Y-SNP calls from Neolithic Estonia

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for samples from Neolithic Estonia.

Sample       Culture       Date BC    Haplogroup
Kudruküla 3  Comb Ceramic  3950–1850  R1a1-YP1335    calls
Ardu 1       Corded Ware   2850–2050  R1a1a1b-Z645   calls
Ardu 2       Corded Ware   2921–2555  R1a1a1b1-Z283  calls
Kunila 1     Corded Ware   2850–2050  R1a1a1b-Z645   calls
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High-resolution K = 13 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a high-resolution K = 13 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC.

Here are the admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      0.00%
      6.76%
      0.00%
      10.81%
      0.00%
      17.81%
      0.00%
      1.10%
      0.00%
      0.00%
      63.51%
      0.00%

Here the Chinchorro sample has significant amounts of the dark blue, light blue, and plain green components, and a small amount of the plain yellow component.

The Magdalenians are made up almost entirely of the dark blue component, which excludes them as the source of the European admixture in the Chinchorro sample.

The medium blue component is completely absent in the Chinchorro sample, and since the Eastern European and Western Siberian hunter-gatherers are made up mostly of that component, they are also excluded as sources of the admixture.

The pre-LGM Europeans are the only samples in this analysis which have significant amounts of the same non-Amerindian components present in the Chinchorro sample, which identifies the pre-LGM Aurignacians or Gravettians, or possibly the LGM Solutreans, as the source of the European admixture in that sample.

The sum of the non-Amerindian component percentages in this analysis is 36.49%, which is about the same as the 37% sum in the preceding analysis.

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High-resolution K = 9 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a high-resolution K = 9 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC.

Here are the admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      10.37%
      8.12%
      0.00%
      18.52%
      0.00%
      0.00%
      63.00%
      0.00%

Here the Chinchorro sample has significant amounts of the plain blue, light blue, and plain green components.

The pre-LGM Europeans also have significant amounts of the plain blue, light blue, and plain green components.

The pine green component is completely absent in the Chinchorro sample, and, with the exception of Kostenki 14, it is also completely absent in the pre-LGM Europeans.

The plain green component is absent in post-Magdalenian Europeans, and the pine green component is present in significant amounts in Europeans from the Copper Age on, which eliminates modern contamination as a possible source of the European admixture in the Chinchorro sample.

This analysis leaves pre-LGM, LGM, and Magdalenian-era Europeans as the only remaining possible sources of the European admixture in the Chinchorro sample, and the pre-LGM Europeans are a better visual match for that admixture than the Magdalenians.

The sum of the non-Amerindian component percentages in this analysis is 37%, which is a bit more than the 34.3% sum in the preceding analysis.

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High-resolution K = 7 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a high-resolution K = 7 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC.

Here are the admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      8.84%
      8.51%
      15.08%
      0.00%
      65.70%
      1.87%

Here the Chinchorro sample has significant amounts of the plain blue, light blue, and green components, and a small amount of the purple component.

The pre-LGM Europeans also have significant amounts of the plain blue, light blue, and green components, but they generally have less of the green component than either of the blue components, whereas the Chinchorro sample has more of the green component than either of the blue components.

The sum of the non-Amerindian component percentages in this analysis is 34.30%, a bit more than the sums for the preceding analyses.

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High-resolution K = 6 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a high-resolution K = 6 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC.

Here are the admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      15.23%
      15.16%
      0.31%
      67.33%
      1.97%

Here the Chinchorro sample has large amounts of the blue and green components, and much smaller amounts of the yellow and purple components.

The pre-LGM European samples have a lot of the blue component, and some of them, particularly Kostenki 14 and the Gravettian sample Goyet Q53-1 from Belgium, have some of the green component, but their proportion of the green component isn’t as large as it is relative to the blue component in the Chinchorro sample.

The green component is absent in the post-LGM Western European hunter-gatherers, and also in the early European farmers, which excludes them as possible sources of the European admixture in the Chinchorro sample.

The sum of the non-Amerindian component percentages in this analysis is 32.67%, which remains very close to the sums for the preceding analyses.

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High-resolution K = 5 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a high-resolution K = 5 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC.

Here are the admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      24.88%
      0.05%
      67.87%
      7.20%

Here the Chinchorro sample has a lot of the blue component, a tiny amount of the yellow component, and some of the purple component. The pre-LGM European samples also have a lot of the blue component, and smaller amounts of the yellow and purple components.

Note that the sum of the non-Amerindian component percentages in this analysis, 32.13%, is very close to the corresponding sum for the K = 4 analysis, 31.66%.

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High-resolution K = 4 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a high-resolution K = 4 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC. This analysis uses over twice as many transversion SNPs as my earlier admixture analyses.

Here are the admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      29.15%
      2.51%
      68.34%

High-resolution admixture analyses like this one have led me to believe that the European admixture in the Chinchorro sample is from western Aurignacians, western Gravettians, or Solutreans, because the non-Amerindian components that appear in the Chinchorro sample have a pattern similar to that seen in the pre-LGM European samples, and not in any other ancient or modern population.

In this K = 4 analysis, the Chinchorro sample has a lot of the blue component, and a little of the yellow component. The pre-LGM European samples also have a lot of the blue component, and smaller amounts of the yellow component.

I will post plots for analyses with higher K values, and if my belief about the source of the European admixture is correct, then the Chinchorro sample should continue to show patterns similar to those seen in the pre-LGM European samples.

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