K = 16 admixture analysis of ancient American genomes

Originally posted on August 3, 2015

At the bottom of this post is a plot for a K = 16 ADMIXTURE analysis that includes 14 ancient samples from the Americas. Above the plot are the admixture percentages for the ancient American samples.

The correspondences between the colors and the components are as follows:

      Bushman and Pygmy
      Western Negroid
      Eastern Negroid
      European hunter-gatherer Caucasoid
      Northern European Caucasoid
      Southern European Caucasoid
      Middle Eastern Caucasoid
      Veddoid-Caucasoid hybrid
      Taiwanese aborigine Mongoloid
      Southern Mongoloid
      Northern Mongoloid
      Itelmen and Koryak
      Eskimo
      Northern Amerindian
      Southern Amerindian
      Australoid

This analysis gives a breakdown of the additional Caucasoid admixture in the Chinchorro mummy sample identified by the K = 4 analysis.

The Chinchorro woman didn’t have any of the Middle Eastern component, so her additional Caucasoid admixture was clearly from Europeans and not Middle Easterners or North Africans. Note that the Middle Eastern component is present in the modern Amerindian samples that have additional Caucasoid admixture, because that admixture is primarily from the post-Columbian Spanish, and the post-Columbian Spanish show a significant amount of the Middle Eastern component.

She had 12.17% of the European hunter-gatherer component. Modern Europeans show almost none of this component, but it is present in significant amounts in all prehistoric European samples, except for Europe’s first farmers, most of whom lacked it. Her additional Caucasoid admixture is therefore consistent with the genetic makeup of the Europeans of her time, around 4000 BC.

She doesn’t show any of the Northern European component. Note that this component and the European hunter-gatherer component are closely related. I think that with a larger number of SNPs she would show both of these components, but that since the number of SNPs is limited all of this kind of admixture is ending up being assigned to the hunter-gatherer component.

She had 8.42% of the Southern European component. This component is completely absent in almost all available Mesolithic European genomes, but it makes up almost all of the genomes of Europe’s early and middle Neolithic farmers. Note that the Mesolithic Loschbour hunter-gatherer does show some of this component. While large amounts of this component certainly did spread throughout Europe during the early Neolithic, I think that it has been present in smaller amounts along the entire Mediterranean coast of Europe since the Mesolithic. It is therefore possible that the Chinchorro woman’s European ancestors came to South America as early as the Mesolithic.

She shows 15.32% of the Veddoid-Caucasoid hybrid component. This component does not appear in any Mesolithic or Neolithic European samples not belonging to Y haplogroup R. It appears in the Y haplogroup R Mal’ta 1 sample, in the closely related Afontova Gora 2 sample, in the R1b Pit Grave samples, and in the R1b Bell Beaker samples. The appearance of this component in the Chinchorro woman shows that haplogroup R was present along the Atlantic coast of Western Europe before 4000 BC, contrary to the idiotic belief of David Reich, David Anthony, Eske Willerslev, Greg Cochran, David “Davidski” Wesolowski, J. Maciamo Hay, and countless moronic blog and forum commenters that haplogroup R was magically confined to Eastern Europe until a thousand or more years later. The reason that all these people hold this idiotic belief is that they all have a mindless adherence to Marija Gimbutas’s Kurgan hypothesis, which has become a dogma in academia. Haplogroup R1b is associated with the centum Indo-European languages, and for Gimbutas’s idiocy to be maintained, R1b must be absent from Western Europe before the Copper Age. The reason that we see admixture from haplogroup R people in a Chinchorro woman from 4000 BC is that, as I stated for the first time early last year, haplogroup R and Indo-European languages were spread across Europe by the Gravettians during the Paleolithic, and not by Gimbutas’s mythical horse-riding Kurgan warriors from the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the Copper, Bronze, and Iron Ages.

                     BC23  BC27  BC28  BC29 Chinc Eno65    F9
Northern Amerindian 37.86 99.98 85.45 99.98 29.25 50.56 87.04
Southern Amerindian 44.32  0.00  3.42  0.00 28.30 48.54  4.12
Veddoid-Caucasoid    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00 15.32  0.00  0.00
Northern European   13.16  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Northern Mongoloid   0.00  0.00 11.12  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Southern Mongoloid   0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  6.88
European HG          0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00 12.17  0.00  0.00
Eskimo               0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Taiwanese aborigine  3.59  0.00  0.00  0.00  6.53  0.88  0.00
Southern European    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  8.42  0.00  0.00
Australoid           0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  1.95
Eastern Negroid      1.05  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Middle Eastern       0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Itelmen and Koryak   0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Western Negroid      0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Bushman and Pygmy    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00

                    MA572 MA575 M1492  MOM6  AM66  AM72  AM73
Northern Amerindian 40.30 81.67 64.28 81.64 70.89 44.70 72.05
Southern Amerindian 59.68 15.88 10.16 18.34 29.09 55.29 27.93
Veddoid-Caucasoid    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Northern European    0.00  0.00  1.99  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Northern Mongoloid   0.00  2.43  1.18  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Southern Mongoloid   0.00  0.00  7.66  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
European HG          0.00  0.00  1.87  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Eskimo               0.00  0.00 12.85  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Taiwanese aborigine  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Southern European    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Australoid           0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Eastern Negroid      0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Middle Eastern       0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Itelmen and Koryak   0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Western Negroid      0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Bushman and Pygmy    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00

ancient-america-k-16-1

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6 comments on “K = 16 admixture analysis of ancient American genomes
  1. epoch2013 says:

    Here we see a similar thing as with the admixture run of Haak et al, the migration from the steppe paper. Once you cluster Swedish HG with la Brana to become a separate component all archeological samples have quite a lot of that component yet all modern Europeans lack it. On top of that Loschbourg becomes a mixture of farmer and HG. Strange.

    • Genetiker says:

      Here we see a similar thing as with the admixture run of Haak et al, the migration from the steppe paper.

      The “massive migration from the steppe” trumpeted by Reich and Willerslev simply never happened, and their own data show that it didn’t.

      Once you cluster Swedish HG with la Brana to become a separate component all archeological samples have quite a lot of that component yet all modern Europeans lack it.

      The European hunter-gatherer component is just ADMIXTURE’s way of representing large amounts of pure European hunter-gatherer DNA. The absence of that component in modern European samples of course doesn’t imply that modern Europeans don’t have hunter-gatherer DNA. The Northern European component is made up mostly if not entirely of European hunter-gatherer DNA, and the Southern European component also includes European hunter-gatherer DNA.

      On top of that Loschbourg becomes a mixture of farmer and HG. Strange.

      One shouldn’t be surprised to see the Southern European component in a Mesolithic sample like the Loschbour sample. DNA from einkorn wheat was found at the now-submerged Mesolithic Bouldnor Cliff site off the coast of the Isle of Wight, dated to 6000 BC, which is right at the time that Loschbour was alive. It is therefore to be expected that the Southern European component associated with the people who spread the einkorn wheat plant throughout Europe would also be found in Northwestern Europe at 6000 BC. And as I said in the post, I think that the Southern European component has been present along the entire Mediterranean coast of Europe since the early Holocene, thousands of years before even the time of Loschbour.

  2. The 4000 BC timeframe is intriguing, however, the pre-historic context relegates cultural/national identity of these European explorers, and many other details, to areas of mystery and conjecture. Do folklore, or native traditions, provide any clues?

    Will try to read your post on “The White Gods” again soon.

  3. Genetiker says:

    The Chinchorro woman’s remains are dated to around 4000 BC, but her European ancestors may have come to South America earlier, possibly as early as 7020 BC, which is when the Chinchorro culture began.

    The native traditions of Peru and Chile make it clear that White people came to those lands long ago, and that they were regarded as civilization-creating gods by the natives, but I know of nothing in those traditions that specifies the culture or part of Europe that those White Gods came from.

    The analyses of the Chinchorro woman’s DNA in this post, however, do make it clear that her European ancestors were specifically from Western Europe, which is to be expected.

    The Western European ancestors of the Chinchorro people may have come to South America by way of Northwest Africa and/or the Canary Islands, rather than directly from Western Europe.

  4. […] K = 16 admixture analysis of ancient American genomes […]

  5. […] August 3, 2015: K = 16 admixture analysis of ancient American genomes […]

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