
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/22
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/1

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/46
Baalberge MN            I0560  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/6
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/9
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/44
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/1
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/204
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/20
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/268
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  13/32
Karelia HG              I0061  0/31
Karsdorf LN             I0550  0/1
LBK EN                  I0022  0/5
LBK EN                  I0025  0/15
LBK EN                  I0026  0/15
LBK EN                  I0046  0/8
LBK EN                  I0054  0/120
LBK EN                  I0056  0/4
LBK EN                  I0100  0/58
LBK EN                  I0659  0/5
Motala HG               I0011  0/6
Motala HG               I0012  0/8
Motala HG               I0013  0/7
Motala HG               I0014  0/21
Motala HG               I0015  0/15
Motala HG               I0016  0/16
Motala HG               I0017  0/26
Spain EN                I0410  0/10
Spain EN                I0411  0/1
Spain EN                I0412  0/210
Spain EN                I0413  0/14
Spain MN                I0405  0/7
Spain MN                I0406  0/55
Spain MN                I0407  0/21
Spain MN                I0408  0/176
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/7
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/13
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/5
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/10
Unetice EBA             I0803  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/31
Yamnaya                 I0357  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/35
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/4

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Alberstedt LN   I0118  0/1
Corded Ware LN  I0103  0/3
Esperstedt MN   I0172  0/2
LBK EN          I0054  0/2
Spain EN        I0410  0/1
Spain EN        I0412  0/6
Spain MN        I0408  0/1
Unetice EBA     I0047  0/1
Yamnaya         I0231  0/2
Yamnaya         I0443  0/2

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/27
Baalberge MN            I0560  0/2
Baalberge MN            I0807  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/4
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/6
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  5/11
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  0/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/5
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0171  0/2
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/88
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/18
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/125
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/22
Karelia HG              I0061  0/14
LBK EN                  I0022  0/2
LBK EN                  I0025  0/10
LBK EN                  I0026  0/6
LBK EN                  I0046  0/1
LBK EN                  I0054  0/67
LBK EN                  I0100  0/29
LBK EN                  I0659  0/1
LBK EN                  I0821  0/1
Motala HG               I0011  0/3
Motala HG               I0012  0/3
Motala HG               I0013  0/8
Motala HG               I0014  0/8
Motala HG               I0015  0/7
Motala HG               I0016  0/8
Motala HG               I0017  0/20
Samara HG               I0124  0/1
Spain EN                I0409  0/3
Spain EN                I0410  0/5
Spain EN                I0412  0/51
Spain EN                I0413  0/7
Spain MN                I0405  0/1
Spain MN                I0406  0/10
Spain MN                I0407  0/5
Spain MN                I0408  0/67
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/5
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/4
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/5
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/2
Unetice EBA             I0164  5/9
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/20
Yamnaya                 I0357  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/7
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/1

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Alberstedt LN           I0118  1/23
Baalberge MN            I0559  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  4/4
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  0/3
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/6
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  1/2
Corded Ware LN          I0049  0/1
Corded Ware LN          I0103  1/53
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/2
Esperstedt MN           I0172  2/77
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/9
Karelia HG              I0061  0/17
LBK EN                  I0025  0/2
LBK EN                  I0026  0/4
LBK EN                  I0048  0/2
LBK EN                  I0054  2/62
LBK EN                  I0056  0/2
LBK EN                  I0100  0/27
LBK EN                  I0659  0/1
LBK EN                  I0795  0/1
Motala HG               I0011  0/1
Motala HG               I0012  0/4
Motala HG               I0013  0/6
Motala HG               I0014  0/15
Motala HG               I0015  0/11
Motala HG               I0016  1/6
Motala HG               I0017  0/15
Spain EN                I0409  0/3
Spain EN                I0410  0/11
Spain EN                I0412  3/99
Spain EN                I0413  0/8
Spain MN                I0405  0/1
Spain MN                I0406  0/17
Spain MN                I0407  1/6
Spain MN                I0408  5/88
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/11
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  1/5
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/4
Yamnaya                 I0231  1/23
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/4
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0439  2/2
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/12
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/1

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/31
Baalberge MN            I0807  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  1/14
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/1
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/4
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/4
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/53
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/9
Corded Ware LN          I0106  0/1
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/94
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/14
Karelia HG              I0061  0/9
LBK EN                  I0022  0/2
LBK EN                  I0025  0/3
LBK EN                  I0026  0/5
LBK EN                  I0048  0/1
LBK EN                  I0054  0/89
LBK EN                  I0057  0/1
LBK EN                  I0100  0/17
LBK EN                  I0659  0/2
LBK EN                  I0821  0/1
Motala HG               I0011  0/3
Motala HG               I0012  0/6
Motala HG               I0013  0/1
Motala HG               I0014  0/14
Motala HG               I0015  0/6
Motala HG               I0016  0/3
Motala HG               I0017  0/10
Samara HG               I0124  0/1
Spain EN                I0409  0/2
Spain EN                I0410  0/6
Spain EN                I0412  0/47
Spain EN                I0413  0/5
Spain MN                I0406  0/26
Spain MN                I0407  0/5
Spain MN                I0408  0/45
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/5
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0115  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/5
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/15
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/13
Yamnaya                 I0357  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/8
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/1

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/50
Baalberge MN            I0559  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  2/3
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/3
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  4/6
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  3/5
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/1
Corded Ware LN          I0049  0/2
Corded Ware LN          I0103  41/76
Corded Ware LN          I0104  1/9
Esperstedt MN           I0172  69/120
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  18/18
Karelia HG              I0061  0/10
Karsdorf LN             I0550  0/1
LBK EN                  I0022  2/2
LBK EN                  I0025  5/7
LBK EN                  I0026  0/9
LBK EN                  I0046  3/3
LBK EN                  I0048  1/2
LBK EN                  I0054  0/70
LBK EN                  I0056  1/1
LBK EN                  I0100  33/33
LBK EN                  I0659  3/3
Motala HG               I0011  7/7
Motala HG               I0012  6/6
Motala HG               I0013  2/2
Motala HG               I0014  9/9
Motala HG               I0015  10/10
Motala HG               I0016  5/5
Motala HG               I0017  15/15
Samara HG               I0124  4/4
Spain EN                I0410  0/3
Spain EN                I0412  23/44
Spain EN                I0413  0/6
Spain MN                I0405  0/1
Spain MN                I0406  0/15
Spain MN                I0407  0/2
Spain MN                I0408  45/74
Unetice EBA             I0047  7/7
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/4
Unetice EBA             I0116  3/3
Unetice EBA             I0117  4/4
Unetice EBA             I0164  7/12
Unetice EBA             I0803  1/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  1/22
Yamnaya                 I0357  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0443  8/15
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/2

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  14/14
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  2/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  1/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  1/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  1/1
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  2/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  3/3
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0171  1/1
Corded Ware LN          I0103  18/18
Corded Ware LN          I0104  3/3
Esperstedt MN           I0172  33/33
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  6/6
Karelia HG              I0061  8/8
LBK EN                  I0025  0/1
LBK EN                  I0026  4/4
LBK EN                  I0046  2/2
LBK EN                  I0054  31/31
LBK EN                  I0056  1/1
LBK EN                  I0057  1/1
LBK EN                  I0100  7/7
LBK EN                  I0659  1/1
LBK EN                  I0821  1/1
Motala HG               I0012  3/3
Motala HG               I0014  3/3
Motala HG               I0015  0/1
Motala HG               I0016  1/3
Motala HG               I0017  8/8
Samara HG               I0124  3/3
Spain EN                I0410  1/1
Spain EN                I0412  18/18
Spain EN                I0413  2/2
Spain MN                I0406  3/4
Spain MN                I0407  3/3
Spain MN                I0408  24/24
Starcevo EN             I0174  1/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  2/2
Unetice EBA             I0164  2/2
Unetice EBA             I0803  1/1
Unetice EBA             I0804  1/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  4/4
Yamnaya                 I0370  1/1
Yamnaya                 I0441  1/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  3/3
Yamnaya                 I0444  1/1

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  26/57
Baalberge MN            I0559  0/2
Baalberge MN            I0560  0/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  3/3
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  2/2
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  7/18
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  3/3
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  0/1
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  5/5
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  1/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0171  1/1
Corded Ware LN          I0103  61/122
Corded Ware LN          I0104  21/21
Corded Ware LN          I0106  1/1
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/169
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  23/23
Karelia HG              I0061  16/28
LBK EN                  I0022  0/2
LBK EN                  I0025  0/7
LBK EN                  I0026  8/13
LBK EN                  I0046  0/3
LBK EN                  I0048  1/1
LBK EN                  I0054  0/130
LBK EN                  I0056  0/3
LBK EN                  I0100  24/24
LBK EN                  I0659  0/1
Motala HG               I0011  6/6
Motala HG               I0012  5/5
Motala HG               I0013  0/3
Motala HG               I0014  10/20
Motala HG               I0015  21/21
Motala HG               I0016  6/6
Motala HG               I0017  4/13
Samara HG               I0124  2/2
Spain EN                I0410  0/5
Spain EN                I0412  0/121
Spain EN                I0413  7/11
Spain MN                I0406  0/28
Spain MN                I0407  4/5
Spain MN                I0408  0/116
Unetice EBA             I0047  10/10
Unetice EBA             I0115  1/1
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/11
Unetice EBA             I0117  2/6
Unetice EBA             I0164  4/8
Unetice EBA             I0803  2/3
Yamnaya                 I0231  11/22
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0438  1/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  9/23
Yamnaya                 I0444  0/2

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/36
Baalberge MN            I0559  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  0/3
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  7/11
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  0/1
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  0/4
Corded Ware LN          I0049  0/3
Corded Ware LN          I0103  31/49
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/9
Esperstedt MN           I0172  79/79
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  0/19
Karelia HG              I0061  0/8
LBK EN                  I0022  0/1
LBK EN                  I0025  0/9
LBK EN                  I0026  0/7
LBK EN                  I0046  0/2
LBK EN                  I0054  0/82
LBK EN                  I0056  0/2
LBK EN                  I0100  0/17
LBK EN                  I0659  0/1
LBK EN                  I0795  0/1
Motala HG               I0011  0/3
Motala HG               I0012  0/7
Motala HG               I0013  0/7
Motala HG               I0014  0/11
Motala HG               I0015  0/3
Motala HG               I0016  0/7
Motala HG               I0017  0/21
Samara HG               I0124  0/4
Spain EN                I0409  0/1
Spain EN                I0410  0/3
Spain EN                I0411  0/1
Spain EN                I0412  0/36
Spain EN                I0413  1/4
Spain MN                I0405  0/2
Spain MN                I0406  0/10
Spain MN                I0407  0/2
Spain MN                I0408  0/27
Unetice EBA             I0047  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0115  2/2
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/8
Unetice EBA             I0117  1/1
Unetice EBA             I0164  0/6
Unetice EBA             I0803  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/12
Yamnaya                 I0357  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0370  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/4
Yamnaya                 I0438  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0439  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/22

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Alberstedt LN           I0118  0/38
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  1/1
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  0/4
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  4/5
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  1/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  0/2
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0171  0/2
Corded Ware LN          I0049  0/3
Corded Ware LN          I0103  0/62
Corded Ware LN          I0104  0/12
Esperstedt MN           I0172  0/91
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  6/10
Karelia HG              I0061  0/11
Karsdorf LN             I0550  1/1
LBK EN                  I0025  0/9
LBK EN                  I0026  1/11
LBK EN                  I0046  0/2
LBK EN                  I0048  0/1
LBK EN                  I0054  45/81
LBK EN                  I0056  0/3
LBK EN                  I0057  0/1
LBK EN                  I0100  1/15
Motala HG               I0011  0/4
Motala HG               I0012  0/3
Motala HG               I0013  0/3
Motala HG               I0014  0/9
Motala HG               I0015  0/5
Motala HG               I0016  0/3
Motala HG               I0017  0/13
Spain EN                I0409  0/1
Spain EN                I0410  0/12
Spain EN                I0412  1/31
Spain EN                I0413  0/5
Spain MN                I0406  2/14
Spain MN                I0408  18/53
Starcevo EN             I0174  0/1
Unetice EBA             I0047  2/5
Unetice EBA             I0114  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0116  0/3
Unetice EBA             I0117  0/8
Unetice EBA             I0164  2/13
Unetice EBA             I0804  0/2
Yamnaya                 I0231  0/21
Yamnaya                 I0357  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0370  1/2
Yamnaya                 I0429  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0441  0/1
Yamnaya                 I0443  0/23
Advertisements
Posted in Uncategorized
15 comments on “Phenotype SNPs from prehistoric Europe
  1. Tone says:

    Thanks for posting this! Those light-skinned, red-headed Motala Hunter Gatherers are very very interesting.

  2. Matt says:

    Very interesting, suprised to see the EDAR Mongoloid gene in the Motala samples, possibly by contact from Uralic Comb Ware Y DNA N? Interesting that the same samples positive for EDAR are positive for the red hair MC1R.

  3. Matt says:

    Are you planning to do the Yamnaya genomes or the ones from Neolithic Spain?

    • vic says:

      I am interested in sample I0795
      is it available to do an autosomal or where can I get it.

      regards

      • genetiker says:

        There were genotypes for rs1800407 and rs1042602 for I0795. The reason that there are so few genotypes for I0795 is that it had one of the smallest amounts of data.

        In terms of autosomal component percentages for I0795, there’s no reason to think that they would be significantly different from those for the other Linear Pottery samples.

  4. vic says:

    @genetiker
    Thank you.

    Since I0795 was found in the same germany area and has the same age in years as the 4 x G2a………..would you assume they came in together, or was the area in question a known farming area for the ENF

    What are the SNP’s for I0795 ?

    kind regards
    vic

  5. genetiker says:

    All of the first farmers of Northern and Southern Europe were genetically part of the same population. They all had large amounts of the Mediterranean and Caucasus components, and little to none of the North European components.

    The genotypes for I0795 are in the tables above.

  6. Greying Wanderer says:

    well spotted

  7. genetiker says:

    In most places that fragment of Xenophanes is translated as saying that the Thracians made their gods have blue eyes, in their own image.

    For example, the translation given here is

    “The Ethiopians make their gods black and snub-nosed; the Thracians say theirs have blue eyes and red hair.”

    I don’t know where that author got “green-eyed” from.

  8. […] couple of my previous posts containing genotypes for these SNPs for other prehistoric samples are here and […]

  9. […] Phenotype SNPs from prehistoric Europe […]

  10. SF says:

    You were proven right with Villabruna. I tip my hat.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Categories
%d bloggers like this: