Analyses of a Bronze Age Danish genome

Below are the results of analyses of a Bronze Age Danish genome.

The following is the description of the sample given here:

Sample M4 is an ancient hair sample obtained from the Borum Eshøj Bronze Age burial in Denmark. The burial comprised three individuals in oak coffins, commonly referred to as “the woman,” “the young man,” and “the old man.” The M4 sample is from the latter. The site was excavated in 1871–1875 and the coffins dated to c.1350 BC.

You can find a lot of information about the Borum Eshøj burial here. Along the left side of the page are links to subpages about the burial, including this one about the old man.

The photograph of the young man here shows that he had blond hair.

Note that the Negroid and Mongoloid admixture showing up in the results below is noise that is due to bacterial and fungal DNA in the M4 sample, and also to the small number of SNPs for the sample.

The K12b results show that the old man had 25.03% of the Gedrosia component, which is associated with R1b, and none of the Caucasus component, which is associated with R1a and J2. Mal’ta 1 and Afontova Gora 2 also had 20–25% of the Gedrosia component and none of the Caucasus component. And Thracians also had significant amounts of the Gedrosia component.

The dv3 results show that the old man had 29.39% of the West European component and none of the East European component.

The people of the Borum Eshøj burial belonged to the Nordic Bronze Age culture, and this culture is thought to have been the culture of the proto-Germanic people.

globe4

  • 63.24% European
  • 18.32% Amerindian
  • 17.26% Asian
  • 1.18% African

globe10

  • 47.49% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 15.96% Australasian
  • 13.07% Amerindian
  • 9.50% South_Asian
  • 8.88% Siberian
  • 5.09% Neo_African
  • 0.01% Southern
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 32.02% North_European
  • 13.86% Australasian
  • 12.00% South_Asian
  • 11.39% Arctic
  • 9.50% Mediterranean
  • 8.76% Southwest_Asian
  • 7.48% Amerindian
  • 4.28% West_African
  • 0.72% Siberian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K7b

  • 48.57% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 21.75% South_Asian
  • 15.81% Siberian
  • 8.65% East_Asian
  • 5.23% African
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K10a

  • 44.42% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 19.73% South_Asian
  • 14.27% Siberian
  • 8.95% Southeast_Asian
  • 7.60% Mediterranean
  • 5.04% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K12b

  • 36.03% Atlantic_Med
  • 25.03% Gedrosia
  • 20.05% Siberian
  • 12.66% Southeast_Asian
  • 5.08% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.84% North_European
  • 0.31% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Caucasus
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

dv3

  • 29.39% West_European
  • 21.58% Mediterranean
  • 20.83% South_Asian
  • 14.59% Southeast_Asian
  • 13.60% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • 32.76% Indian
  • 17.62% Indo-Iranian
  • 13.03% Near_East
  • 11.08% South-America_Amerind
  • 10.18% North-East-European
  • 6.18% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 5.83% Indo-Tibetan
  • 2.43% Austronesian
  • 0.88% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.00% West-Asian

Old World 26

  • 20.84% Finnish
  • 9.95% Gujarati
  • 9.65% Sardinian
  • 9.36% Kenya-Bantu
  • 8.79% Yoruba
  • 7.92% Yakut
  • 7.56% Palestinian
  • 7.04% Dai
  • 5.53% Archaic
  • 5.44% Naxi
  • 4.70% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 2.25% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.90% Kalash
  • 0.06% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Japanese
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% She
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3 comments on “Analyses of a Bronze Age Danish genome
  1. Seems to be very noisy. Only 32.0% North_European in Globe13, that’s roughly a North Italian level. Not to speak of all the nonsensical noise components like Australasian, Siberian, East_Asian etc.
    At least it can be said that Atlantic_Baltic is the strongest component in Globe10 and K7b, and North_European is the strongest in Globe13, which both makes sense.
    The question remains, what about the Gedrosia component. Given the noisy nature of the analysis it’s very dubious that it was as strong as 25%. But presumably it’s at least real, since Gedrosia is still relatively strong in parts of present-day Denmark, and the Bronze Age isn’t that long ago. Moreover the MDLP World-22 sees a lot of Indo-Iranian as well.
    I think we cannot conclude anything from the 0% West_Asian in Globe10, Globe13 and K7b, since that component is weak in northern Europe today, and it may be covered up by the noise in this sample.

  2. […] This post gives more information about the old man, along with analyses of his autosomal DNA. […]

  3. Anonamouse says:

    Be careful what you presume to be noise. I used to give the same caution to those who used the term “junk DNA.”

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