K12b analysis of prehistoric and modern genomes

Below is an admixture plot based on K12b calculator results for 2,071 prehistoric and modern genomes.

The correspondences between the colors and the K12b components are as follows:

      North European
      Atlantic-Med
      Southwest Asian
      Gedrosia
      Caucasus
      Southeast Asian
      East Asian
      Siberian
      South Asian
      Sub-Saharan
      East African
      Northwest African

For the European samples, the amount of the Gedrosia component is proportional to the amount of ancestry the individual has from Y haplogroup R1 Gravettian-descended hunter-gatherers.

Almost all of the Sardinians have none of the Gedrosia component. Aside from the Sardinians, the smallest amounts of the Gedrosia component in Europe are found in the Baltic, Slavic, and Finnic populations of Northeastern Europe. Significant amounts of the component are found in the populations of Western Europe, and the largest amounts in Europe are found in the populations of Northwestern Europe.

Significant amounts of the Caucasus component are found in the Baltic and Slavic populations, while very small amounts are found in the populations of Northwestern Europe.

David Reich and his associates claimed that the people of the Pit Grave (Yamna) culture were hybrids, half of whose ancestry came from people like the Karelia and Samara hunter-gatherers, and the other half of whose ancestry came from an Armenian-like population. But this is totally wrong.

As the plot below shows, the Caucasus component makes up over half of the DNA of Armenians, and they also have a significant amount of the Southwest Asian component. But the Caucasus component made up only a small fraction of the DNA of the Pit Grave people, and they didn’t have any of the Southwest Asian component, so they clearly did not have a significant amount of Armenian-like admixture.

The DNA of the Pit Grave people was in fact rather pure Gravettian-descended hunter-gatherer DNA, with only a small amount of Neolithic farmer admixture. They were genetically similar to the 17,000-year-old Afontova Gora 2 hunter-gatherer, and to the 24,000-year-old Mal’ta 1 hunter-gatherer. Like those hunter-gatherers, the Pit Grave people had large amounts of the North European and Gedrosia components.

It was actually the Karelia and Samara hunter-gatherers who were significantly mixed, not the Pit Grave people. The fact that these two hunter-gatherers had some of the Gedrosia component shows that they had some Gravettian ancestry, but they had significantly less of the Gedrosia component than the Pit Grave people and Mal’ta 1 and Afontova Gora 2. This means that their Gravettian ancestry was diluted by admixture from some other population, and the source of that admixture was Y hg I Aurignacian-descended hunter-gatherers, who lacked the Gedrosia component.

Given their small amounts of the Gedrosia component, Balts and Slavs (who belong primarily to Y hg R1a) must be derived from low-Gedrosia R1a people like the Karelia hunter-gatherer, rather than from people like the high-Gedrosia R1a German Corded Ware people shown in the plot below. This ancestral population also must have absorbed some of the Caucasus component at some point, given the significant amount of that component in Balts and Slavs.

Modern-day Sardinians are genetically very similar to the early and middle Neolithic farmers of Spain. They both have a large amount of the Atlantic-Med component, and a significant amount of the Caucasus component.

The early and middle Neolithic farmers of Spain were similar to the early Neolithic Linear Pottery farmers of Germany, and to the early Neolithic farmers of Hungary, but one difference is that the German and Hungarian farmers had more of the Caucasus component. This may be related to the fact that the German and Hungarian farmers belonged primarily to Y hg G, while the Spanish farmers belonged primarily to Y hg I. The highest frequencies of Y hg G are today found in the Caucasus Mountains, and the haplogroup is associated with the Caucasus component.

It’s striking that although Basques are similar to the first European farmers in that they have a large amount of the Atlantic-Med component, they’re very different from those farmers in that they have little to none of the Caucasus component. This suggests that the first farmers were a mix of two populations, one carrying the Atlantic-Med component, and the other carrying the Caucasus component, and that Basques have ancestry mainly from the Atlantic-Med-carrying population.

The people of the Unetice culture, which occupied the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Germany, were similar to modern-day Czechs, although the Unetice people had a bit more of the Gedrosia component and a bit less of the Caucasus component. This difference is probably due to the Slavic element in modern-day Czechs, since Slavic DNA has a significant amount of the Caucasus component, and only a small amount of the Gedrosia component.

The people of the Bell Beaker culture, which spread from Iberia throughout Western and Central Europe, and which survived the longest in the British Isles, were similar to the modern-day English.

The plot shows that Amerindian DNA is made up of the Mongoloid components, the Caucasoid North European and Gedrosia components, and the Veddoid South Asian component. The Caucasoid and Veddoid components in Amerindians are exactly the same components found in the Mal’ta 1 genome, and the components even occur in Amerindians in approximately the same ratios as they do in the Mal’ta 1 genome. I was the first person in history to show that Amerindian DNA is made up of these kinds of racially different components, and I did so seven months before the paper on the Mal’ta 1 genome was published. No one has ever acknowledged my accomplishment, and the fraud and anti-White propagandist Eske Willerslev has taken the credit which is rightfully mine.

The plot also shows that Australoid DNA is primarily related to the Veddoid South Asian component, but that it is also related to the Mongoloid and Negroid components. The continent of Sahul, which includes Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania, was first populated by Negritoids and later by Ainu-like proto-Mongoloids. Australia received a third wave of migration by Veddoids four to five thousand years ago. The Veddoid component in Australoids is primarily from the Negritoids, who were genetically similar to true Veddoids. The Mongoloid components are from the Ainu-like proto-Mongoloids. The Negroid components are partially from the Negritoids, and partially from the Homo erectus that the Negritoids mixed with on their way to Sahul, in what are today the Sunda Islands.

k12b-2

Posted in Uncategorized

Phenotype SNPs from prehistoric Europe

Below are the genotypes for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for the 69 newly available genomes from prehistoric Europe. Derived alleles are in bold.

One of the two major Caucasoid depigmentation mutations, in the gene SLC24A5, is now found at or near fixation in all Caucasoid populations, and the results below explain why this is the case. Two copies of this mutation were present in almost all of the samples, including the hunter-gatherers, whose ancestors inhabited Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, and the first farmers, whose ancestors inhabited the Middle East during the Upper Paleolithic. The presence of the mutation in both these groups implies that it must have spread throughout the Caucasoid race and risen in frequency to near fixation before the Mesolithic, during the Upper Paleolithic. This is consistent with the findings of this paper from 2013, which dated the coalescence of the SLC24A5 mutation at 28,000–22,000 years ago, and also with the findings of this paper from 2012, which estimated that the selective sweep for the SLC24A5 mutation started 19,000–11,000 years ago. It’s also consistent with my finding in this post that Afontova Gora 2, an Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer who lived 17,000 years ago in Siberia, had the SLC24A5 mutation. The estimates from the two papers may even be underestimates. The 2012 paper estimated that the selective sweep for the Veddoid depigmentation mutation in the gene KITLG started 30,000 years ago, but we know from my results for the 45,000-year-old Ust’-Ishim genome that selection for the Veddoid depigmentation mutations began far earlier.

The other major Caucasoid depigmentation mutation, in the gene SLC45A2, is now found at or near fixation in almost all European populations, but it is found at significantly lower frequencies in the Caucasoids of the Middle East and North Africa. Again, the results below explain why this is the case. They show that the farmers of the early and middle Neolithic had a significantly lower frequency of this mutation than the hunter-gatherers and the populations of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age, which had a large amount of hunter-gatherer ancestry. We can infer from this that the SLC45A2 mutation originated in the hunter-gatherers of Upper Paleolithic Europe, and that it has been present at higher frequencies in Europe than the Middle East and North Africa ever since. The 2012 paper estimated that the selective sweep for the SLC45A2 mutation started 16,000–13,000 years ago, but, again, this may be an underestimate.

The earlier DNA results for the Loschbour hunter-gatherer, who lived 8,000 years ago in Luxembourg, and the La Braña 1 hunter-gatherer, who lived 7,900 years ago in Spain, showed that neither of them had the SLC24A5 or SLC45A2 mutations. The results for Ötzi, a farmer who lived 5,200 years ago in Italy, showed that he did have both of the mutations. This early, very small sample led many rash people to the conclusion that the hunter-gatherers of Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe were dark-skinned, while the farmers of Europe were light-skinned. The results for the large sample below show that their conclusion was false, and that Loschbour and La Braña 1 were among a minority of hunter-gatherers who lacked the mutations. They show that the truth is just the opposite of what they had been so quick to conclude; that it was the hunter-gatherers who were on average lighter-skinned than the first farmers.

Of course, it wasn’t just rashness that led many to their erroneous conclusion. Many of these people believed what they did because it’s what they wanted to believe. When David Reich and his associates came out with their ludicrous pronouncement that Northern Europeans are Mediterranean-Amerindian mongrels, the Mediterraneanist fool Dienekes lapped it up, not because it made any sense, but because it gratified him. And Dienekes was thrilled again when the first few scraps of evidence seemed to suggest that the indigenous Europeans were darkies, and that the Mediterranean farmers were the world’s first white people. We can expect Dienekes to embrace the truth with considerably less enthusiasm than he did his Mediterraneanist fantasy.

The Mediterraneanist blogger “Racial Reality” published this embarrassing post just a few days before I began putting up the results from the new samples. He tells his readers that that the Mesolithic hunters had dark skin and that the Neolithic farmers had light skin. He shows a photograph of an artificially-darkened Mongoloid-admixed Lapp as being representative of all the Mesolithic hunters. He tells his readers that the Mesolithic hunters had broad faces and that the Neolithic farmers had narrow faces, oblivious to the fact that it was only the Y hg I Aurignacian-descended hunters who had broad faces, while the Y hg R1 Gravettian-descended hunters had narrow faces. When can we expect a retraction of this embarrassing post by “Racial Reality”? Ever?

Another blogger who ran with the dark-skinned hunter-gatherer idea is the ignoramus Greg Cochran, a member of the anti-White “HBD community”. As I pointed out in this post, Cochran was still ignorantly asserting that the SLC24A5 mutation was absent in the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers long after the DNA results for the Mesolithic hunter-gatherer Motala 12 showed that assertion to be false. And amazingly, Cochran was still claiming that the SLC24A5 mutation was brought to Europe by Middle Eastern farmers in this post from a few weeks ago, months after my post exposing his ignorance. Like all of the other psychopaths in the “HBD community”, Cochran is incapable of admitting that he was ever wrong about anything, so from now on he’ll just pretend like he never said what he’s long been saying, and his sycophantic followers will go right along with it.

And what has been the response of Dienekes and Cochran to the extremely important information disclosed in this post? It has been to pretend that my post never happened, and to go on posting their usual worthless crap.

An important lesson to be learned here is not to make sweeping generalizations based on only two prehistoric samples, especially when those generalizations are contradicted by all kinds of other evidence. If people had paid attention to the time estimates for the coalescences and the selective sweeps for the depigmentation mutations, and to the fact that Europeans, and especially Northern Europeans, are lighter-skinned than Middle Easterners, then they would have realized that the idea that pre-Neolithic Europeans were all dark-skinned didn’t make any sense.

Many people have made the same kind of foolish generalization based on the same Loschbour and La Braña 1 samples regarding the distribution of Y haplogroups in prehistoric Europe. They’ve concluded, since Loschbour belonged to Y haplogroup I and La Braña 1 belonged to Y haplogroup C1a2, that Y haplogroup R1b must have been absent in Mesolithic Western Europe. Among those that currently subscribe to this idiotic notion are David Reich and his associates, Greg Cochran, David “Davidski” Wesolowski, and J. Maciamo Hay. If these people would pay attention to the timing of the splits in the R1 tree, and to the current distributions of Y haplogroups in Europe, then they would realize that it makes absolutely no sense to think that R1b only spread to Western Europe in the Bronze Age or the Iron Age.

Splits in Y haplogroup trees are driven by the geographical separation of parts of a formerly continuous and uniform population, and the fact that the split between R1b and R1a happened over 25,000 years ago implies that a significant geographical separation between the R1b and R1a populations occurred at that time. The idea that R1b and R1a were both confined to Eastern Europe from 25,000 years ago to 5,500 years ago makes no sense.

The current distributions of R1b, I, and R1a, shown below, are obviously the result of the expansion of hunter-gatherer populations from Ice Age refuges at the start of the Holocene. The distribution of Y hg I shows that it is the result of the spread of the hunter-gatherers of the Balkan refuge north through Central Europe and into Scandinavia. The distribution of R1a, with its decreasing frequency gradient from east to west, and its sharp drop in frequency at 15°E, shows that it is the result of the spread of hunter-gatherers from an Eastern European refuge. And the distribution of R1b, with its decreasing frequency gradient from the Atlantic coast eastward into Central Europe and northeastward into Scandinavia, shows that it is the result of the spread of the hunter-gatherers who inhabited the Franco-Cantabrian refuge before the Holocene.

r1b

i

r1a

There are all kinds of other evidence scattered throughout my posts showing that R1b was in Western Europe long before the Bronze Age, but the above facts alone sufficiently demonstrate how absurd the alternative notion is.

The results for the Yamna samples are consistent with the results that appeared in this paper from last year for 63 Copper and Bronze Age samples from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. Those results showed frequencies for the light skin mutation in SLC45A2, the blue eyes mutation in OCA2/HERC2, and the light skin mutation in TYR that were lower than the frequencies found in modern-day Europeans. Needless to say, in his post on the paper, Dienekes said that he found it to be “very exciting”. But the paper didn’t report any results for the light skin mutation in SLC24A5, and as the results below show, that mutation was fixed in the Yamna population of the Pontic-Caspian steppe. One wonders if the authors of the paper actually did test for the SLC24A5 mutation, but withheld the results because they didn’t create the desired impression.

The fact that the mutations for light hair and light eyes were rare or absent in the Yamna samples leads me to believe that the Thracians and the Greeks were derived from some other R1b-Z2103 population, because the Thracians were typically described by ancient writers as having blue eyes and red hair, and, as noted in this article by Karl Earlson, light hair and light eyes were also common among the elite of ancient Greece. I think that the Thracians and Greeks were instead derived from a more western R1b-Z2103 population, located somewhere directly to the north of the Balkan peninsula. I think that these people moved south into the Balkans and Greece at the start of the Bronze Age, around 3200 BC. I’ll note, in connection with these ideas, the following quote from Carleton Coon’s work The Races of Europe:

On the whole, one is impressed, after looking at the portrait busts of Athenians, and the clay masks of Spartans, with their resemblance to present-day western Europeans.

The results show that the major mutation conferring the ability to digest milk into adulthood was present in only a single Bell Beaker sample and a single Unetice sample. It was completely absent in the Yamna and Corded Ware samples. For years the ignoramus Cochran and his sidekick Henry Harpending have been claiming that the mythical conquest of Europe by the Indo-Europeans from the Pontic-Caspian steppe was driven by their possession of this lactase persistence mutation. Time to add another item to the list of things that the psychopath Cochran will have to pretend that he never said.

The highest frequencies of the lactase persistence mutation are found in Northwestern European populations, and significantly lower frequencies of the mutation are found in the Slavic populations of Northeastern Europe. I think that when we start getting a significant number of samples from the prehistoric R1b populations of Western Europe, to the west of Germany, we’ll see higher frequencies of the lactase persistence mutation. I also think that those samples will show a higher frequency of the red hair mutations than the frequencies seen in the samples below, as the highest frequencies of red hair are also now found in Northwestern Europe.

The Mongoloid EDAR mutation was absent in all of the samples, except for four out of the seven Mesolithic hunter-gatherer samples from Motala, Sweden. The presence of the EDAR mutation in the Motala samples is puzzling. Mongoloids belonging to Y haplogroup N1c probably made up at least part of the population of the Kunda culture, which existed at the time of the Motala hunter-gatherers on the other side of the body of water that would later become the Baltic Sea. But aside from the EDAR mutation itself, the Motala hunter-gatherers show no signs of Mongoloid admixture. All of them belonged to Y haplogroup I and mitochondrial haplogroup U, which are Caucasoid haplogroups. And in the results of my analyses of the Motala genomes, none of the samples showed a significant amount of any of the Mongoloid components.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Alberstedt LN    I0118  TT
Baalberge MN     I0560  TT
Bell Beaker LN   I0111  TT
Bell Beaker LN   I0112  TT
Corded Ware LN   I0049  CC
Corded Ware LN   I0103  TC
Corded Ware LN   I0104  TT
Esperstedt MN    I0172  TT
Halberstadt LBA  I0099  TT
Karelia HG       I0061  TT
LBK EN           I0054  TT
LBK EN           I0100  TT
Motala HG        I0011  CC
Motala HG        I0012  TT
Motala HG        I0013  TT
Motala HG        I0014  TT
Motala HG        I0015  TT
Motala HG        I0016  TT
Motala HG        I0017  TT
Spain EN         I0410  TT
Spain EN         I0412  CT
Spain EN         I0413  TT
Spain MN         I0406  TT
Spain MN         I0408  TT
Unetice EBA      I0116  TT
Unetice EBA      I0803  TT
Yamnaya          I0231  CT
Yamnaya          I0370  TT
Yamnaya          I0443  TT

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Corded Ware LN   I0103  GG
Esperstedt MN    I0172  AA
Halberstadt LBA  I0099  AA
Karelia HG       I0061  AA
LBK EN           I0100  AA
Motala HG        I0011  GG
Motala HG        I0012  AA
Motala HG        I0013  AA
Motala HG        I0014  AA
Motala HG        I0017  AA
Spain EN         I0412  GG
Spain EN         I0413  AA
Spain MN         I0408  AA
Starcevo EN      I0174  AA
Yamnaya          I0231  AA

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Alberstedt LN           I0118  AA
Baalberge MN            I0560  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  AA
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  AA
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  AA
Corded Ware LN          I0103  AA
Corded Ware LN          I0104  AA
Esperstedt MN           I0172  AA
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  AA
Karelia HG              I0061  AA
LBK EN                  I0046  AA
LBK EN                  I0054  AA
LBK EN                  I0100  AA
Motala HG               I0011  AG
Motala HG               I0012  GA
Motala HG               I0013  AA
Motala HG               I0014  AA
Motala HG               I0015  AA
Motala HG               I0016  GG
Motala HG               I0017  GA
Spain EN                I0410  AA
Spain EN                I0412  AA
Spain EN                I0413  AA
Spain MN                I0405  AA
Spain MN                I0406  AA
Spain MN                I0407  AA
Spain MN                I0408  AA
Starcevo EN             I0174  AA
Unetice EBA             I0047  AA
Unetice EBA             I0116  AA
Unetice EBA             I0117  AA
Unetice EBA             I0164  AA
Unetice EBA             I0804  AA
Yamnaya                 I0231  AA
Yamnaya                 I0370  AA
Yamnaya                 I0443  AA

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Alberstedt LN           I0118  CC
Baalberge MN            I0560  TC
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  CT
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0049  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0103  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0104  CC
Esperstedt MN           I0172  TC
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  CC
Karelia HG              I0061  CC
LBK EN                  I0022  TC
LBK EN                  I0025  TT
LBK EN                  I0026  CC
LBK EN                  I0046  CC
LBK EN                  I0048  CC
LBK EN                  I0054  CC
LBK EN                  I0100  CC
LBK EN                  I0659  CC
Motala HG               I0012  TT
Motala HG               I0013  TT
Motala HG               I0014  TT
Motala HG               I0016  TC
Motala HG               I0017  TT
Samara HG               I0124  TT
Spain EN                I0410  CT
Spain EN                I0412  TC
Spain EN                I0413  CC
Spain MN                I0406  CC
Spain MN                I0407  CC
Spain MN                I0408  CC
Starcevo EN             I0174  CC
Unetice EBA             I0047  CC
Unetice EBA             I0114  CC
Unetice EBA             I0115  CC
Unetice EBA             I0116  TT
Unetice EBA             I0117  CC
Unetice EBA             I0164  CC
Yamnaya                 I0231  CC
Yamnaya                 I0429  CC
Yamnaya                 I0438  CC
Yamnaya                 I0443  TC
Yamnaya                 I0444  TC

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Alberstedt LN           I0118  TT
Baalberge MN            I0560  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  TT
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  TT
Corded Ware LN          I0103  TT
Corded Ware LN          I0104  TC
Esperstedt MN           I0172  TT
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  TT
Karelia HG              I0061  TT
Karsdorf LN             I0550  TT
LBK EN                  I0025  TT
LBK EN                  I0026  TT
LBK EN                  I0046  TT
LBK EN                  I0048  TT
LBK EN                  I0054  TT
LBK EN                  I0056  TT
LBK EN                  I0100  TT
LBK EN                  I0659  TT
LBK EN                  I0821  TT
Motala HG               I0011  TT
Motala HG               I0012  TT
Motala HG               I0013  TT
Motala HG               I0014  CT
Motala HG               I0015  TT
Motala HG               I0016  TT
Motala HG               I0017  TT
Samara HG               I0124  CC
Spain EN                I0409  TT
Spain EN                I0410  TT
Spain EN                I0412  TT
Spain EN                I0413  TT
Spain MN                I0405  TT
Spain MN                I0406  TT
Spain MN                I0407  TT
Spain MN                I0408  TT
Unetice EBA             I0047  TT
Unetice EBA             I0114  TT
Unetice EBA             I0164  TT
Yamnaya                 I0231  TT
Yamnaya                 I0370  TT
Yamnaya                 I0429  TT
Yamnaya                 I0438  TT
Yamnaya                 I0439  TT
Yamnaya                 I0441  TT
Yamnaya                 I0443  TT

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Alberstedt LN    I0118  CC
Baalberge MN     I0559  CC
Bell Beaker LN   I0111  CC
Bell Beaker LN   I0112  CC
Bell Beaker LN   I0113  CC
Corded Ware LN   I0049  CC
Corded Ware LN   I0103  CC
Corded Ware LN   I0104  TC
Esperstedt MN    I0172  CC
Halberstadt LBA  I0099  TT
Karelia HG       I0061  CC
LBK EN           I0025  TT
LBK EN           I0026  CT
LBK EN           I0046  TT
LBK EN           I0054  CC
LBK EN           I0056  TT
LBK EN           I0100  CC
LBK EN           I0659  CC
Motala HG        I0017  CC
Spain EN         I0412  CC
Spain MN         I0405  CC
Spain MN         I0408  CC
Starcevo EN      I0174  TT
Unetice EBA      I0047  CC
Unetice EBA      I0164  TC
Yamnaya          I0231  CC
Yamnaya          I0357  CC
Yamnaya          I0443  CC
Yamnaya          I0444  CC

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Alberstedt LN           I0118  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  TT
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  TT
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  TT
Corded Ware LN          I0103  TT
Corded Ware LN          I0104  TT
Esperstedt MN           I0172  TT
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  TT
Karelia HG              I0061  TT
LBK EN                  I0022  TT
LBK EN                  I0025  TT
LBK EN                  I0026  TT
LBK EN                  I0046  TT
LBK EN                  I0054  TT
LBK EN                  I0056  TT
LBK EN                  I0100  TT
Motala HG               I0011  TT
Motala HG               I0012  TT
Motala HG               I0013  TC
Motala HG               I0014  TT
Motala HG               I0015  TT
Motala HG               I0016  TT
Motala HG               I0017  TT
Samara HG               I0124  TT
Spain EN                I0409  TT
Spain EN                I0410  TT
Spain EN                I0412  TT
Spain EN                I0413  TT
Spain MN                I0405  TT
Spain MN                I0406  TT
Spain MN                I0407  TT
Spain MN                I0408  TT
Starcevo EN             I0174  TT
Unetice EBA             I0047  TT
Unetice EBA             I0114  TT
Unetice EBA             I0115  TT
Unetice EBA             I0116  TT
Unetice EBA             I0117  TT
Unetice EBA             I0164  CT
Unetice EBA             I0803  TT
Yamnaya                 I0231  TT
Yamnaya                 I0370  TT
Yamnaya                 I0429  TT
Yamnaya                 I0438  TT
Yamnaya                 I0441  TT
Yamnaya                 I0443  TT
Yamnaya                 I0444  TT

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Alberstedt LN           I0118  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0103  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0104  GG
Esperstedt MN           I0172  GG
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  GG
Karelia HG              I0061  GG
LBK EN                  I0022  GG
LBK EN                  I0025  GA
LBK EN                  I0026  GG
LBK EN                  I0048  GG
LBK EN                  I0054  GG
LBK EN                  I0056  GG
LBK EN                  I0057  GG
LBK EN                  I0100  GG
Motala HG               I0011  GG
Motala HG               I0012  GG
Motala HG               I0013  GG
Motala HG               I0014  GG
Motala HG               I0015  GG
Motala HG               I0016  GG
Motala HG               I0017  GG
Samara HG               I0124  GG
Spain EN                I0409  GG
Spain EN                I0410  GG
Spain EN                I0412  GG
Spain EN                I0413  GG
Spain MN                I0405  GG
Spain MN                I0406  GG
Spain MN                I0407  GG
Spain MN                I0408  GG
Starcevo EN             I0174  GG
Unetice EBA             I0047  GG
Unetice EBA             I0114  GG
Unetice EBA             I0115  GG
Unetice EBA             I0116  GG
Unetice EBA             I0117  GG
Unetice EBA             I0164  GG
Yamnaya                 I0231  GG
Yamnaya                 I0370  GG
Yamnaya                 I0429  GG
Yamnaya                 I0438  GG
Yamnaya                 I0439  GG
Yamnaya                 I0441  GG
Yamnaya                 I0443  GG
Yamnaya                 I0444  GG

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  GG
Baalberge MN            I0559  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0049  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0103  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0104  GG
Esperstedt MN           I0172  GG
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  GG
Karelia HG              I0061  GG
LBK EN                  I0025  GG
LBK EN                  I0026  GG
LBK EN                  I0046  GG
LBK EN                  I0054  TG
LBK EN                  I0100  GG
Motala HG               I0011  GG
Motala HG               I0012  GG
Motala HG               I0013  GG
Motala HG               I0014  GG
Motala HG               I0015  GG
Motala HG               I0016  GG
Motala HG               I0017  GG
Samara HG               I0124  CC
Spain EN                I0409  TG
Spain EN                I0410  GG
Spain EN                I0412  GG
Spain MN                I0406  GG
Spain MN                I0407  GG
Spain MN                I0408  GG
Unetice EBA             I0114  GG
Unetice EBA             I0116  GG
Unetice EBA             I0117  GG
Unetice EBA             I0164  GG
Unetice EBA             I0803  GG
Unetice EBA             I0804  GG
Yamnaya                 I0231  GG
Yamnaya                 I0370  GG
Yamnaya                 I0443  GG
Yamnaya                 I0444  GG

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  CC
Baalberge MN            I0560  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0049  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0103  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0104  CC
Esperstedt MN           I0172  CC
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  CC
Karelia HG              I0061  CC
LBK EN                  I0025  CC
LBK EN                  I0026  CC
LBK EN                  I0054  CC
LBK EN                  I0100  CC
LBK EN                  I0821  CC
Motala HG               I0011  CC
Motala HG               I0012  CC
Motala HG               I0013  CC
Motala HG               I0014  CC
Motala HG               I0015  CC
Motala HG               I0016  CC
Motala HG               I0017  CC
Spain EN                I0409  CC
Spain EN                I0410  CC
Spain EN                I0411  CC
Spain EN                I0412  CC
Spain EN                I0413  CC
Spain MN                I0405  CC
Spain MN                I0406  CC
Spain MN                I0407  CC
Spain MN                I0408  CC
Unetice EBA             I0047  CC
Unetice EBA             I0114  CC
Unetice EBA             I0116  CC
Unetice EBA             I0117  CC
Unetice EBA             I0164  CC
Unetice EBA             I0803  CC
Yamnaya                 I0231  CC
Yamnaya                 I0370  CC
Yamnaya                 I0438  CC
Yamnaya                 I0443  CC

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  CT
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0103  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0104  CC
Esperstedt MN           I0172  CC
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  TC
Karelia HG              I0061  CC
LBK EN                  I0022  CC
LBK EN                  I0025  CC
LBK EN                  I0026  CC
LBK EN                  I0046  CC
LBK EN                  I0048  CC
LBK EN                  I0054  CC
LBK EN                  I0056  CC
LBK EN                  I0100  CC
Motala HG               I0011  CC
Motala HG               I0012  CT
Motala HG               I0013  CC
Motala HG               I0014  CC
Motala HG               I0015  CC
Motala HG               I0016  CT
Motala HG               I0017  CC
Samara HG               I0124  CC
Spain EN                I0409  CC
Spain EN                I0410  CC
Spain EN                I0412  CC
Spain EN                I0413  CC
Spain MN                I0405  CC
Spain MN                I0406  CC
Spain MN                I0407  CC
Spain MN                I0408  CC
Starcevo EN             I0174  CC
Unetice EBA             I0047  CC
Unetice EBA             I0114  CC
Unetice EBA             I0115  CC
Unetice EBA             I0116  CC
Unetice EBA             I0117  CC
Unetice EBA             I0164  CC
Unetice EBA             I0803  CC
Yamnaya                 I0231  CC
Yamnaya                 I0370  CC
Yamnaya                 I0429  CC
Yamnaya                 I0438  TC
Yamnaya                 I0441  CC
Yamnaya                 I0443  CC
Yamnaya                 I0444  CC

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0103  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0104  CC
Esperstedt MN           I0172  CC
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  CC
Karelia HG              I0061  CC
LBK EN                  I0022  CC
LBK EN                  I0025  CC
LBK EN                  I0026  CC
LBK EN                  I0046  CC
LBK EN                  I0054  CC
LBK EN                  I0056  CC
LBK EN                  I0100  CC
Motala HG               I0011  CC
Motala HG               I0012  CC
Motala HG               I0013  CC
Motala HG               I0014  CC
Motala HG               I0015  CC
Motala HG               I0016  CT
Motala HG               I0017  CC
Samara HG               I0124  CC
Spain EN                I0409  CC
Spain EN                I0411  CC
Spain EN                I0412  CC
Spain EN                I0413  CC
Spain MN                I0405  CC
Spain MN                I0406  CC
Spain MN                I0407  CC
Spain MN                I0408  CC
Starcevo EN             I0174  CC
Unetice EBA             I0047  CC
Unetice EBA             I0114  CC
Unetice EBA             I0115  CC
Unetice EBA             I0116  CC
Unetice EBA             I0117  CC
Unetice EBA             I0164  CC
Unetice EBA             I0803  CC
Yamnaya                 I0231  CC
Yamnaya                 I0370  CC
Yamnaya                 I0429  CC
Yamnaya                 I0438  CC
Yamnaya                 I0443  CC
Yamnaya                 I0444  CC

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  GG
Baalberge MN            I0560  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0103  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0104  GG
Esperstedt MN           I0172  GG
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  GC
Karelia HG              I0061  GG
Karsdorf LN             I0550  GG
LBK EN                  I0022  GA
LBK EN                  I0025  GA
LBK EN                  I0026  GA
LBK EN                  I0046  GG
LBK EN                  I0054  GG
LBK EN                  I0056  GG
LBK EN                  I0100  GG
LBK EN                  I0659  GG
Motala HG               I0011  GA
Motala HG               I0012  GG
Motala HG               I0013  GG
Motala HG               I0014  GG
Motala HG               I0015  GG
Motala HG               I0016  GG
Motala HG               I0017  GG
Spain EN                I0410  GA
Spain EN                I0411  GG
Spain EN                I0412  GG
Spain EN                I0413  GG
Spain MN                I0405  GA
Spain MN                I0406  GG
Spain MN                I0407  GG
Spain MN                I0408  GG
Starcevo EN             I0174  GG
Unetice EBA             I0047  GG
Unetice EBA             I0114  GG
Unetice EBA             I0116  GG
Unetice EBA             I0117  GG
Unetice EBA             I0164  GA
Unetice EBA             I0803  GG
Yamnaya                 I0231  GG
Yamnaya                 I0357  GG
Yamnaya                 I0370  GG
Yamnaya                 I0429  GG
Yamnaya                 I0438  GG
Yamnaya                 I0443  GG
Yamnaya                 I0444  GG

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Alberstedt LN   I0118  CC
Corded Ware LN  I0103  CC
Esperstedt MN   I0172  CC
LBK EN          I0054  CC
Spain EN        I0410  CC
Spain EN        I0412  CC
Spain MN        I0408  CC
Unetice EBA     I0047  CC
Yamnaya         I0231  CC
Yamnaya         I0443  CC

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Alberstedt LN           I0118  GG
Baalberge MN            I0560  GG
Baalberge MN            I0807  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  GA
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0171  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0103  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0104  GG
Esperstedt MN           I0172  GG
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  GG
Karelia HG              I0061  GG
LBK EN                  I0022  GG
LBK EN                  I0025  GG
LBK EN                  I0026  GG
LBK EN                  I0046  GG
LBK EN                  I0054  GG
LBK EN                  I0100  GG
LBK EN                  I0659  GG
LBK EN                  I0821  GG
Motala HG               I0011  GG
Motala HG               I0012  GG
Motala HG               I0013  GG
Motala HG               I0014  GG
Motala HG               I0015  GG
Motala HG               I0016  GG
Motala HG               I0017  GG
Samara HG               I0124  GG
Spain EN                I0409  GG
Spain EN                I0410  GG
Spain EN                I0412  GG
Spain EN                I0413  GG
Spain MN                I0405  GG
Spain MN                I0406  GG
Spain MN                I0407  GG
Spain MN                I0408  GG
Unetice EBA             I0047  GG
Unetice EBA             I0114  GG
Unetice EBA             I0116  GG
Unetice EBA             I0117  GG
Unetice EBA             I0164  GA
Yamnaya                 I0231  GG
Yamnaya                 I0357  GG
Yamnaya                 I0370  GG
Yamnaya                 I0429  GG
Yamnaya                 I0438  GG
Yamnaya                 I0443  GG
Yamnaya                 I0444  GG

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Alberstedt LN           I0118  CC
Baalberge MN            I0559  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  TC
Corded Ware LN          I0049  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0103  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0104  CC
Esperstedt MN           I0172  CC
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  CC
Karelia HG              I0061  CC
LBK EN                  I0025  CC
LBK EN                  I0026  CC
LBK EN                  I0048  CC
LBK EN                  I0054  CC
LBK EN                  I0056  CC
LBK EN                  I0100  CC
LBK EN                  I0659  CC
LBK EN                  I0795  CC
Motala HG               I0011  CC
Motala HG               I0012  CC
Motala HG               I0013  CC
Motala HG               I0014  CC
Motala HG               I0015  CC
Motala HG               I0016  CT
Motala HG               I0017  CC
Spain EN                I0409  CC
Spain EN                I0410  CC
Spain EN                I0412  CC
Spain EN                I0413  CC
Spain MN                I0405  CC
Spain MN                I0406  CC
Spain MN                I0407  CT
Spain MN                I0408  CC
Starcevo EN             I0174  CC
Unetice EBA             I0047  CC
Unetice EBA             I0114  CC
Unetice EBA             I0116  CT
Unetice EBA             I0117  CC
Unetice EBA             I0164  CC
Yamnaya                 I0231  CC
Yamnaya                 I0370  CC
Yamnaya                 I0438  CC
Yamnaya                 I0439  TT
Yamnaya                 I0443  CC
Yamnaya                 I0444  CC

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  TT
Baalberge MN            I0807  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  TT
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  TT
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  TT
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  TT
Corded Ware LN          I0103  TT
Corded Ware LN          I0104  TT
Corded Ware LN          I0106  TT
Esperstedt MN           I0172  TT
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  TT
Karelia HG              I0061  TT
LBK EN                  I0022  TT
LBK EN                  I0025  TT
LBK EN                  I0026  TT
LBK EN                  I0048  TT
LBK EN                  I0054  TT
LBK EN                  I0057  TT
LBK EN                  I0100  TT
LBK EN                  I0659  TT
LBK EN                  I0821  TT
Motala HG               I0011  TT
Motala HG               I0012  TT
Motala HG               I0013  TT
Motala HG               I0014  TT
Motala HG               I0015  TT
Motala HG               I0016  TT
Motala HG               I0017  TT
Samara HG               I0124  TT
Spain EN                I0409  TT
Spain EN                I0410  TT
Spain EN                I0412  TT
Spain EN                I0413  TT
Spain MN                I0406  TT
Spain MN                I0407  TT
Spain MN                I0408  TT
Starcevo EN             I0174  TT
Unetice EBA             I0047  TT
Unetice EBA             I0114  TT
Unetice EBA             I0115  TT
Unetice EBA             I0116  TT
Unetice EBA             I0117  TT
Unetice EBA             I0164  TT
Yamnaya                 I0231  TT
Yamnaya                 I0357  TT
Yamnaya                 I0429  TT
Yamnaya                 I0438  TT
Yamnaya                 I0443  TT
Yamnaya                 I0444  TT

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Alberstedt LN           I0118  AA
Baalberge MN            I0559  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  GA
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  GA
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  GA
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  AA
Corded Ware LN          I0049  AA
Corded Ware LN          I0103  GA
Corded Ware LN          I0104  AG
Esperstedt MN           I0172  GA
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  GG
Karelia HG              I0061  AA
Karsdorf LN             I0550  AA
LBK EN                  I0022  GG
LBK EN                  I0025  GA
LBK EN                  I0026  AA
LBK EN                  I0046  GG
LBK EN                  I0048  GA
LBK EN                  I0054  AA
LBK EN                  I0056  GG
LBK EN                  I0100  GG
LBK EN                  I0659  GG
Motala HG               I0011  GG
Motala HG               I0012  GG
Motala HG               I0013  GG
Motala HG               I0014  GG
Motala HG               I0015  GG
Motala HG               I0016  GG
Motala HG               I0017  GG
Samara HG               I0124  GG
Spain EN                I0410  AA
Spain EN                I0412  GA
Spain EN                I0413  AA
Spain MN                I0405  AA
Spain MN                I0406  AA
Spain MN                I0407  AA
Spain MN                I0408  GA
Unetice EBA             I0047  GG
Unetice EBA             I0114  AA
Unetice EBA             I0116  GG
Unetice EBA             I0117  GG
Unetice EBA             I0164  GA
Unetice EBA             I0803  GG
Yamnaya                 I0231  AA
Yamnaya                 I0357  AA
Yamnaya                 I0370  AA
Yamnaya                 I0429  AA
Yamnaya                 I0438  AA
Yamnaya                 I0443  GA
Yamnaya                 I0444  AA

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  AA
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  AA
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  AA
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0171  AA
Corded Ware LN          I0103  AA
Corded Ware LN          I0104  AA
Esperstedt MN           I0172  AA
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  AA
Karelia HG              I0061  AA
LBK EN                  I0025  GG
LBK EN                  I0026  AA
LBK EN                  I0046  AA
LBK EN                  I0054  AA
LBK EN                  I0056  AA
LBK EN                  I0057  AA
LBK EN                  I0100  AA
LBK EN                  I0659  AA
LBK EN                  I0821  AA
Motala HG               I0012  AA
Motala HG               I0014  AA
Motala HG               I0015  GG
Motala HG               I0016  GA
Motala HG               I0017  AA
Samara HG               I0124  AA
Spain EN                I0410  AA
Spain EN                I0412  AA
Spain EN                I0413  AA
Spain MN                I0406  AG
Spain MN                I0407  AA
Spain MN                I0408  AA
Starcevo EN             I0174  AA
Unetice EBA             I0116  AA
Unetice EBA             I0164  AA
Unetice EBA             I0803  AA
Unetice EBA             I0804  AA
Yamnaya                 I0231  AA
Yamnaya                 I0370  AA
Yamnaya                 I0441  AA
Yamnaya                 I0443  AA
Yamnaya                 I0444  AA

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Alberstedt LN           I0118  GC
Baalberge MN            I0559  CC
Baalberge MN            I0560  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  GC
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0806  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  CG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0171  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0103  GC
Corded Ware LN          I0104  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0106  GG
Esperstedt MN           I0172  CC
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  GG
Karelia HG              I0061  GC
LBK EN                  I0022  TA
LBK EN                  I0025  CC
LBK EN                  I0026  GC
LBK EN                  I0046  CC
LBK EN                  I0048  GG
LBK EN                  I0054  CC
LBK EN                  I0056  CC
LBK EN                  I0100  GG
LBK EN                  I0659  CC
Motala HG               I0011  GG
Motala HG               I0012  GG
Motala HG               I0013  CC
Motala HG               I0014  GC
Motala HG               I0015  GG
Motala HG               I0016  GG
Motala HG               I0017  GC
Samara HG               I0124  GG
Spain EN                I0410  CC
Spain EN                I0412  CC
Spain EN                I0413  GC
Spain MN                I0406  CC
Spain MN                I0407  GC
Spain MN                I0408  CC
Unetice EBA             I0047  GG
Unetice EBA             I0115  GG
Unetice EBA             I0116  CC
Unetice EBA             I0117  CG
Unetice EBA             I0164  GC
Unetice EBA             I0803  GC
Yamnaya                 I0231  GC
Yamnaya                 I0370  CC
Yamnaya                 I0438  GG
Yamnaya                 I0443  GC
Yamnaya                 I0444  CC

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Alberstedt LN           I0118  CC
Baalberge MN            I0559  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  CC
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  CA
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0058  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0049  CC
Corded Ware LN          I0103  CA
Corded Ware LN          I0104  CC
Esperstedt MN           I0172  AA
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  CC
Karelia HG              I0061  CC
LBK EN                  I0022  CC
LBK EN                  I0025  CC
LBK EN                  I0026  CC
LBK EN                  I0046  CC
LBK EN                  I0054  CC
LBK EN                  I0056  CC
LBK EN                  I0100  CC
LBK EN                  I0659  CC
LBK EN                  I0795  CC
Motala HG               I0011  CC
Motala HG               I0012  CC
Motala HG               I0013  CC
Motala HG               I0014  CC
Motala HG               I0015  CC
Motala HG               I0016  CC
Motala HG               I0017  CC
Samara HG               I0124  CC
Spain EN                I0409  CC
Spain EN                I0410  CC
Spain EN                I0411  CC
Spain EN                I0412  CC
Spain EN                I0413  CA
Spain MN                I0405  CC
Spain MN                I0406  CC
Spain MN                I0407  CC
Spain MN                I0408  CC
Unetice EBA             I0047  CC
Unetice EBA             I0115  AA
Unetice EBA             I0116  CC
Unetice EBA             I0117  AA
Unetice EBA             I0164  CC
Unetice EBA             I0803  CC
Yamnaya                 I0231  CC
Yamnaya                 I0357  CC
Yamnaya                 I0370  CC
Yamnaya                 I0429  CC
Yamnaya                 I0438  CC
Yamnaya                 I0439  CC
Yamnaya                 I0443  CC

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Alberstedt LN           I0118  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0108  AA
Bell Beaker LN          I0111  GG
Bell Beaker LN          I0112  AG
Bell Beaker LN          I0113  AG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0059  GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg LN  I0171  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0049  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0103  GG
Corded Ware LN          I0104  GG
Esperstedt MN           I0172  GG
Halberstadt LBA         I0099  GA
Karelia HG              I0061  GG
Karsdorf LN             I0550  AA
LBK EN                  I0025  GG
LBK EN                  I0026  GA
LBK EN                  I0046  GG
LBK EN                  I0048  GG
LBK EN                  I0054  GA
LBK EN                  I0056  GG
LBK EN                  I0057  GG
LBK EN                  I0100  GG
Motala HG               I0011  GG
Motala HG               I0012  GG
Motala HG               I0013  GG
Motala HG               I0014  GG
Motala HG               I0015  GG
Motala HG               I0016  GG
Motala HG               I0017  GG
Spain EN                I0409  GG
Spain EN                I0410  GG
Spain EN                I0412  GG
Spain EN                I0413  GG
Spain MN                I0406  GA
Spain MN                I0408  GA
Starcevo EN             I0174  GG
Unetice EBA             I0047  GA
Unetice EBA             I0114  GG
Unetice EBA             I0116  GG
Unetice EBA             I0117  GG
Unetice EBA             I0164  GA
Unetice EBA             I0804  GG
Yamnaya                 I0231  GG
Yamnaya                 I0357  GG
Yamnaya                 I0370  GA
Yamnaya                 I0429  GG
Yamnaya                 I0441  GG
Yamnaya                 I0443  GG
Posted in Uncategorized

Analyses of an Urnfield genome

Below are the results of analyses of the sample I0099 from the late Bronze Age Urnfield culture in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The sample is dated to 1113–1021 BC.

I0099 belonged to Y haplogroup R1a1a1b1a2-Z280 and mitochondrial haplogroup H23.

Like the R1a1a1-M417* German Corded Ware sample I0104, I0099 had a significant amount of the K12b Gedrosia component. This again raises the question of how the Baltic and Slavic populations of modern-day Europe, which have the highest frequencies of R1a in Europe, can also have the smallest amounts of the Gedrosia component in Europe. I think that the prehistoric R1a populations to the east of Germany had smaller amounts of the Gedrosia component, like the R1a1-M459* sample I0061 from northwestern Russia, and that modern-day Balts and Slavs are derived primarily from these more eastern R1a populations. I think that the prehistoric R1a people of Germany, like I0104 and I0099, absorbed additional amounts of the Gedrosia component from higher-Gedrosia R1b people, just as the Y hg I people of the Unetice culture did.

globe4

  • 91.62% European
  • 8.38% Amerindian
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% Asian

globe10

  • 74.23% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 12.88% West_Asian
  • 8.24% Southern
  • 2.38% South_Asian
  • 1.28% Amerindian
  • 0.87% Siberian
  • 0.12% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African

globe13

  • 52.84% North_European
  • 31.16% Mediterranean
  • 12.77% West_Asian
  • 1.29% Amerindian
  • 1.09% South_Asian
  • 0.59% Siberian
  • 0.23% Palaeo_African
  • 0.04% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African

K7b

  • 73.04% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 14.34% West_Asian
  • 9.95% Southern
  • 1.70% Siberian
  • 0.97% South_Asian
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% East_Asian

K10a

  • 61.52% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 25.39% Mediterranean
  • 10.50% West_Asian
  • 1.40% Siberian
  • 1.18% South_Asian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

K12b

  • 42.57% North_European
  • 36.67% Atlantic_Med
  • 12.29% Gedrosia
  • 7.08% Caucasus
  • 1.38% Siberian
  • 0.01% South_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 53.36% West_European
  • 23.45% Mediterranean
  • 11.04% West_Asian
  • 10.23% East_European
  • 1.45% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.47% South_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

MDLP K=5

  • 50.51% West-Eurasian
  • 29.80% Paleo-mediterranean
  • 17.64% Caucasian
  • 1.42% East-Eurasian
  • 0.62% South-Asian

MDLP K=6

  • 47.09% West-Eurasian
  • 24.91% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 15.67% Caucasian
  • 12.29% North-West-Eurasian
  • 0.03% South-Asian
  • 0.00% East-Euroasian

MDLP K=7

  • 47.44% West-Eurasian
  • 24.47% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 14.58% Caucasian
  • 7.59% Volga-Uralic
  • 5.89% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.03% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=8

  • 37.37% East-European
  • 27.09% West-European
  • 13.42% Caucasian
  • 11.89% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 6.89% Volga-Finnic
  • 3.31% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.03% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=9

  • 36.71% East-European
  • 26.64% West-European
  • 13.18% Caucasian
  • 12.84% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 6.91% Volga-Finnic
  • 3.37% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.32% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=10

  • 28.18% East-European
  • 26.97% British
  • 13.16% Iberian
  • 11.48% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 9.87% Caucasian
  • 6.74% Volga-Finnic
  • 3.25% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.33% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=11

  • 28.12% East-European
  • 26.50% Celto-Germanic
  • 12.78% Iberian
  • 11.42% Mediterranean
  • 9.65% Caucasian
  • 5.08% Uralic-Permic
  • 3.08% Volga-Uralic
  • 3.04% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.32% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=12

  • 25.12% Celto-Germanic
  • 24.41% East-European
  • 12.32% Iberian
  • 10.83% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 9.08% Balto-Finnic
  • 9.01% Caucasian
  • 4.99% Uralic-Permic
  • 2.68% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.34% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.19% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.01% South-Central Asian
  • 0.00% Alatic-Turkic

MDLP K=13

  • 21.24% Altaic
  • 19.00% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 15.76% Celto-Germanic
  • 10.41% Mediterrean
  • 8.92% East-European
  • 5.89% East-Mediterranean
  • 5.83% South-Central-Asian
  • 3.57% Baltic-Finnic
  • 2.80% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.07% Uralic-Permic
  • 1.85% Paleo-North-European
  • 1.36% Caucasian
  • 1.31% Iberian

MDLP K=14

  • 23.74% Celto-Germanic
  • 22.20% Balto-Slavic
  • 13.98% Mediterranean
  • 11.06% Iberian
  • 8.72% Balto-Finnic
  • 6.75% Caucasian
  • 4.81% Uralic-Permic
  • 4.41% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 2.75% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.32% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.18% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.07% East-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Altaic
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=15

  • 23.68% Celto-Germanic
  • 22.38% Balto-Slavic
  • 13.77% Balkanic-1
  • 10.98% Iberian
  • 8.70% Balto-Finnic
  • 6.87% Caucasian
  • 4.87% Uralic-Permic
  • 4.27% West-Mediterranean
  • 2.92% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.33% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.15% Balkanic-2
  • 0.08% East-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% East-Altaic
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% West-Altaic

MDLP World-22

  • 50.45% North-East-European
  • 28.43% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 9.03% West-Asian
  • 5.30% Indo-Iranian
  • 4.51% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 2.20% Mesoamerican
  • 0.08% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Near_East
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian

MDLP Ancient Roots K17

  • 50.00% Ancestral_East_European_ANE
  • 17.41% West_European_HG
  • 11.97% Ancestral_Mediterranean_EEF
  • 7.88% Caucasian-Basal
  • 3.91% Uralic
  • 3.33% Ancestral_North_Indian
  • 2.72% Ancestral_Sami-Finnic
  • 0.72% Ancestral_South_Indian
  • 0.60% Ancestral_West_Siberian
  • 0.57% Amerindian
  • 0.39% Ancestral_East_Siberian
  • 0.14% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.10% Archaic_African
  • 0.10% Near-East-Basal
  • 0.08% South_East_Asian
  • 0.05% Circumpolar
  • 0.03% African_Sub_Saharian

MDLP Ancient Roots K18

  • 32.47% East_European
  • 26.02% North_West_European
  • 10.66% Caucasian
  • 8.86% Mediterranean
  • 8.23% Volga-Uralic
  • 4.86% South_Central_Asian
  • 4.45% Sami-Finnic
  • 1.47% East_Siberian
  • 1.25% South_Indian
  • 1.13% Amerindian
  • 0.57% Roma
  • 0.02% Afroasiatic
  • 0.00% Archaic_African
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.00% South_East_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Siberian

MDLP K23b

  • 38.77% European_Hunters_Gatherers
  • 24.54% European_Early_Farmers
  • 20.46% Caucasian
  • 9.47% Ancestral-North-Indian
  • 2.99% Ancestral-North-Eurasian
  • 0.88% Amerindian
  • 0.82% North-African
  • 0.62% Near-East
  • 0.39% Ancestral-South-Indian
  • 0.29% East-Siberian
  • 0.16% Austronesian
  • 0.15% Arctic
  • 0.15% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.12% Khoisan
  • 0.06% Melano-Polinesian
  • 0.04% Altaiс
  • 0.04% South-East-Asian
  • 0.02% African-Pygmy
  • 0.02% Austroloid
  • 0.00% Archaic-African
  • 0.00% Archaic-Human
  • 0.00% East-African
  • 0.00% Subsaharian
Posted in Uncategorized

Analyses of a Unetice genome

Below are the results of analyses of the sample I0114 from the Unetice culture in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The sample is dated to 2131–1979 BC.

I0114 belonged to Y haplogroup I2a2 and mitochondrial haplogroup I3a.

I0114 had a significant amount of the K12b Gedrosia component. We know from my analyses of early Y hg I people like Loschbour, the Motala hunter-gatherers, KO1, and Ajvide 58 that such people did not originally carry any of the Gedrosia component. The Y hg I people of the Unetice culture in Germany must have absorbed this component from the Y hg R1 people who also inhabited Germany.

globe4

  • 93.02% European
  • 6.98% Amerindian
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% Asian

globe10

  • 74.57% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 11.70% West_Asian
  • 10.22% Southern
  • 2.78% South_Asian
  • 0.71% Siberian
  • 0.02% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African

globe13

  • 55.28% North_European
  • 28.65% Mediterranean
  • 10.63% West_Asian
  • 3.45% Southwest_Asian
  • 1.90% South_Asian
  • 0.07% East_African
  • 0.02% Siberian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% West_African

K7b

  • 70.24% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 14.62% West_Asian
  • 13.34% Southern
  • 1.13% South_Asian
  • 0.67% Siberian
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% East_Asian

K10a

  • 61.72% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 24.93% Mediterranean
  • 10.61% West_Asian
  • 1.97% Red_Sea
  • 0.63% South_Asian
  • 0.14% Siberian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

K12b

  • 43.87% North_European
  • 34.36% Atlantic_Med
  • 11.94% Gedrosia
  • 5.24% Caucasus
  • 3.68% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.60% Northwest_African
  • 0.21% East_African
  • 0.06% South_Asian
  • 0.05% Siberian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 53.45% West_European
  • 24.43% Mediterranean
  • 12.79% East_European
  • 4.77% West_Asian
  • 2.68% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.89% South_Asian
  • 0.52% Neo_African
  • 0.44% East_African
  • 0.02% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian

MDLP K=5

  • 46.30% West-Eurasian
  • 34.22% Paleo-mediterranean
  • 13.39% Caucasian
  • 3.25% South-Asian
  • 2.84% East-Eurasian

MDLP K=6

  • 45.71% West-Eurasian
  • 29.43% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 12.04% Caucasian
  • 9.34% North-West-Eurasian
  • 2.76% South-Asian
  • 0.72% East-Euroasian

MDLP K=7

  • 45.91% West-Eurasian
  • 28.61% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 11.90% Caucasian
  • 7.50% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 2.81% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.66% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.62% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=8

  • 38.05% West-European
  • 31.47% East-European
  • 14.59% Caucasian
  • 7.03% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 3.75% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 2.77% South-Central-Asian
  • 1.64% Volga-Finnic
  • 0.71% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=9

  • 38.07% West-European
  • 30.21% East-European
  • 14.35% Caucasian
  • 7.54% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 3.72% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 2.71% South-Central-Asian
  • 1.61% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.09% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.69% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=10

  • 43.83% British
  • 17.52% East-European
  • 12.47% Iberian
  • 8.67% Caucasian
  • 8.18% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 3.44% Paleo-North-European
  • 2.62% South-Central-Asian
  • 1.35% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.13% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.79% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=11

  • 43.79% Celto-Germanic
  • 17.36% East-European
  • 11.55% Iberian
  • 8.50% Caucasian
  • 8.17% Mediterranean
  • 3.42% Paleo-North-European
  • 2.78% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.57% South-Central-Asian
  • 1.11% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.60% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.15% Uralic-Permic

MDLP K=12

  • 42.38% Celto-Germanic
  • 14.75% East-European
  • 11.01% Iberian
  • 7.94% Caucasian
  • 7.71% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 6.68% Balto-Finnic
  • 2.73% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.70% Paleo-North-European
  • 2.59% South-Central Asian
  • 1.01% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.42% Alatic-Turkic
  • 0.09% Uralic-Permic

MDLP K=13

  • 23.64% Altaic
  • 15.60% Celto-Germanic
  • 15.22% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 12.94% Mediterrean
  • 6.83% South-Central-Asian
  • 6.64% East-European
  • 5.41% East-Mediterranean
  • 4.30% Baltic-Finnic
  • 4.29% Iberian
  • 3.20% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.71% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.19% Caucasian
  • 0.03% Uralic-Permic

MDLP K=14

  • 39.26% Celto-Germanic
  • 13.81% Balto-Slavic
  • 9.34% Iberian
  • 7.74% Mediterranean
  • 6.39% East-Mediterranean
  • 6.16% Caucasian
  • 5.62% Balto-Finnic
  • 2.74% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 2.62% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 2.60% Volga-Finnic
  • 2.34% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.94% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.38% Altaic
  • 0.06% Uralic-Permic

MDLP K=15

  • 39.39% Celto-Germanic
  • 14.00% Balto-Slavic
  • 9.18% Iberian
  • 7.70% Balkanic-1
  • 6.33% East-Mediterranean
  • 6.06% Caucasian
  • 5.64% Balto-Finnic
  • 2.56% Paleo-North-European
  • 2.40% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.33% West-Mediterranean
  • 2.28% South-Central-Asian
  • 1.17% East-Altaic
  • 0.95% Balkanic-2
  • 0.03% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.01% West-Altaic

MDLP World-22

  • 46.70% North-East-European
  • 32.09% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 9.46% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 5.94% West-Asian
  • 2.95% Indo-Iranian
  • 2.54% Indian
  • 0.24% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.08% Samoedic
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% Near_East
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian

MDLP Ancient Roots K17

  • 49.47% Ancestral_East_European_ANE
  • 19.32% West_European_HG
  • 12.98% Ancestral_Mediterranean_EEF
  • 7.24% Caucasian-Basal
  • 3.37% Ancestral_North_Indian
  • 2.59% Ancestral_Sami-Finnic
  • 1.35% Ancestral_West_Siberian
  • 1.28% Uralic
  • 0.89% Amerindian
  • 0.47% Ancestral_South_Indian
  • 0.29% African_Sub_Saharian
  • 0.29% Circumpolar
  • 0.18% Ancestral_East_Siberian
  • 0.10% Archaic_African
  • 0.10% Near-East-Basal
  • 0.05% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.04% South_East_Asian

MDLP Ancient Roots K18

  • 31.88% East_European
  • 29.64% North_West_European
  • 8.32% Mediterranean
  • 7.12% Caucasian
  • 6.15% Roma
  • 5.76% South_Central_Asian
  • 4.76% Sami-Finnic
  • 2.62% West_Siberian
  • 1.94% Amerindian
  • 1.04% East_African
  • 0.76% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.01% Arctic
  • 0.00% Afroasiatic
  • 0.00% Archaic_African
  • 0.00% East_Siberian
  • 0.00% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.00% South_East_Asian
  • 0.00% South_Indian

MDLP K23b

  • 37.38% European_Hunters_Gatherers
  • 23.53% European_Early_Farmers
  • 20.54% Caucasian
  • 9.46% Ancestral-North-Indian
  • 5.65% Ancestral-North-Eurasian
  • 0.74% Amerindian
  • 0.66% Near-East
  • 0.39% Ancestral-South-Indian
  • 0.34% African-Pygmy
  • 0.29% Archaic-Human
  • 0.28% Melano-Polinesian
  • 0.18% North-African
  • 0.14% Arctic
  • 0.14% East-Siberian
  • 0.13% Austroloid
  • 0.08% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.03% East-African
  • 0.02% Austronesian
  • 0.01% Khoisan
  • 0.00% Altaiс
  • 0.00% Archaic-African
  • 0.00% South-East-Asian
  • 0.00% Subsaharian
Posted in Uncategorized

Analyses of an early Neolithic genome from Spain

Below are the results of analyses of the sample I0410 from the early Neolithic Epicardial culture, found at the Pyrenean cave site of Els Trocs in Spain. The sample is dated to 5178–5066 BC.

I0410 belonged to Y haplogroup R1b1*(xR1b1a1, R1b1a2, R1b1c2, R1b1c3) and mitochondrial haplogroup pre-T2c1d2.

I0410 had large amounts of the K12b Atlantic Med and Caucasus components, which is typical for Europe’s first farmers. While all of the other samples from prehistoric Europe belonging to Y haplogroup R1 have shown a significant amount of the K12b Gedrosia component, I0410 didn’t have any of it. I think that after originating in the western Gravettians or their descendants, R1b1 people spread from Western Europe to, among other places, the eastern Mediterranean. There, over the course of many thousands of years, R1b1 Y chromosomes would loose their association with Gravettian autosomal DNA, which included a large amount of the Gedrosia component. People carrying these R1b1 Y chromosomes, like I0410, would then spread across Europe from the eastern Mediterranean during the early Neolithic.

globe4

  • 100.00% European
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Asian

globe10

  • 57.08% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 42.91% Southern
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 78.11% Mediterranean
  • 12.01% North_European
  • 9.78% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.09% Australasian
  • 0.01% West_Asian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African

K7b

  • 52.44% Southern
  • 47.56% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K10a

  • 76.48% Mediterranean
  • 22.69% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.83% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K12b

  • 74.26% Atlantic_Med
  • 18.37% Caucasus
  • 3.70% Southwest_Asian
  • 3.67% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Gedrosia
  • 0.00% North_European
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 67.94% Mediterranean
  • 22.30% West_European
  • 4.09% West_Asian
  • 4.07% Northwest_African
  • 1.60% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian

MDLP K=5

  • 76.04% Paleo-mediterranean
  • 23.95% Caucasian
  • 0.01% South-Asian
  • 0.00% East-Eurasian
  • 0.00% West-Eurasian

MDLP K=6

  • 75.28% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 24.70% Caucasian
  • 0.02% South-Asian
  • 0.00% East-Euroasian
  • 0.00% North-West-Eurasian
  • 0.00% West-Eurasian

MDLP K=7

  • 75.11% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 24.87% Caucasian
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.00% West-Eurasian

MDLP K=8

  • 65.10% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 28.16% West-European
  • 6.72% Caucasian
  • 0.01% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% Volga-Finnic

MDLP K=9

  • 66.19% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 24.72% West-European
  • 7.17% Caucasian
  • 1.91% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.01% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% Volga-Finnic

MDLP K=10

  • 63.23% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 20.68% Iberian
  • 9.61% British
  • 4.60% Caucasian
  • 1.87% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% Volga-Finnic

MDLP K=11

  • 63.32% Mediterranean
  • 20.05% Iberian
  • 10.39% Celto-Germanic
  • 4.37% Caucasian
  • 1.85% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic

MDLP K=12

  • 62.82% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 20.20% Iberian
  • 11.08% Celto-Germanic
  • 4.03% Caucasian
  • 1.86% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% South-Central Asian
  • 0.00% Alatic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Balto-Finnic
  • 0.00% East-European
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic

MDLP K=13

  • 20.37% Altaic
  • 16.54% Celto-Germanic
  • 14.14% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 10.01% East-Mediterranean
  • 9.62% South-Central-Asian
  • 7.32% Mediterrean
  • 5.95% East-European
  • 5.78% Baltic-Finnic
  • 5.71% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.94% Iberian
  • 1.36% Caucasian
  • 0.26% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European

MDLP K=14

  • 40.33% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 33.80% Mediterranean
  • 11.13% Iberian
  • 6.92% Celto-Germanic
  • 6.67% East-Mediterranean
  • 1.15% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.00% Altaic
  • 0.00% Balto-Finnic
  • 0.00% Balto-Slavic
  • 0.00% Caucasian
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Volga-Finnic

MDLP K=15

  • 40.17% West-Mediterranean
  • 33.94% Balkanic-1
  • 11.10% Iberian
  • 6.99% Celto-Germanic
  • 6.67% East-Mediterranean
  • 1.13% Balkanic-2
  • 0.00% Balto-Finnic
  • 0.00% Balto-Slavic
  • 0.00% Caucasian
  • 0.00% East-Altaic
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.00% West-Altaic

MDLP World-22

  • 65.00% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 22.36% Near_East
  • 12.63% North-East-European
  • 0.01% West-Asian
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian

MDLP Ancient Roots K17

  • 61.62% Ancestral_Mediterranean_EEF
  • 32.96% West_European_HG
  • 3.94% Ancestral_East_European_ANE
  • 1.24% Caucasian-Basal
  • 0.07% Uralic
  • 0.06% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.05% Ancestral_Sami-Finnic
  • 0.01% Ancestral_North_Indian
  • 0.01% Ancestral_South_Indian
  • 0.01% Ancestral_West_Siberian
  • 0.01% Archaic_African
  • 0.01% Circumpolar
  • 0.01% Near-East-Basal
  • 0.00% African_Sub_Saharian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Ancestral_East_Siberian
  • 0.00% South_East_Asian

MDLP Ancient Roots K18

  • 54.75% Mediterranean
  • 39.90% North_West_European
  • 3.87% Afroasiatic
  • 0.73% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.70% Caucasian
  • 0.05% Roma
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Archaic_African
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% East_Siberian
  • 0.00% Sami-Finnic
  • 0.00% South_Central_Asian
  • 0.00% South_East_Asian
  • 0.00% South_Indian
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.00% West_Siberian

MDLP K23b

  • 64.99% European_Early_Farmers
  • 20.88% Caucasian
  • 8.64% North-African
  • 4.88% Near-East
  • 0.58% European_Hunters_Gatherers
  • 0.02% Austroloid
  • 0.01% Melano-Polinesian
  • 0.00% African-Pygmy
  • 0.00% Altaiс
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Ancestral-North-Eurasian
  • 0.00% Ancestral-North-Indian
  • 0.00% Ancestral-South-Indian
  • 0.00% Archaic-African
  • 0.00% Archaic-Human
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-African
  • 0.00% East-Siberian
  • 0.00% Khoisan
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% South-East-Asian
  • 0.00% Subsaharian
Posted in Uncategorized

Two pigmentation SNPs from prehistoric Europe

Below are the genotypes for the SNP rs1042602 in the gene TYR for prehistoric European samples. The derived A allele of this SNP is associated with light skin and an absence of freckles. As the graph here shows, the derived allele has a frequency of around 25–50% in modern European populations. The derived allele is absent in the hunter-gatherer samples and the Yamna samples, but it appears in some of the early Neolithic samples, and it is found later in the Bell Beaker, Corded Ware, and Unetice samples.

AG2                     AG2            --
Alberstedt_LN           I0118          CC
Baalberge_MN            I0559          CC
Baalberge_MN            I0560          --
Baalberge_MN            I0807          --
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0060          --
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0108          CC
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0111          CC
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0112          AA
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0113          CC
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0806          --
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0058          CC
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0059          --
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0171          --
Corded_Ware_LN          I0049          CC
Corded_Ware_LN          I0103          AA
Corded_Ware_LN          I0104          CC
Corded_Ware_LN          I0106          --
Esperstedt_MN           I0172          AA
Halberstadt_LBA         I0099          CC
HungaryGamba_BA         BR1            CC
HungaryGamba_BA         BR2            CC
HungaryGamba_CA         CO1            CC
HungaryGamba_EN         KO2            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE1            CC
HungaryGamba_EN         NE2            AA
HungaryGamba_EN         NE3            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE4            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE5            AA
HungaryGamba_EN         NE6            CC
HungaryGamba_EN         NE7            CC
HungaryGamba_HG         KO1            CC
HungaryGamba_IA         IR1            CC
Iceman                  Iceman         CC
Karelia_HG              I0061          CC
Karsdorf_LN             I0550          --
Kostenki14              Kostenki14     CC
LaBrana1                LaBrana1       CC
LBK_EN                  I0022          CC
LBK_EN                  I0025          CC
LBK_EN                  I0026          CC
LBK_EN                  I0046          CC
LBK_EN                  I0048          --
LBK_EN                  I0054          CC
LBK_EN                  I0056          CC
LBK_EN                  I0057          --
LBK_EN                  I0100          CC
LBK_EN                  I0659          CC
LBK_EN                  I0795          CC
LBK_EN                  I0821          --
LBKT_EN                 I0176          --
Loschbour               Loschbour      CC
MA1                     MA1            CC
Motala_HG               I0011          CC
Motala_HG               I0012          CC
Motala_HG               I0013          CC
Motala_HG               I0014          CC
Motala_HG               I0015          CC
Motala_HG               I0016          CC
Motala_HG               I0017          CC
Samara_HG               I0124          CC
Spain_EN                I0409          CC
Spain_EN                I0410          CC
Spain_EN                I0411          CC
Spain_EN                I0412          CC
Spain_EN                I0413          CC
Spain_MN                I0405          CC
Spain_MN                I0406          CC
Spain_MN                I0407          CC
Spain_MN                I0408          CC
Starcevo_EN             I0174          --
Stuttgart               Stuttgart      AC
SwedenSkoglund_MHG      StoraForvar11  --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem2        CC
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem4        --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem5        --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem7        --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide52       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide53       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide58       CC
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide59       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide70       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ire8           --
Unetice_EBA             I0047          CC
Unetice_EBA             I0114          --
Unetice_EBA             I0115          AA
Unetice_EBA             I0116          CC
Unetice_EBA             I0117          AA
Unetice_EBA             I0164          CC
Unetice_EBA             I0803          CC
Unetice_EBA             I0804          --
Yamnaya                 I0231          CC
Yamnaya                 I0357          CC
Yamnaya                 I0370          CC
Yamnaya                 I0429          CC
Yamnaya                 I0438          CC
Yamnaya                 I0439          CC
Yamnaya                 I0441          --
Yamnaya                 I0443          CC
Yamnaya                 I0444          --

Next are the genotypes for the SNP rs1393350, also in the gene TYR. The derived A allele of this SNP is associated with blond hair and blue eyes. The graph here shows that the derived allele has a frequency of around 25% in modern European populations. Here again, the derived allele is absent in the hunter-gatherer samples and the Yamna samples. It first appears in a sample from the early Neolithic Linear Pottery culture. It is absent in the Corded Ware and Unetice samples, but it is common in the Bell Beaker samples. The Bell Beaker people, belonging to Y haplogroup R1b-P312, spoke a language ancestral to the Celtic and Italic languages. Blond hair was common among the Celts, and, as noted in the articles by Karl Earlson here and here, blond hair and blue eyes were also common among the elite of ancient Rome.

AG2                     AG2            --
Alberstedt_LN           I0118          GG
Baalberge_MN            I0559          --
Baalberge_MN            I0560          --
Baalberge_MN            I0807          --
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0060          --
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0108          AA
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0111          GG
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0112          AA
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0113          AA
Bell_Beaker_LN          I0806          --
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0058          --
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0059          GG
BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN  I0171          GG
Corded_Ware_LN          I0049          GG
Corded_Ware_LN          I0103          GG
Corded_Ware_LN          I0104          GG
Corded_Ware_LN          I0106          --
Esperstedt_MN           I0172          GG
Halberstadt_LBA         I0099          AA
HungaryGamba_BA         BR1            GG
HungaryGamba_BA         BR2            GG
HungaryGamba_CA         CO1            GG
HungaryGamba_EN         KO2            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE1            GG
HungaryGamba_EN         NE2            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE3            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE4            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE5            GG
HungaryGamba_EN         NE6            --
HungaryGamba_EN         NE7            GG
HungaryGamba_HG         KO1            GG
HungaryGamba_IA         IR1            AA
Iceman                  Iceman         GG
Karelia_HG              I0061          GG
Karsdorf_LN             I0550          AA
Kostenki14              Kostenki14     GG
LaBrana1                LaBrana1       GG
LBK_EN                  I0022          --
LBK_EN                  I0025          GG
LBK_EN                  I0026          GG
LBK_EN                  I0046          GG
LBK_EN                  I0048          GG
LBK_EN                  I0054          AA
LBK_EN                  I0056          GG
LBK_EN                  I0057          GG
LBK_EN                  I0100          GG
LBK_EN                  I0659          --
LBK_EN                  I0795          --
LBK_EN                  I0821          --
LBKT_EN                 I0176          --
Loschbour               Loschbour      GG
MA1                     MA1            --
Motala_HG               I0011          GG
Motala_HG               I0012          GG
Motala_HG               I0013          GG
Motala_HG               I0014          GG
Motala_HG               I0015          GG
Motala_HG               I0016          GG
Motala_HG               I0017          GG
Samara_HG               I0124          --
Spain_EN                I0409          GG
Spain_EN                I0410          GG
Spain_EN                I0411          --
Spain_EN                I0412          GG
Spain_EN                I0413          GG
Spain_MN                I0405          --
Spain_MN                I0406          GG
Spain_MN                I0407          --
Spain_MN                I0408          GG
Starcevo_EN             I0174          GG
Stuttgart               Stuttgart      GG
SwedenSkoglund_MHG      StoraForvar11  --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem2        GG
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem4        --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem5        --
SwedenSkoglund_MN       Gokhem7        --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide52       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide53       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide58       GG
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide59       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ajvide70       --
SwedenSkoglund_NHG      Ire8           --
Unetice_EBA             I0047          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0114          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0115          --
Unetice_EBA             I0116          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0117          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0164          GG
Unetice_EBA             I0803          --
Unetice_EBA             I0804          GG
Yamnaya                 I0231          GG
Yamnaya                 I0357          GG
Yamnaya                 I0370          GG
Yamnaya                 I0429          GG
Yamnaya                 I0438          --
Yamnaya                 I0439          --
Yamnaya                 I0441          --
Yamnaya                 I0443          GG
Yamnaya                 I0444          --
Posted in Uncategorized

Analyses of a Bell Beaker genome

Below are the results of analyses of the sample I0806 from the Bell Beaker culture in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The sample is dated to 2296–2206 BC.

I0806 belonged to Y haplogroup R1b1a2a1a2-P312 and mitochondrial haplogroup H1.

I0806 had large amounts of the MDLP Iberian components, which confirms the long-standing and widely held belief among archeologists that the Bell Beaker culture originated in Iberia and spread north and east from there.

globe4

  • 88.39% European
  • 10.03% Amerindian
  • 0.88% African
  • 0.70% Asian

globe10

  • 76.74% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 9.29% Southern
  • 6.52% West_Asian
  • 4.98% Siberian
  • 1.30% South_Asian
  • 0.86% Neo_African
  • 0.28% Australasian
  • 0.03% Amerindian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African

globe13

  • 57.84% North_European
  • 27.43% Mediterranean
  • 6.17% West_Asian
  • 4.16% Arctic
  • 2.77% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.86% West_African
  • 0.55% Siberian
  • 0.18% Australasian
  • 0.03% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African

K7b

  • 72.64% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 12.41% Southern
  • 11.09% West_Asian
  • 2.93% Siberian
  • 0.91% African
  • 0.01% South_Asian
  • 0.00% East_Asian

K10a

  • 64.97% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 23.53% Mediterranean
  • 7.13% West_Asian
  • 3.40% Siberian
  • 0.89% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.08% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian

K12b

  • 46.80% North_European
  • 34.63% Atlantic_Med
  • 9.62% Gedrosia
  • 3.28% Southwest_Asian
  • 2.71% Caucasus
  • 2.13% Siberian
  • 0.83% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian

dv3

  • 61.53% West_European
  • 19.21% Mediterranean
  • 8.94% East_European
  • 5.29% Southwest_Asian
  • 2.61% West_Asian
  • 1.72% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.69% Neo_African
  • 0.01% South_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian

MDLP K=5

  • 50.42% West-Eurasian
  • 32.83% Paleo-mediterranean
  • 14.92% Caucasian
  • 1.83% East-Eurasian
  • 0.01% South-Asian

MDLP K=6

  • 49.44% West-Eurasian
  • 27.76% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 12.97% Caucasian
  • 9.82% North-West-Eurasian
  • 0.01% East-Euroasian
  • 0.01% South-Asian

MDLP K=7

  • 50.07% West-Eurasian
  • 27.67% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 11.22% Caucasian
  • 10.49% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.55% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=8

  • 37.95% West-European
  • 35.25% East-European
  • 15.27% Caucasian
  • 7.76% Volga-Finnic
  • 3.76% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=9

  • 37.65% West-European
  • 34.51% East-European
  • 14.80% Caucasian
  • 7.76% Volga-Finnic
  • 5.28% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 0.01% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=10

  • 29.24% British
  • 25.82% East-European
  • 25.50% Iberian
  • 11.08% Caucasian
  • 7.14% Volga-Finnic
  • 1.22% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=11

  • 28.82% Celto-Germanic
  • 25.92% East-European
  • 25.27% Iberian
  • 11.04% Caucasian
  • 4.63% Volga-Uralic
  • 3.38% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.94% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=12

  • 27.51% Celto-Germanic
  • 24.76% Iberian
  • 22.26% East-European
  • 10.51% Caucasian
  • 7.12% Balto-Finnic
  • 4.04% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.97% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.83% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Alatic-Turkic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% South-Central Asian

MDLP K=13

  • 21.57% Altaic
  • 17.77% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 13.07% Mediterrean
  • 10.94% Celto-Germanic
  • 8.36% East-Mediterranean
  • 8.19% South-Central-Asian
  • 7.45% East-European
  • 5.61% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.62% Iberian
  • 1.91% Paleo-North-European
  • 1.29% Baltic-Finnic
  • 1.21% Caucasian
  • 0.00% Uralic-Permic

MDLP K=14

  • 25.18% Iberian
  • 24.83% Celto-Germanic
  • 20.41% Balto-Slavic
  • 10.75% Caucasian
  • 7.29% Balto-Finnic
  • 4.89% Mediterranean
  • 3.84% Volga-Finnic
  • 2.55% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.26% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Altaic
  • 0.00% East-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian

MDLP K=15

  • 24.94% Celto-Germanic
  • 24.93% Iberian
  • 20.61% Balto-Slavic
  • 10.72% Caucasian
  • 7.29% Balto-Finnic
  • 4.66% Balkanic-1
  • 4.01% Volga-Uralic
  • 2.62% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.21% West-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Balkanic-2
  • 0.00% East-Altaic
  • 0.00% East-Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.00% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.00% West-Altaic

MDLP World-22

  • 51.38% North-East-European
  • 23.48% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 10.32% West-Asian
  • 6.44% North-Siberean
  • 4.42% Near_East
  • 1.36% Austronesian
  • 1.30% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.66% North-Amerind
  • 0.57% Melanesian
  • 0.05% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.02% South-African
  • 0.01% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic

MDLP Ancient Roots K17

  • 46.25% Ancestral_East_European_ANE
  • 24.66% West_European_HG
  • 10.67% Ancestral_Mediterranean_EEF
  • 7.39% Caucasian-Basal
  • 4.32% Ancestral_North_Indian
  • 2.65% Ancestral_West_Siberian
  • 0.81% Uralic
  • 0.80% Ancestral_South_Indian
  • 0.54% African_Sub_Saharian
  • 0.51% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.47% Ancestral_Sami-Finnic
  • 0.45% Amerindian
  • 0.21% Circumpolar
  • 0.19% Ancestral_East_Siberian
  • 0.04% South_East_Asian
  • 0.02% Archaic_African
  • 0.02% Near-East-Basal

MDLP Ancient Roots K18

  • 35.30% North_West_European
  • 29.15% East_European
  • 12.22% Caucasian
  • 6.97% West_Siberian
  • 4.81% Mediterranean
  • 4.36% Roma
  • 4.20% South_Central_Asian
  • 1.07% Arctic
  • 0.93% East_African
  • 0.93% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.06% South_Indian
  • 0.00% Afroasiatic
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Archaic_African
  • 0.00% East_Siberian
  • 0.00% Sami-Finnic
  • 0.00% South_East_Asian
  • 0.00% Volga-Uralic

MDLP K23b

  • 34.77% European_Hunters_Gatherers
  • 23.13% European_Early_Farmers
  • 19.95% Caucasian
  • 12.00% Ancestral-North-Indian
  • 7.85% Ancestral-North-Eurasian
  • 0.56% Near-East
  • 0.54% Amerindian
  • 0.28% Ancestral-South-Indian
  • 0.28% Arctic
  • 0.27% Austroloid
  • 0.19% Melano-Polinesian
  • 0.09% East-Siberian
  • 0.06% North-African
  • 0.02% Archaic-Human
  • 0.00% African-Pygmy
  • 0.00% Altaiс
  • 0.00% Archaic-African
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-African
  • 0.00% Khoisan
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% South-East-Asian
  • 0.00% Subsaharian
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