K = 14 admixture analysis of ancient Northern European genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes 39 new genomes from ancient Northern Europe. The new samples are marked with an asterisk in the plot. The table above the plot gives some information for the new samples.

The hunter-gatherers of the Kunda and Narva cultures are made up of the dark blue Western European hunter-gatherer component, with some of them having small amounts of the medium blue Eastern European component.

The two new Mesolithic samples from northwestern Russia are similar to the three previously published Mesolithic samples from Karelia and Samara in Russia, being made up mostly of the medium blue component, with smaller amounts of the dark blue component.

The three new samples from the Neolithic Funnelbeaker culture in Sweden are similar to the four previously published samples from that culture, being made up mostly of the light blue Early European farmer component, with smaller amounts of the dark blue component.

The hunter-gatherers of the Comb Ware culture in Estonia are similar to the Mesolithic Russian hunter-gatherers of Karelia and Samara, but with a bit more of the dark blue component.

The new Corded Ware samples from Lithuania are similar to the Corded Ware samples from Germany and Estonia. They have some of the light blue component, unlike the one Corded Ware sample from Latvia which lacks it.

The Late Neolithic sample from Ölsund, Sweden is also similar to the German and Estonian Corded Ware samples.

The new Bronze Age samples from Lithuania are similar to modern samples from the Baltic states, except that they completely lack the yellow Mongoloid components present in small amounts in the modern Estonian samples, and to a lesser extent in the modern Latvian and Lithuanian samples.

The Late Bronze Age samples from Latvia, however, differ somewhat from modern Baltic samples, in that they have significantly more of the dark blue component than the modern samples do.

Sample Country Culture Date BC
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230
Donkalnis 4 Lithuania Kunda 6000–5740
Popovo 2 Russia Mesolithic 7500–5000
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000
Motala AA Sweden Mesolithic 5722–5564
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530
Kretuonas 5 Lithuania Narva 4450–4340
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240
Donkalnis 1 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647
Saxtorp 389 Sweden Funnelbeaker 4000–3300
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371
Tamula 3 Estonia Comb Ware 3800–3640
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750
Ölsund Sweden Late Neolithic 2573–2140
Turlojiškė 5 Lithuania Bronze Age 2100–600
Turlojiškė 1932 Lithuania Bronze Age 1230–920
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400
Kivutkalns 164 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–390
Kivutkalns 194 Latvia Late Bronze Age 405–230

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