Phenotype SNPs for Minoans and Mycenaeans

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for 19 Minoan, Mycenaean, Neolithic Greek, and Bronze Age Anatolian genomes. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 1/1
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 6/6
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 2/2
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 1/1
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 1/3
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 1/1
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 1/1

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 1/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 2/2
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 12/12
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 2/2
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 2/2
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 3/3
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 1/1

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/2
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/2
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/34
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/5
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/2
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/7
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/2
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/8
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/6
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/2
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/3
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/14
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/15

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/4
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/16
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/8
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/5
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/12
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/2
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/3
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/1
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/4
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/2
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/3

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I9130 Minoan 2900–1900 0/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/3
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/16
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/4
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/5
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/1
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/8
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/1
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/5
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/2
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/3

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 2/2
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 3/3

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/5
I9129 Minoan 2900–1900 0/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/12
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/130
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/31
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/3
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/15
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/9
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/5
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/7
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/13
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/2
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/20
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/40

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/5
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 3/6
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/77
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/19
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/2
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/14
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/3
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/6
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/4
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/12
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/1
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/17
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/42

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/3
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/5
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/24
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 3/5
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/2
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/8
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/3
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 2/3
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/4
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 2/3
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/6
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/9

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/9
I9131 Minoan 2900–1900 0/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/12
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/44
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/24
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/3
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/14
I9123 Late Minoan 1370–1340 0/4
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/1
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/4
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/13
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/8
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 1/3
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/6
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/22

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/4
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/8
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 3/119
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/26
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/1
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 1/11
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/4
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/4
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/8
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/9
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/1
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 1/20
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 2/44

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/4
I9129 Minoan 2900–1900 0/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/13
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 2/112
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 1/30
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/4
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 3/21
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/7
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/8
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/5
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 1/9
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/2
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/14
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/22

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/6
I9131 Minoan 2900–1900 0/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/8
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/45
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/14
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/4
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/24
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/6
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/12
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/5
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/20
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/4
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/19
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/37

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/1
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/2
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/1
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/1
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/2

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/7
I9129 Minoan 2900–1900 0/3
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/7
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/21
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/8
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/1
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/12
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/2
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/4
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/5
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/12
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/1
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/3
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/12

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 1/5
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/10
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/16
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/4
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/10
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 2/29
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 1/4
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/4
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/7
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/11
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/7
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 1/13

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/1
I9129 Minoan 2900–1900 0/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/1
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/22
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/4
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/1
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 0/4
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/3
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/4
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/6
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/4
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/1

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/4
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/4
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/28
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/5
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/6
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 2/8
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 4/9
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/2
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/11
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 1/1
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/4
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/2

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 2/2
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 11/11
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 4/4
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 4/4
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 5/5
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 4/4
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 9/9
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 6/6
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 9/9
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 2/2

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 2/3
I9130 Minoan 2900–1900 1/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 7/7
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/36
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 13/13
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 3/3
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 13/13
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 4/4
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 5/12
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 2/3
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 9/10
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/1
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 12/13
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 6/23

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/1
I9130 Minoan 2900–1900 0/1
I9131 Minoan 2900–1900 1/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 5/5
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 9/22
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 2/9
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 3/3
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 4/5
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 3/3
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 11/11
I2499 Bronze Age Anatolian 2836–2472 0/1
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 0/1
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/6

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Population Date BC D/T
I2937 Neolithic Greek 5460–5378 0/3
I9130 Minoan 2900–1900 0/1
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700 0/1
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700 0/13
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700 0/6
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700 0/2
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700 1/19
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/3
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200 0/2
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280 0/3
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262 0/5
I2495 Bronze Age Anatolian 2558–2295 1/1
I2683 Bronze Age Anatolian 2500–1800 0/5
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