Timeline of extra-African human evolution
- 74 ka — Toba erupts, killing all humans in the Middle East, and any in the Indian subcontinent.
- 70 ka — Y CT and mt L3 Negritoids leave the Horn of Africa heading east.
- 70–55 ka — Negritoids in India evolve into Veddoids. A key innovation is the evolution of straight hair from tufted, woolly hair.
- 55–45 ka — Veddoids in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Middle East evolve into proto-Caucasoids.
- 55–45 ka — Veddoids in Southeast Asia and Southern China evolve into proto-Mongoloids.
- 45–25 ka — proto-Caucasoids in Europe, the Middle East, and Siberia west of Lake Baikal evolve into Caucasoids.
- 45–25 ka — proto-Mongoloids in Northern China, central and eastern Mongolia, and Transbaikalia evolve into Mongoloids. The 370A mutation in the EDAR gene results in Sinodonty, stiff hair, small breasts, and higher sweat gland density. The epicanthic fold is also evolved.
Timeline of the peopling of Sahul
- 55–45 ka — Y C1b-F1370 and K2b-M1221 and mt M, N, and R Negritoids, Veddoids, and proto-Mongoloids migrate from the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia into what are today the Sunda Islands, where they interbreed with Homo erectus before continuing on to Sahul.
- 5–4 ka — Veddoids driven from parts of the Indian subcontinent by the Caucasoids of the Indus Valley Civilization migrate down the Malay Peninsula, across the Sunda Islands, and finally from Timor to the adjacent coast of Australia.
Timeline of the peopling of the Americas
- 15 ka — Hybrids formed from Y Q Caucasoid males and mt A, B, C, and D Mongoloid females migrate along the Pacific coast of the Bering land bridge and down the Pacific coasts of North and South America.
- 5 ka — Y Q and C2-M217 and mt A and D Mongoloid-Caucasoid hybrids speaking Pre-Proto-Na-Dene migrate across the Bering Strait to North America.
- 1 ka — Y Q and mt A and D Mongoloid-Caucasoid hybrids speaking Pre-Proto-Eskimo migrate across the Bering Strait to Arctic North America.
- 1 ka — Caucasoids travel across the North Atlantic from Scandinavia to North America.