K = 13 admixture analysis of Minoan and Mycenaean genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 13 admixture analysis that includes 19 new genomes, mostly from Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The new samples are mostly like the early European farmers, but with a significant amount of the Caucasus-related pine green component. The Minoan and Mycenaean samples have around 20% of this component.

The Mycenaean samples have about 10–13% of the medium blue Eastern European component, which is consistent with the Indo-European Greek language that they spoke.

The Late Bronze Age sample from Crete has 26.03% of the medium blue component, making it similar to modern Greeks and Cretans, except that it lacks the Natufian-related aqua green component present in the modern samples.

Sample Population Date BC
I2937 Neolithic Greece 5460–5378
I2499 Bronze Age Asia Minor 2836–2472
I2495 Bronze Age Asia Minor 2558–2295
I2683 Bronze Age Asia Minor 2500–1800
I9127 Minoan 2900–1900
I9128 Minoan 2900–1900
I9129 Minoan 2900–1900
I9130 Minoan 2900–1900
I9131 Minoan 2900–1900
I0070 Minoan 2000–1700
I0071 Minoan 2000–1700
I0073 Minoan 2000–1700
I0074 Minoan 2000–1700
I9005 Minoan 2000–1700
I9010 Mycenaean 1700–1200
I9041 Mycenaean 1700–1200
I9033 Mycenaean 1416–1280
I9006 Mycenaean 1411–1262
I9123 Late Bronze Age Crete 1370–1340

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5 comments on “K = 13 admixture analysis of Minoan and Mycenaean genomes
  1. Nick says:

    What is the geographical origin of your 4 Funnelbeaker MN samples?

  2. Nick says:

    I would be grateful if you would provide a few examples of the SNPs appearing as medium blue within the Portuguese MN samples (particularly any that also characteristically appear within Pit Grave samples)? Could some of these be shared with us?

    • Genetiker says:

      The way the ADMIXTURE program works isn’t as simple as identifying some alleles as belonging to a medium blue component and other alleles as belonging to some other component.

      The program estimates the allele frequencies for tens of thousands of SNPs for each of K ancestral populations, and at the same time it estimates the fractions of each sample’s ancestry coming from each of those K populations.

      There’s usually no point in thinking about individual SNPs with respect to the results of one of these analyses. The purpose of the analysis is to characterize the general makeup of a DNA sample based on its data for a large number of SNPs.

      The Neolithic and Copper Age samples from Portugal don’t actually have any of the medium blue component. At the time I performed the above analysis the aligned sequence data for the Portuguese samples wasn’t available. I only had the genotype data, part of which was imputed using modern data. The imputed data resulted in the spurious medium blue component in the Neolithic and Copper Age samples in this analysis. In my latest admixture analysis I used the sequence data for the Portuguese samples, and the medium blue component in the earlier samples is now gone.

      • Nick says:

        Thank you for your reply.
        I notice that one of the Portugal MN samples still has a minor medium blue component. I don’t know if there is any significance in this? It doesn’t appear at all in any of the Spanish MN samples.
        May I ask if any other data on your latest charts are imputed? Particularly in respect of the El Portalon, the Swedish Funnel Beaker and the Stora Forvar 11 samples.
        Although the program analyses tens of thousands of alleles, I interested to find out whether any of these specific alleles appear virtually exclusively in core medium blue areas in Neolithic samples, yet still crop up to a much lesser degree in some other areas. Without specific identifications, people tell me they do not believe the medium blue component existed at all outside of its core area during the Neolithic.

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