K = 14 admixture analysis of the complete Tianyuan genome

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes the complete genome of Tianyuan 1, whose remains were found in Tianyuan Cave, in the Zhoukoudian cave system, near Beijing, China. The remains were dated to 42,000–39,000 BP. Tianyuan 1 belonged to the Mongoloid mitochondrial haplogroup B.

Here are the component percentages for Tianyuan 1:

      1.16%
      2.71%
      7.34%
      0.00%
      0.00%
      0.00%
      0.00%
      32.17%
      14.02%
      19.23%
      8.79%
      1.16%
      1.57%
      11.85%

These results are similar to the results for my earlier analyses of the Tianyuan sample going back to 2013, which were based on about one fiftieth of the data used for this analysis.

One difference, however, between the new results and the earlier results is that Tianyuan 1 now shows more of the Mongoloid components and less of the Caucasoid components.

Another difference is that Tianyuan 1 now shows some of the Negroid components, which is not actually due to Negroid admixture, but instead to the fact that Tianyuan 1 had archaic admixture in excess of what is found in modern human populations.

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K = 14 admixture analysis of Sungir genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes five genomes from the archeological site of Sungir in Russia. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

A plot for a K = 13 analysis of the Sungir genomes, which doesn’t have a dark blue component, is here.

The Sungir individuals from 34,000 years ago are genetically similar to the other pre-LGM Europeans, and especially to Kostenki 14, who lived further south in Russia around 3,500 years earlier. Their DNA is made up primarily of the dark blue (K = 14) or plain blue (K = 13) European hunter-gatherer components, with the rest made up of an undifferentiated Caucasoid, or proto-Caucasoid, pattern of components.

Sungir 6, from 1100–1220 AD, is genetically similar to the modern central Russian samples. Like them, he has a small amount of Mongoloid admixture (2.91%). This is consistent with the analysis in this post which estimated that the Mongoloid admixture in northern Russians resulted from an admixture event that took place between 400 and 1100 AD, before the Mongol invasion of Europe starting in 1223 AD.

Sample Period Date
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD

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Phenotype SNPs from Sungir

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for five genomes from the archeological site of Sungir in Russia. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 2/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 2/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 13/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/4
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 6/6

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 3/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 1/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 7/7
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 5/5

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/10

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/3
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/16
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/9
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/11

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/1

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 2/3

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/7
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/11

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/4
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/9
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/10

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/3
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/8
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/4

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/8

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 1/7
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/8

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/10
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/15

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/7
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/14
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/7

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 2/11
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/8
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 2/4

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/6

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 1/7
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/9

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/11
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/7

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/25
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/7
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 5/5

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/5
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/23
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 7/7

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/14
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 8/8

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/2
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/19
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 4/7

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/14
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/12
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/9

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 1/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/8
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/17
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 3/3
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Y-SNP calls from Sungir

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for samples from the archeological site of Sungir in Russia.

Sample Period Date Haplogroup
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP pre-C1a2-V20
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP pre-C1a2-V20
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP pre-C1a2-V20
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP pre-C1a2-V20
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD I2a1b2a1a1a1a3-A16681
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K = 13 admixture analysis of prehistoric sub-Saharan African genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 13 admixture analysis that includes 15 new genomes from sub-Saharan Africa. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The two earlier samples from South Africa are, like the modern Bushman samples from Namibia, made up entirely of the black Bushman and Pygmy component. The third South African sample, from around 800 AD, has 16.62% of the aqua green Natufian-related component.

The samples from Malawi generally have around 70% of the Bushman and Pygmy component, with the rest made up mostly of the brown Negro component, and in some cases small amounts of the Natufian-related component.

The earliest sample from Tanzania (1100 BC) has 55.72% of the Natufian-related component, while the latest sample from Tanzania (1400 AD) is made up almost entirely of the Negro component. The two Tanzania samples from 600 AD, like the 1500 AD sample from Kenya, the 2500 BC sample from Mota Cave in Ethiopia, and the modern samples from the Hadza people of Tanzania, have significant amounts of each of the Bushman and Pygmy, Negro, and Natufian-related components. Note that the 1500 AD Kenya sample belongs to the Caucasoid Y haplogroup E1b1b, as the Natufians did. The amount of the Natufian-related autosomal component in African populations correlates very well with the frequency of the E1b1b haplogroup in those populations. The Hadza, for example, have on average 18.20% of the Natufian-related component, and they have an E1b1b haplogroup frequency of 15.0%.

Sample Location Date
I2967 Malawi 6223–6007 BC
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC
I4468 Malawi 4227–3973 BC
I4427 Malawi 4225–3963 BC
I4422 Malawi 3343–3029 BC
I4421 Malawi 3450–2850 BC
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC
I1048 Tanzania 529–643 AD
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD
I0595 Kenya 1454–1628 AD

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Phenotype SNPs from prehistoric sub-Saharan Africa

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for 15 genomes from prehistoric sub-Saharan Africa. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/1
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/3
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/1

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 4/5
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/1
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/1

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/1
I4468 Malawi 4227–3973 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/7
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/2
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/1
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/10
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/13
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/13

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/2
I4421 Malawi 3450–2850 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/2
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/1
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/1
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/2
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/5
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/1

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Location Date D/T
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/2
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/3
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/2

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/7
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/2
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/4

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/2
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/8
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/12
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/3
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/3
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/7
I1048 Tanzania 529–643 AD 0/1
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/14
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/11

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/1
I4421 Malawi 3450–2850 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 1/9
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 1/8
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/2
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/7
I1048 Tanzania 529–643 AD 1/1
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/7
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/11

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/2
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/13
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 1/3
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 2/2
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/5
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/2

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I2967 Malawi 6223–6007 BC 0/1
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/5
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/5
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/7
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/2
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/2
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/3
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/8
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/12
I0595 Kenya 1454–1628 AD 0/2

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/2
I4421 Malawi 3450–2850 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 1/9
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/2
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/2
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/2
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/9
I1048 Tanzania 529–643 AD 0/2
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/11
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/13

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/7
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 1/37
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/4
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/4
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/5
I1048 Tanzania 529–643 AD 0/1
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/9
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/8

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/2
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/6
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/3
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/4
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/8
I1048 Tanzania 529–643 AD 0/2
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/11
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/14
I0595 Kenya 1454–1628 AD 0/1

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/3
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/2
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/6
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/1
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/2

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/2
I4421 Malawi 3450–2850 BC 0/2
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/3
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/1
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/1
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/8
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/5
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/6

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/3
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/1
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/2
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 1/1
I1048 Tanzania 529–643 AD 0/3
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/5
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/2
I0595 Kenya 1454–1628 AD 0/1

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/1
I4468 Malawi 4227–3973 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/1
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/2
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/3
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/4
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/2

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/4
I4421 Malawi 3450–2850 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/3
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/2
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/6
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/7
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/6
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/3

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/2
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/2
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/4
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/2

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/2
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/10
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/1
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/3
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/11
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/7
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 3/8
I0595 Kenya 1454–1628 AD 0/2

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/3
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/1
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/3
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/1
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/5
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/6
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/4

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Location Date D/T
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC 0/1
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC 0/2
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/1
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/5
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD 0/3
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC 0/8
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD 0/4
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD 0/1

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Location Date D/T
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC 0/1
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD 0/4
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Y-SNP calls from prehistoric sub-Saharan Africa

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for samples from prehistoric sub-Saharan Africa.

Sample Location Date Haplogroup
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC B2b1b1-Y25096*
I4468 Malawi 4227–3973 BC B2b1-M8632
I4427 Malawi 4225–3963 BC B2b1a1-M8360
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC A1b1b2a-M51
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD A1b1b2a-M51(xP291)
I0595 Kenya 1454–1628 AD E1b1b1b2b2a1-Y17345
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