Timelines of prehistory

Timeline of extra-African human evolution

  • 73 ka — Toba erupts, killing all humans in the Middle East, and any in the Indian subcontinent.
  • 70 ka — Y CT and mt L3 Negritoids leave the Horn of Africa heading east.
  • 70–55 ka — Negritoids in India evolve into Veddoids. A key innovation is the evolution of straight hair from tufted, woolly hair.
  • 55–45 ka — Veddoids in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Middle East evolve into proto-Caucasoids.
  • 55–45 ka — Veddoids in Southeast Asia and Southern China evolve into proto-Mongoloids.
  • 45–25 ka — proto-Caucasoids in Europe, the Middle East, and Siberia west of Lake Baikal evolve into Caucasoids.
  • 45–25 ka — proto-Mongoloids in Northern China, central and eastern Mongolia, and Transbaikalia evolve into Mongoloids. The 370A mutation in the EDAR gene results in Sinodonty, stiff hair, small breasts, and higher sweat gland density. The epicanthic fold is also evolved.

Timeline of the peopling of Sahul

  • 55–45 ka — Y C1b-F1370 and K2b-M1221 and mt M, N, and R Negritoids, Veddoids, and proto-Mongoloids migrate from the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia into what are today the Sunda Islands, where they interbreed with Homo erectus before continuing on to Sahul.
  • 5–4 ka — Veddoids driven from parts of the Indian subcontinent by the Caucasoids of the Indus Valley Civilization migrate down the Malay Peninsula, across the Sunda Islands, and finally from Timor to the adjacent coast of Australia.

Timeline of the peopling of the Americas

  • 26–18 ka — Caucasoids of the Solutrean culture cross the transatlantic ice bridge connecting France and North America. Their stone tool technology later evolves into that of the Clovis culture.
  • 15 ka — Hybrids formed from Y Q Caucasoid males and mt A, B, C, and D Mongoloid females migrate along the Pacific coast of the Bering land bridge and down the Pacific coasts of North and South America.
  • 10 ka — Y C2-M217 Mongoloid-Caucasoid hybrids speaking proto-Na-Dene migrate across the Bering Strait to North America.
  • 10–3 ka — Caucasoids travel in reed boats across the Atlantic from Western Europe, Northwest Africa, and the Canary Islands to the Americas, and become known to the Amerinds as White Gods.
  • 6 ka — Y Q and mt A and D Mongoloid-Caucasoid hybrids speaking proto-Eskimo-Aleut migrate across the Bering Strait to Arctic North America.
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3 comments on “Timelines of prehistory
  1. quarefremeruntgentes says:

    I Agree with much of what you propose in this article. One aspect I might question is the usefulness of the Bering land bridge. During the most recent Ice Age, barren glaciers extended for 1,500 mi. south of the Strait on the American side.

    I would consider it more likely that maritime peoples crossed the Pacific to America during a more temperate period, than for Asiatics to have walked across during the severe conditions of the ice Age.

  2. genetiker says:

    The Y Q and mt A, B, C, and D Mongoloid-Caucasoid hybrids from Asia moved down the Pacific coasts of North and South America around 15,000 years ago, which was right at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. The animation of the melting of the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets here shows that the land along the Pacific coast of North America was free of ice by 15,000 years ago.

    Recent sediment core data show that the Bering land bridge had a shrub tundra environment, with a variety of woody plants, and that it was therefore not as inhospitable as once thought. The Y Q and mt A, B, C, and D Mongoloid-Caucasoid hybrids probably lived there during the Last Glacial Maximum, from 25,000 to 15,000 years ago, before moving south along the coast. It is possible that they used boats for this coastal migration, but they wouldn’t have needed to. They could have just walked down.

  3. Vincenzo says:

    Pretty accurate. Regarding Sunda and Sahul, not so long ago a new clade of haplogroup D named D2-L1366 has been discovered among Filipinos. This sub-clade is an estimated 50.5 ky old, so it fits well with the first peopling of Sahul and Sunda. There’s a possibility that the basal D* in Southeast Asia (Onge and Jarawa Andamanese included) and elsewhere might in fact be D2.

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