qpAdm analysis confirms European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

To provide further confirmation of my discovery two years ago that Chinchorro DNA contains European admixture, I’ve performed a number of qpAdm analyses using the following populations:

  • Target population: One of 23 ancient American samples, including the Chinchorro sample.
  • Source population 1: A collection of populations shown to be purely Amerindian in admixture analyses: Mixe, Piapoco, Wichi, Chané, Karitiana, and Surui.
  • Source population 2: One of 11 ancient or modern Caucasoid or Veddoid populations.
  • Outgroup populations: Mbuti Pygmies, Han Chinese, Nganasans, Eskimos, and Papuans.

In the table below are the mean Caucasoid mixture coefficients for the 253 analyses, and also the coefficients plus or minus one standard error, in decreasing order of the lower bound. The 11 analyses in which the Chinchorro mummy sample was the target population have the 11 largest lower bounds. The mean coefficients for the Chinchorro sample tend to be around 0.45, with the lower bounds mostly around 0.30.

Target                Source 2           − 1 SE   Mean     + 1 SE
Chinchorro mummy      Pit Grave CA       0.3526   0.5426   0.7326
Chinchorro mummy      Spanish            0.3141   0.4741   0.6341
Chinchorro mummy      Iran EN            0.3070   0.4770   0.6470
Chinchorro mummy      Mala               0.2927   0.4697   0.6467
Chinchorro mummy      NW Asia Minor EN   0.2868   0.4368   0.5868
Chinchorro mummy      Pre-LGM Euro       0.2849   0.4749   0.6649
Chinchorro mummy      West Euro HG       0.2841   0.4481   0.6121
Chinchorro mummy      Georgia HG         0.2634   0.4014   0.5394
Chinchorro mummy      Tamil              0.2595   0.4205   0.5815
Chinchorro mummy      East Euro HG       0.2280   0.5600   0.8920
Chinchorro mummy      Natufian           0.1447   0.3457   0.5467
Mex mummy F9          East Euro HG       0.1303   0.4593   0.7883
Mex mummy F9          Spanish            0.1033   0.2683   0.4333
Mex mummy F9          Pit Grave CA       0.0964   0.2944   0.4924
Mex mummy F9          Tamil              0.0954   0.2844   0.4734
Mex mummy F9          West Euro HG       0.0924   0.3034   0.5144
Mex mummy F9          NW Asia Minor EN   0.0896   0.2476   0.4056
Mex mummy F9          Georgia HG         0.0880   0.2470   0.4060
Mex mummy F9          Iran EN            0.0720   0.2570   0.4420
Patagonian AM73       Natufian           0.0668   0.1698   0.2728
Mex mummy F9          Pre-LGM Euro       0.0611   0.2161   0.3711
Micmac MARC1492       Georgia HG         0.0359   0.0749   0.1139
Micmac MARC1492       Pit Grave CA       0.0355   0.0785   0.1215
Micmac MARC1492       NW Asia Minor EN   0.0336   0.0686   0.1036
Brazilian Enoque65    Natufian           0.0335   0.1025   0.1715
Brazilian Enoque65    Mala               0.0334   0.0874   0.1414
Micmac MARC1492       Spanish            0.0326   0.0706   0.1086
Micmac MARC1492       Iran EN            0.0323   0.0673   0.1023
Pericú BC25           Spanish            0.0233   0.0563   0.0893
Brazilian Enoque65    Tamil              0.0232   0.0792   0.1352
Pericú BC25           West Euro HG       0.0231   0.0591   0.0951
Pericú BC25           Georgia HG         0.0225   0.0565   0.0905
Pericú BC25           NW Asia Minor EN   0.0222   0.0532   0.0842
Pericú BC25           Pre-LGM Euro       0.0220   0.0550   0.0880
Pericú BC25           Tamil              0.0217   0.0577   0.0937
Micmac MARC1492       East Euro HG       0.0209   0.0779   0.1349
Pericú BC25           Pit Grave CA       0.0204   0.0604   0.1004
Micmac MARC1492       West Euro HG       0.0204   0.0624   0.1044
Pericú BC25           Mala               0.0186   0.0546   0.0906
Pericú BC25           Iran EN            0.0184   0.0504   0.0824
Mex mummy F9          Mala               0.0184   0.2364   0.4544
Micmac MARC1492       Natufian           0.0151   0.0581   0.1011
Micmac MARC1492       Pre-LGM Euro       0.0146   0.0516   0.0886
Brazilian Enoque65    Georgia HG         0.0133   0.0683   0.1233
Pericú BC25           Natufian           0.0128   0.0498   0.0868
Brazilian Enoque65    Iran EN            0.0079   0.0569   0.1059
Brazilian Enoque65    Pit Grave CA       0.0061   0.0661   0.1261
Brazilian Enoque65    NW Asia Minor EN   0.0041   0.0541   0.1041
Mex mummy MOM6        Natufian           0.0040   0.1150   0.2260
Brazilian Enoque65    Pre-LGM Euro       0.0036   0.0586   0.1136
Fuegian 894           Natufian           0.0023   0.0213   0.0403
Brazilian Enoque65    Spanish            0.0023   0.0553   0.1083
Fuegian 890           Natufian           0.0022   0.0302   0.0582
Micmac MARC1492       Tamil              0.0014   0.0414   0.0814
Brazilian Enoque65    West Euro HG      −0.0004   0.0576   0.1156
Fuegian MA577         Georgia HG        −0.0019   0.0161   0.0341
Fuegian MA577         West Euro HG      −0.0026   0.0174   0.0374
Pericú BC25           East Euro HG      −0.0027   0.0493   0.1013
Fuegian MA577         Iran EN           −0.0029   0.0141   0.0311
Fuegian MA577         NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0034   0.0136   0.0306
Fuegian MA577         Pit Grave CA      −0.0036   0.0184   0.0404
Fuegian MA577         Spanish           −0.0042   0.0148   0.0338
Fuegian MA577         Tamil             −0.0042   0.0158   0.0358
Patagonian AM66       Natufian          −0.0045   0.0995   0.2035
Fuegian MA577         Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0056   0.0124   0.0304
Fuegian MA577         Mala              −0.0074   0.0136   0.0346
Micmac MARC1492       Mala              −0.0093   0.0327   0.0747
Fuegian MA577         East Euro HG      −0.0097   0.0173   0.0443
Fuegian MA577         Natufian          −0.0103   0.0087   0.0277
Fuegian 890           East Euro HG      −0.0125   0.0305   0.0735
Fuegian 894           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0127   0.0053   0.0233
Fuegian 894           West Euro HG      −0.0138   0.0072   0.0282
Fuegian 894           Spanish           −0.0140   0.0060   0.0260
Fuegian 894           Iran EN           −0.0141   0.0049   0.0239
Fuegian 894           Georgia HG        −0.0144   0.0056   0.0256
Fuegian 894           Pit Grave CA      −0.0145   0.0085   0.0315
Fuegian 894           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0153   0.0047   0.0247
Fuegian 890           West Euro HG      −0.0173   0.0137   0.0447
Fuegian 890           Georgia HG        −0.0175   0.0105   0.0385
Patagonian AM74       Natufian          −0.0176   0.0064   0.0304
Patagonian AM66       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0181   0.0539   0.1259
Pericú BC28           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0185   0.0945   0.2075
Fuegian 890           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0189   0.0091   0.0371
Fuegian 890           Iran EN           −0.0194   0.0076   0.0346
Fuegian 894           East Euro HG      −0.0198   0.0102   0.0402
Fuegian 890           Spanish           −0.0199   0.0081   0.0361
Fuegian 890           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0199   0.0071   0.0341
Fuegian 890           Mala              −0.0201   0.0119   0.0439
Fuegian 890           Pit Grave CA      −0.0202   0.0138   0.0478
Fuegian 890           Tamil             −0.0208   0.0102   0.0412
Patagonian AM66       West Euro HG      −0.0210   0.0540   0.1290
Patagonian AM66       Iran EN           −0.0212   0.0448   0.1108
Pericú BC23           Natufian          −0.0218   0.2042   0.4302
Fuegian 894           Tamil             −0.0219   0.0001   0.0221
Patagonian AM66       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0224   0.0456   0.1136
Patagonian AM66       Spanish           −0.0235   0.0525   0.1285
Fuegian 894           Mala              −0.0244  −0.0014   0.0216
Patagonian AM74       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0246  −0.0046   0.0154
Patagonian AM74       Iran EN           −0.0247  −0.0047   0.0153
Patagonian AM74       East Euro HG      −0.0248   0.0072   0.0392
Patagonian AM74       Spanish           −0.0253  −0.0043   0.0167
Patagonian AM66       Georgia HG        −0.0256   0.0524   0.1304
Patagonian AM74       Georgia HG        −0.0256  −0.0046   0.0164
Patagonian AM66       Pit Grave CA      −0.0276   0.0634   0.1544
Patagonian AM74       Pit Grave CA      −0.0276  −0.0026   0.0224
Patagonian AM74       West Euro HG      −0.0280  −0.0040   0.0200
Patagonian AM74       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0288  −0.0068   0.0152
Mex mummy MOM6        Iran EN           −0.0305   0.0945   0.2195
Patagonian AM66       Mala              −0.0312   0.0488   0.1288
Patagonian AM74       Tamil             −0.0332  −0.0092   0.0148
Pericú BC29           Iran EN           −0.0340   0.0160   0.0660
Mex mummy MOM6        NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0352   0.0698   0.1748
Patagonian AM74       Mala              −0.0364  −0.0124   0.0116
Patagonian AM66       Tamil             −0.0366   0.0444   0.1254
Pericú BC29           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0368   0.0172   0.0712
Pericú BC29           Spanish           −0.0383   0.0177   0.0737
Pericú BC29           Georgia HG        −0.0396   0.0204   0.0804
Fuegian 895           Natufian          −0.0435  −0.0235  −0.0035
Pericú BC29           West Euro HG      −0.0438   0.0182   0.0802
Pericú BC29           Tamil             −0.0438   0.0172   0.0782
Pericú BC28           Georgia HG        −0.0441   0.0779   0.1999
Mex mummy MOM6        Spanish           −0.0447   0.0723   0.1893
Fuegian 895           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0461  −0.0271  −0.0081
Pericú BC29           Pit Grave CA      −0.0468   0.0192   0.0852
Fuegian 895           Iran EN           −0.0469  −0.0279  −0.0089
Fuegian 895           Georgia HG        −0.0474  −0.0284  −0.0094
Patagonian AM71       Natufian          −0.0479  −0.0049   0.0381
Fuegian 895           Spanish           −0.0481  −0.0281  −0.0081
Fuegian 895           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0507  −0.0307  −0.0107
Pericú BC28           Spanish           −0.0507   0.0733   0.1973
Fuegian 895           West Euro HG      −0.0517  −0.0307  −0.0097
Pericú BC29           Mala              −0.0520   0.0090   0.0700
Patagonian AM66       East Euro HG      −0.0530   0.0480   0.1490
Brazilian Enoque65    East Euro HG      −0.0540   0.0210   0.0960
Pericú BC28           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0545   0.0615   0.1775
Fuegian 895           Pit Grave CA      −0.0551  −0.0321  −0.0091
Pericú BC29           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0553   0.0027   0.0607
Pericú BC28           West Euro HG      −0.0568   0.0822   0.2212
Mex mummy F9          Natufian          −0.0598   0.1282   0.3162
Fuegian 895           Tamil             −0.0601  −0.0381  −0.0161
Pericú BC28           Pit Grave CA      −0.0602   0.0798   0.2198
Mex mummy MOM6        Georgia HG        −0.0603   0.0877   0.2357
Pericú BC28           Mala              −0.0610   0.0850   0.2310
Pericú BC28           Iran EN           −0.0626   0.0634   0.1894
Fuegian 895           Mala              −0.0647  −0.0417  −0.0187
Pericú BC27           Natufian          −0.0650   0.0570   0.1790
Fuegian 895           East Euro HG      −0.0651  −0.0361  −0.0071
Pericú BC28           East Euro HG      −0.0678   0.1322   0.3322
Pericú BC28           Tamil             −0.0699   0.0641   0.1981
Pericú BC30           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0710  −0.0320   0.0070
Pericú BC30           Iran EN           −0.0720  −0.0330   0.0060
Pericú BC30           Georgia HG        −0.0722  −0.0312   0.0098
Mex mummy MOM6        Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0730   0.0480   0.1690
Mex mummy MOM6        West Euro HG      −0.0736   0.0794   0.2324
Pericú BC30           Spanish           −0.0741  −0.0331   0.0079
Pericú BC29           Natufian          −0.0744  −0.0044   0.0656
Mex mummy MOM6        Pit Grave CA      −0.0783   0.0647   0.2077
Pericú BC27           Georgia HG        −0.0786   0.0514   0.1814
Pericú BC30           West Euro HG      −0.0814  −0.0374   0.0066
Pericú BC23           Tamil             −0.0818   0.0732   0.2282
Pericú BC30           Pit Grave CA      −0.0831  −0.0361   0.0109
Pericú BC30           Natufian          −0.0856  −0.0376   0.0104
Patagonian AM72       Mala              −0.0864   0.1236   0.3336
Pericú BC27           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0871   0.0229   0.1329
Patagonian AM72       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0884   0.1086   0.3056
Pericú BC30           Tamil             −0.0900  −0.0450   0.0000
Pericú BC30           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0904  −0.0464  −0.0024
Pericú BC23           Georgia HG        −0.0906   0.0554   0.2014
Pericú BC23           Iran EN           −0.0919   0.0571   0.2061
British Columbia 939  NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0923  −0.0673  −0.0423
Pericú BC29           East Euro HG      −0.0932  −0.0072   0.0788
Pericú BC23           Spanish           −0.0934   0.0546   0.2026
Pericú BC23           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0934   0.0716   0.2366
Pericú BC23           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0934   0.0536   0.2006
Pericú BC30           Mala              −0.0935  −0.0495  −0.0055
British Columbia 939  Iran EN           −0.0936  −0.0676  −0.0416
Pericú BC27           Spanish           −0.0949   0.0251   0.1451
Patagonian AM71       Iran EN           −0.0953  −0.0593  −0.0233
British Columbia 939  Georgia HG        −0.0962  −0.0692  −0.0422
Mex mummy MOM6        Tamil             −0.0966   0.0454   0.1874
Patagonian AM73       Iran EN           −0.0972  −0.0262   0.0448
British Columbia 939  Spanish           −0.0978  −0.0708  −0.0438
Patagonian AM73       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0979  −0.0249   0.0481
Patagonian AM72       Georgia HG        −0.0984   0.1506   0.3996
Patagonian AM72       Iran EN           −0.0988   0.0842   0.2672
Patagonian AM72       Spanish           −0.1007   0.1043   0.3093
Patagonian AM71       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.1014  −0.0644  −0.0274
Patagonian AM73       Spanish           −0.1023  −0.0253   0.0517
Pericú BC30           East Euro HG      −0.1030  −0.0400   0.0230
Patagonian AM73       Georgia HG        −0.1037  −0.0287   0.0463
Pericú BC27           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1039   0.0291   0.1621
Patagonian AM72       Tamil             −0.1059   0.1171   0.3401
Pericú BC27           Iran EN           −0.1060   0.0110   0.1280
Patagonian AM71       Georgia HG        −0.1064  −0.0664  −0.0264
Patagonian AM71       Spanish           −0.1072  −0.0682  −0.0292
Pericú BC23           West Euro HG      −0.1076   0.0534   0.2144
British Columbia 939  West Euro HG      −0.1083  −0.0783  −0.0483
Pericú BC27           West Euro HG      −0.1086   0.0214   0.1514
Pericú BC27           Pit Grave CA      −0.1096   0.0304   0.1704
Patagonian AM73       East Euro HG      −0.1097   0.0043   0.1183
Patagonian AM73       Pit Grave CA      −0.1099  −0.0199   0.0701
British Columbia 939  Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1116  −0.0846  −0.0576
Mex mummy MOM6        Mala              −0.1120   0.0360   0.1840
Patagonian AM71       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1129  −0.0729  −0.0329
British Columbia 939  Pit Grave CA      −0.1152  −0.0832  −0.0512
Patagonian AM73       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1152  −0.0372   0.0408
British Columbia 939  Tamil             −0.1164  −0.0874  −0.0584
Patagonian AM71       Tamil             −0.1170  −0.0770  −0.0370
Pericú BC27           Tamil             −0.1186   0.0064   0.1314
Patagonian AM72       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1189   0.0861   0.2911
Patagonian AM71       Mala              −0.1191  −0.0801  −0.0411
Patagonian AM73       Mala              −0.1197  −0.0417   0.0363
British Columbia 939  Mala              −0.1216  −0.0916  −0.0616
Pericú BC27           Mala              −0.1221  −0.0031   0.1159
Patagonian AM73       Tamil             −0.1228  −0.0428   0.0372
Patagonian AM71       West Euro HG      −0.1231  −0.0801  −0.0371
Patagonian AM73       West Euro HG      −0.1241  −0.0371   0.0499
Pericú BC23           Mala              −0.1251   0.0379   0.2009
British Columbia 939  Natufian          −0.1271  −0.0971  −0.0671
Pericú BC23           Pit Grave CA      −0.1280   0.0460   0.2200
Patagonian AM72       Pit Grave CA      −0.1299   0.1241   0.3781
Patagonian AM71       Pit Grave CA      −0.1308  −0.0828  −0.0348
Patagonian AM71       East Euro HG      −0.1344  −0.0774  −0.0204
British Columbia 939  East Euro HG      −0.1434  −0.1044  −0.0654
Patagonian AM72       West Euro HG      −0.1447   0.1213   0.3873
Mex mummy MOM6        East Euro HG      −0.1657   0.0323   0.2303
Pericú BC27           East Euro HG      −0.1731   0.0249   0.2229
Fuegian MA572         Georgia HG        −0.1806  −0.0816   0.0174
Fuegian MA572         NW Asia Minor EN  −0.1941  −0.0861   0.0219
Pericú BC23           East Euro HG      −0.1991   0.0389   0.2769
Fuegian MA572         Iran EN           −0.2024  −0.0924   0.0176
Fuegian MA572         West Euro HG      −0.2039  −0.0859   0.0321
Patagonian AM72       Natufian          −0.2101   0.2569   0.7239
Fuegian MA572         Pre-LGM Euro      −0.2137  −0.0997   0.0143
Fuegian MA572         Spanish           −0.2184  −0.1014   0.0156
Fuegian MA572         Mala              −0.2217  −0.1097   0.0023
Fuegian MA572         Tamil             −0.2228  −0.1018   0.0192
Fuegian MA572         East Euro HG      −0.2326  −0.0956   0.0414
Pericú BC28           Natufian          −0.2424  −0.1064   0.0296
Fuegian MA572         Pit Grave CA      −0.2532  −0.1122   0.0288
Fuegian MA572         Natufian          −0.2882  −0.1412   0.0058
Fuegian MA575         Pre-LGM Euro      −0.3196  −0.1466   0.0264
Fuegian MA575         Iran EN           −0.3350  −0.1380   0.0590
Fuegian MA575         Georgia HG        −0.3576  −0.1676   0.0224
Fuegian MA575         Spanish           −0.3629  −0.1779   0.0071
Fuegian MA575         NW Asia Minor EN  −0.3717  −0.1837   0.0043
Fuegian MA575         Mala              −0.3774  −0.1454   0.0866
Patagonian AM72       East Euro HG      −0.3854   0.0356   0.4566
Fuegian MA575         Natufian          −0.3864  −0.1784   0.0296
Fuegian MA575         Tamil             −0.3923  −0.1723   0.0477
Fuegian MA575         Pit Grave CA      −0.4451  −0.2371  −0.0291
Fuegian MA575         West Euro HG      −0.4688  −0.2238   0.0212
Fuegian MA575         East Euro HG      −0.5707  −0.2947  −0.0187
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2 comments on “qpAdm analysis confirms European admixture in Chinchorro DNA
  1. norbert says:

    to make this claim more convincing, you have to stringently exclude modern contamination and post-mortem artefacts

    1) restrict to molecules with evidence for aDNA damage (i.e., use MapDamage)

    2) restrict to transversions

    • Genetiker says:

      There isn’t any significant modern contamination in the Chinchorro sample.

      And these qpAdm analyses, the principal component analyses, and all of my recent admixture analyses use only transversion SNPs.

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