K12b analysis of prehistoric and modern genomes

Below is an admixture plot based on K12b calculator results for 2,071 prehistoric and modern genomes.

The correspondences between the colors and the K12b components are as follows:

      North European
      Atlantic-Med
      Southwest Asian
      Gedrosia
      Caucasus
      Southeast Asian
      East Asian
      Siberian
      South Asian
      Sub-Saharan
      East African
      Northwest African

For the European samples, the amount of the Gedrosia component is proportional to the amount of ancestry the individual has from Y haplogroup R1 Gravettian-descended hunter-gatherers.

Almost all of the Sardinians have none of the Gedrosia component. Aside from the Sardinians, the smallest amounts of the Gedrosia component in Europe are found in the Baltic, Slavic, and Finnic populations of Northeastern Europe. Significant amounts of the component are found in the populations of Western Europe, and the largest amounts in Europe are found in the populations of Northwestern Europe.

Significant amounts of the Caucasus component are found in the Baltic and Slavic populations, while very small amounts are found in the populations of Northwestern Europe.

David Reich and his associates claimed that the people of the Pit Grave (Yamna) culture were hybrids, half of whose ancestry came from people like the Karelia and Samara hunter-gatherers, and the other half of whose ancestry came from an Armenian-like population. But this is totally wrong.

As the plot below shows, the Caucasus component makes up over half of the DNA of Armenians, and they also have a significant amount of the Southwest Asian component. But the Caucasus component made up only a small fraction of the DNA of the Pit Grave people, and they didn’t have any of the Southwest Asian component, so they clearly did not have a significant amount of Armenian-like admixture.

The DNA of the Pit Grave people was in fact rather pure Gravettian-descended hunter-gatherer DNA, with only a small amount of Neolithic farmer admixture. They were genetically similar to the 17,000-year-old Afontova Gora 2 hunter-gatherer, and to the 24,000-year-old Mal’ta 1 hunter-gatherer. Like those hunter-gatherers, the Pit Grave people had large amounts of the North European and Gedrosia components.

It was actually the Karelia and Samara hunter-gatherers who were significantly mixed, not the Pit Grave people. The fact that these two hunter-gatherers had some of the Gedrosia component shows that they had some Gravettian ancestry, but they had significantly less of the Gedrosia component than the Pit Grave people and Mal’ta 1 and Afontova Gora 2. This means that their Gravettian ancestry was diluted by admixture from some other population, and the source of that admixture was Y hg I Aurignacian-descended hunter-gatherers, who lacked the Gedrosia component.

Given their small amounts of the Gedrosia component, Balts and Slavs (who belong primarily to Y hg R1a) must be derived from low-Gedrosia R1a people like the Karelia hunter-gatherer, rather than from people like the high-Gedrosia R1a German Corded Ware people shown in the plot below. This ancestral population also must have absorbed some of the Caucasus component at some point, given the significant amount of that component in Balts and Slavs.

Modern-day Sardinians are genetically very similar to the early and middle Neolithic farmers of Spain. They both have a large amount of the Atlantic-Med component, and a significant amount of the Caucasus component.

The early and middle Neolithic farmers of Spain were similar to the early Neolithic Linear Pottery farmers of Germany, and to the early Neolithic farmers of Hungary, but one difference is that the German and Hungarian farmers had more of the Caucasus component. This may be related to the fact that the German and Hungarian farmers belonged primarily to Y hg G, while the Spanish farmers belonged primarily to Y hg I. The highest frequencies of Y hg G are today found in the Caucasus Mountains, and the haplogroup is associated with the Caucasus component.

It’s striking that although Basques are similar to the first European farmers in that they have a large amount of the Atlantic-Med component, they’re very different from those farmers in that they have little to none of the Caucasus component. This suggests that the first farmers were a mix of two populations, one carrying the Atlantic-Med component, and the other carrying the Caucasus component, and that Basques have ancestry mainly from the Atlantic-Med-carrying population.

The people of the Unetice culture, which occupied the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Germany, were similar to modern-day Czechs, although the Unetice people had a bit more of the Gedrosia component and a bit less of the Caucasus component. This difference is probably due to the Slavic element in modern-day Czechs, since Slavic DNA has a significant amount of the Caucasus component, and only a small amount of the Gedrosia component.

The people of the Bell Beaker culture, which spread from Iberia throughout Western and Central Europe, and which survived the longest in the British Isles, were similar to the modern-day English.

The plot shows that Amerindian DNA is made up of the Mongoloid components, the Caucasoid North European and Gedrosia components, and the Veddoid South Asian component. The Caucasoid and Veddoid components in Amerindians are exactly the same components found in the Mal’ta 1 genome, and the components even occur in Amerindians in approximately the same ratios as they do in the Mal’ta 1 genome. I was the first person in history to show that Amerindian DNA is made up of these kinds of racially different components, and I did so seven months before the paper on the Mal’ta 1 genome was published. No one has ever acknowledged my accomplishment, and the fraud and anti-White propagandist Eske Willerslev has taken the credit which is rightfully mine.

The plot also shows that Australoid DNA is primarily related to the Veddoid South Asian component, but that it is also related to the Mongoloid and Negroid components. The continent of Sahul, which includes Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania, was first populated by Negritoids and later by Ainu-like proto-Mongoloids. Australia received a third wave of migration by Veddoids four to five thousand years ago. The Veddoid component in Australoids is primarily from the Negritoids, who were genetically similar to true Veddoids. The Mongoloid components are from the Ainu-like proto-Mongoloids. The Negroid components are partially from the Negritoids, and partially from the Homo erectus that the Negritoids mixed with on their way to Sahul, in what are today the Sunda Islands.

k12b-2

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15 comments on “K12b analysis of prehistoric and modern genomes
  1. Matthew says:

    Amazing work, you have certainly established yourself as the best genome blogger. The analysis of Australoid and Amerindian groups is particularly fascinating. I look forward to all of your insights.

  2. genetiker says:

    Thanks for your support.

  3. ThePostman says:

    Great work, genetiker. Keep em coming.

  4. nt says:

    Why do the Neanderthal genomes cluster with Africans? Aren’t these groups unrelated?

  5. genetiker says:

    It’s because Negroids are at the bottom of the modern human evolutionary tree. They’re the closest living relatives of the extinct Neanderthals. Negroids and Neanderthals share ancestral alleles at many loci at which non-Negroids share derived alleles.

    At low K values, ADMIXTURE analyses lump Neanderthals and Denisovans together with Negroids, but for a sufficiently high K value an archaic human component does emerge. If you had a calculator based on such a high-K ADMIXTURE analysis that included archaic samples, then applying that calculator to other archaic samples would correctly identify them as archaic and not Negroid, but the K12b calculator doesn’t include an archaic component, so archaic samples end up being identified as Negroid, for the reasons stated above.

  6. genetiker says:

    Matthew and ThePostman, I’ve been trying to contact you by email but have been unable to do so. If you would, please respond to this comment with an address where you can currently be reached in the email address field for the comment. This address will remain private.

  7. genetiker says:

    The results of the analysis I posted on the additional Caucasoid admixture in Amerindians were wrong. So I deleted the post.

    What happened is that ADMIXTURE took the European populations with small numbers of individuals, like the Loschbour, La Braña 1, Canary Islander, and Scottish populations, and made weird components with them, that were partially related to those European populations, and partially related to the Amerindian populations.

    I had seen ADMIXTURE doing this kind of thing before, and I should have known better. But I was seeing what I wanted to see in the results, and I got carried away.

    There’s no reason to think that any of the Amerindian populations actually have any Loschbour, La Braña 1, Canary Islander, or Scottish admixture.

    For all I know, the additional Caucasoid admixture in the Amerindians really is Spanish or Basque.

    I apologize to everyone for posting such wrong results.

  8. genetiker says:

    There was value in the comments on the post I deleted, so I’m copying them here.

    The Postman:

    Genetiker, I do not know whether you are German or not (your name does suggest it, but somehow I doubt it?) but there is a (allegedly) good book (have only read it in parts) by a guy called Hans Griffhorn called “Wurde Amerika in der Antike entdeckt?: Karthager, Kelten und das Rätsel der Chachapoya” (Has America Been Discovered during the antiquity times? Carthagians, Celts, and the riddle of the Chachapoya).

    His theory, based mostly on archeology, physical anthropology and culture, comes to the conclusion that at some point Carthagians and their Celtic mercenaries fleeing from the Romans ended up there and laid the foundation of this tribe. He also mentions that a laboratory told him about r1b found there when he asked for an analysis.

    Perhaps this connection is, in fact, way older, and Griffhorn has basically tackled the problem from the wrong side but his findings are still showing the European connection clearly.

    Me:

    I know about Giffhorn’s book, but I have not read it.

    Giffhorn’s theory was the basis for this documentary, which you can watch online, and which I referred to in my post on the Chachapoyas.

    The documentary has a segment starting at 49:30 in which Manfred Kayser in the Netherlands says that genetic testing of the “Gringuito” descendants of the Chachapoyas found R1b in them. I assume that this is the same testing that you said Giffhorn mentions. Kayser also says that the “Gringuitos” have between 10% and 50% European ancestry. It’s because these testing results slipped out that we can be certain that Willerslev and Bustamante committed an act of fraud in their paper which purported to show that the Chachapoyas were entirely Amerindian.

    I see Giffhorn’s theory as a halfway politically correct substitute for Thor Heyerdahl’s theories. The American Public Broadcasting Service, which aired the documentary on Giffhorn’s theory, would never in a million years air a documentary on Heyerdahl’s theories.

    The documentary mentions starting at 10:20 Janice Jakait’s crossing of the Atlantic in a high-tech rowboat in 2012. It’s absurd to mention that without mentioning Heyerdahl’s crossing of the Atlantic in a reed boat in 1970.

    At 9:25 in the documentary Giffhorn says that the Celts never could have crossed the Atlantic without the help of the Carthaginians, which is nonsense. If Heyerdahl crossed the Atlantic in a reed boat, then the Celts certainly could have crossed the Atlantic in boats like the Irish curragh.

    There’s no doubt that Europeans were in the Americas long before 146 BC, which is when Giffhorn says the Carthaginians and Celts came. The Chinchorro mummies are European, and they’re thousands of years older than 146 BC. The mummies of the Paracas culture are European, and the Paracas culture started around 1200–800 BC.

    Andean civilization began as early as 3700 BC, and the Amerindians of Peru themselves attribute the founding of their civilization to their white and bearded creator god Kon-Tiki Viracocha.

    In his book The White Indians of Nivaria, Gordon Kennedy notes that the Mayan calendar begins on August 11, 3114 BC. And he notes that this is over 1,500 years before the first Mesoamerican civilization, the Olmec civilization, at a time when the Mesoamerican Indians were still living as jungle savages. This suggests that the ultimate creators of the Mayan calendar were present somewhere else in the Americas, outside of Mesoamerica, when the calendar began. The obvious place where that might have been is Peru, where the civilization said to have been established by Kon-Tiki Viracocha was already underway.

    Giffhorn’s exclusive focus on the Chachapoyas ignores the fact that legends describing White people like the Chachapoyas existed among the Amerindians all over Middle and South America. His theory ignores the fact that the elite of all of the many ancient Peruvian cultures were White people. His theory ignores the big picture, which is that White people came to the Americas many thousands of years ago, created multiple civilizations, and then went further west, out into the islands of the Pacific, and created civilization there too.

    I remember reading somewhere that in his book Giffhorn says that he saw a Chachapoya mummy with red hair. If you have a copy of the book, could you please try to find the part of the book where he says this, and post that part here, in the original German, and also with an English translation?

    The Postman:

    Found that:

    “Doch bei einer meiner frühen Reisen fiel mir ein seltsames Foto in die Hände: eine Chachapoya-Mumie, deren Haare rotbraun und lockig wirkten. Michael Schultz, dem ich das Foto zeigte, war ebenfalls erstaunt, denn Indianer haben ja gewöhnlich glatte schwarze Haare. Die Mumie selbst war nirgendwo aufzutreiben. […]Ich zeigte Marcelita Hidalgo Pineda, der Museums-Kuratorin, das Foto. Und tatsächlich: Sie wurde fündig. Die Nummer in der Inventarliste: 195, Alter der Mumie: fünf- bis sechshundert Jahre. Ein Krieger, er starb an einer schweren Kopfverletzung und hatte braune Haare – das steht in der Beschreibung. Im für die Öffentlichkeit nicht zugänglichen Mumienraum des Museums suchte Marcelita die Mumie Nr. 195 heraus, wickelte sie aus und entfernte die schützende Kopfhaube, die die Haare angepresst hatte. Doch der Unterschied zu typischen Indianerhaaren war immer noch erkennbar.”

    “During an early journey I got hold of a strange photo: a Chachapoya mummy whose hair was red-brown and curly. Michael Schultz, whom i showed this photo, was equally astonished as Indians have usually smooth black hair. The mummy itself was nowhere to be found. […] I showed the picture to Marcelita Hidaglo Pineda, the curator of the museum. And in fact she found it. Number on the inventory lsit: 195, age of the mummy: 5 – 600 years. A warrior, died of a severe head trauma and had brown hair – that was in the description. In the mummy room of the museum that is not accessible to the public Marcelata looked for mummy number 195, unwrapped it and removed the protecting hood which has pressed on the hair. The differences to the typical Indian hair was still noticable.”

    Me:

    Thank you Postman. More evidence that Willerslev and Bustamante are frauds.

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