Below is a plot for a K = 13 admixture analysis that includes 37 new, mostly Ice Age genomes from Europe. The following table gives some information for these samples.
Sample Country Years BP Culture Goyet Q116-1 Belgium 35,160–34,430 Aurignacian Muierii 2 Romania 33,760–32,840 Unassigned Paglicci 133 Italy 34,580–31,210 Gravettian Cioclovina 1 Romania 33,090–31,780 Unassigned Kostenki 12 Russia 32,990–31,840 Unassigned Krems WA3 Austria 31,250–30,690 Gravettian Věstonice 13 Czechia 31,070–30,670 Gravettian Věstonice 15 Czechia 31,070–30,670 Gravettian Věstonice 14 Czechia 31,070–30,670 Gravettian Pavlov 1 Czechia 31,110–29,410 Gravettian Věstonice 43 Czechia 30,710–29,310 Gravettian Věstonice 16 Czechia 30,710–29,310 Gravettian Ostuni 2 Italy 29,310–28,640 Gravettian Goyet Q53-1 Belgium 28,230–27,720 Gravettian Paglicci 108 Italy 28,430–27,070 Gravettian Ostuni 1 Italy 27,810–27,430 Gravettian Goyet Q376-19 Belgium 27,720–27,310 Gravettian Goyet Q56-16 Belgium 26,600–26,040 Gravettian El Mirón Spain 18,830–18,610 Magdalenian Afontova Gora 3 Russia 16,930–16,490 Unassigned Rigney 1 France 15,690–15,240 Magdalenian Hohle Fels 49 Germany 16,000–14,260 Magdalenian Goyet Q-2 Belgium 15,230–14,780 Magdalenian Brillenhöhle Germany 15,120–14,440 Magdalenian Hohle Fels 79 Germany 15,070–14,270 Magdalenian Burkhardtshöhle Germany 15,080–14,150 Magdalenian Villabruna Italy 14,180–13,780 Epigravettian Rochedane France 13,090–12,830 Epipaleolithic Iboussières 39 France 12,040–11,410 Epipaleolithic Continenza Italy 11,200–10,510 Mesolithic Ranchot 88 France 10,240–9,930 Mesolithic Les Closeaux 13 France 10,240–9,560 Mesolithic Falkenstein Germany 9,410–8,990 Mesolithic Bockstein Germany 8,370–8,160 Mesolithic Ofnet Germany 8,430–8,060 Mesolithic Chaudardes 1 France 8,360–8,050 Mesolithic Berry-au-Bac France 7,320–7,170 Mesolithic
The plot shows that these samples can be divided into three groups. The first includes the Aurignacian, Gravettian, and other early samples. These have some of the same dark blue component found in the later European hunter-gatherers, but they also show other components, which demonstrates their more distant relationship to later Europeans. The Magdalenian samples make up the second group. They’re very similar to the later hunter-gatherers, but they still show small amounts of non-European components. The third group includes the most recent hunter-gatherers, who lived during the last few thousand years of the Ice Age and the post-Ice-Age Mesolithic. They all show only the dark blue component.
A striking feature of the plot, which has appeared in my previous plots, and which cries out for an explanation, is the significant amount of the pine green component, which peaks in Georgians, throughout all of the modern European samples. This component does not appear in the hunter-gatherers, or in the early Neolithic farmers, and it is also almost completely absent in the Pit Grave samples from the Pontic-Caspian steppe, and the Corded Ware and Timber Grave samples. It does appear in the Chinchorro mummy sample from around 4000 BC. It also appears in the pre-Bell-Beaker Copper Age samples from El Portalón cave in Spain, and especially in El Portalón 3, which I discovered to belong to Y haplogroup R1b-M269. Some of the pine green component shows up in the Bell Beaker and Unetice samples of Central Europe, and in the Nordic and Irish Bronze Age samples. My best explanation for the significant presence of this component in these samples is that it is somehow linked with the spread of R1b-L51.