Y-SNP calls from Ice Age Europe

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for samples from Ice Age Europe.

Y haplogroups for more Ice Age European samples can be found in the table here. These results show that many of my beliefs about European genetic history were wrong. I thought that the Aurignacians belonged to Y haplogroup I, but the one Aurignacian sample was C1a. I thought that the Gravettians belonged to R1, but four Gravettian samples were C1, I, IJ*, and C1a2. I thought that the Magdalenians were R1b, but two Magdalenian samples were I. These results also imply that my beliefs about Indo-European origins were wrong. I apologize for attacking others over their positions on these subjects.

Vestonice 13  Czechia  31,070–30,670 BP  C1(xC1b)           calls
Vestonice 43  Czechia  30,710–29,310 BP  IJ*                calls
Villabruna    Italy    14,180–13,780 BP  R1b1a-L754         calls
Rochedane     France   13,090–12,830 BP  pre-I2a1a2-S21825  calls
Falkenstein   Germany  9,410–8,990 BP    I2a2a1-CTS616      calls
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More proof of Whites in ancient Peru and Chile

Below is another head from the Nazca culture (100 BC to 800 AD), with fine wavy red hair.

nazca-head-2

Next are photographs of a mummy bundle of a woman from the Wari culture (500–1000 AD), which was found in 2008 in a tomb at Huaca Pucllana, an adobe brick pyramid located in the middle of the modern city of Lima. The mummy bundle was dated to around 700 AD.

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As the next two photographs show, the mummy bundle had a wooden mask with large blue eyes made of seashells.

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Below is a mummy bundle head from the Wari culture with fine wavy brown European human hair attached.

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And next are skulls at Huaca Malena, a major cemetery of the Wari culture located about 100 kilometers (62 miles) south of Lima. The thousands of Wari fabrics and tapestries found at Huaca Malena indicate that those buried there were of high rank. Some of the skulls still have their wavy red, brown, and dark blond European hair attached.

wari-skulls

Below is a mummy bundle head from the Chancay culture, which existed along the central coast of Peru to the north of Lima from 1000 to 1470 AD. The face is painted a color exactly like that of European skin, and wavy brown human hair is attached to the top.

chancay-head-1-front

And here is the back of the head, showing more of the brown hair:

chancay-head-1-back

Below are three more artificial heads from the Chancay culture with European skin color. The second one also has wavy brown human hair attached.

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Next is the mummy of a child of the Chancay culture. The child was 4 to 6 years old, and it was dated to around 1334 AD. It has fine light brown hair.

chancay-child-mummy

Below is the mummy of an elite male of the Chancay culture which was found in 2007 in the ancient city of Rontoy. He was is in his thirties when he died. His face was covered in red paint made of mercury sulfide, and metal plates were placed over his eyes and in his mouth, but one can still see in the photograph that he had white skin and brown hair. An article and more photographs about this mummy can be found here and here, and a video showing the mummy being unwrapped can be found here.

chancay-elite-mummy

And below is a mummy bundle head dated to 1100 AD from the Huacho culture, which was located to the north of the Chancay culture along the central coast of Peru. The head has European skin color, European facial features, and brown human hair attached.

huacho-head

The next photograph shows two heads found at Pachacamac, a city of the Ychsma culture, which existed along the central coast of Peru to the south of Lima from around 1100 to 1440 AD. Both of the heads have white skin. The head on the left has brown hair. The head on the right has blond hair.

ychsma-heads

And next is a 1,000-year-old mummy of a Ychsma woman which was also found at Pachacamac, in 2012. She was around 50 years old when she died, and as the photograph shows, she had wavy brown hair.

ychsma-mummy

The word “Inca” is often used to refer to all of those who inhabited the Inca Empire (1438–1533 AD), but the word in Quechua means “ruler” or “lord”, and it originally referred only to the ruling class or the ruling family in the empire. The population of the empire has been estimated at between 4 and 37 million people, but there were only about 500 members of the Inca royal family when the Spanish arrived.

Below are photographs of an Inca mummy from Puruchuco-Huaquerones, a large Inca cemetery on the outskirts of Lima, which was first excavated in 1999. This mummy, nicknamed “La Señorita”, was buried with her child, shown in the lower left of the first photograph. The photographs show that she had white skin and wavy brown hair.

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Next is another Inca mummy from Puruchuco-Huaquerones. He has white skin and fine wavy light brown hair.

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And next is a third Inca mummy from Puruchuco-Huaquerones. He also has white skin and brown hair.

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Here is another photograph of this third mummy:

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In the next photograph this third mummy is seen along with a fourth Inca mummy from Puruchuco-Huaquerones, which also has white skin and fine wavy brown hair.

inca-mummy-4

Below is the mummy of an Inca woman with red or reddish-brown hair.

inca-mummy-5

Next is the skull of an six-year-old Inca child at Puruchuco-Huaquerones, with its brown hair still intact.

inca-skull

Below is a child’s skull with brown hair at the heavily looted site of Centinela, located on the central coast of Peru at the mouth of the Huaura River.

centinela-skull

And below is a head at Caleta Vítor, a village not far to the south of Arica, Chile. It has fine wavy red hair, white skin, and an obviously European female cranial morphology.

caleta-vitor-head

The hair of many ancient Peruvian and Chilean mummies is European rather than Amerindian not only in its color, but also in its structure. In the section “Tall stature, narrow face, and non-Mongoloid hair on Paracas mummies” of Thor Heyerdahl’s 1952 work American Indians in the Pacific, he includes quotes from a 1943 paper by Mildred Trotter stating that the width of the hair of Paracas mummies varied, but was on average significantly smaller than that of Amerindian hair:

As to the size of the cross section area, she found (Ibid., p. 75) that: “The size of the hair was much smaller than has been found for other Indians, but not so small as has been recorded for at least one white racial group [the Dutch].”

The author stressed in her summary that: “The form and size of the hair of ten Paracas mummies showed wide variation.” She showed that although some of the hair samples were wide, yet the average from all ten mummies was “approximately 30% less than the average mean areas found for the four Indian tribes by Steggerda and Seibert and for the adult French Canadians by Trotter and Dawson.”

In this section he also included the following quote from a letter he received from Warren Royal Dawson on the question of possible change in mummy hair:

From the examination of a large number of mummies both from Egypt and other countries including South America, my opinion is that hair does not undergo any marked change post-mortem. The hair of a wavy or curly individual remains curly or wavy, and that of a straight-haired person remains straight. In mummies and desiccated bodies the hair has a tendency to be crisp and brittle, but this is the natural result of the drying-up of the sebaceous glands, which during life, feed fatty matter into the hair follicles which keeps the hair supple and flexible. … it seems to me very unlikely that any change in colour would take place in a body which had never been exposed to the light, … To sum up then, all the evidence I have indicates that the nature of hair does not alter after death except in becoming dry and brittle.

The knowledge that the hair of many ancient Peruvian and Chilean mummies is European rather than Amerindian in both color and structure can be found in the literature of the 19th century. In John Thomas Short’s 1879 work The North Americans of Antiquity, he says:

The ancient Peruvians appear, from numerous examples of hair found in their tombs, to have been an auburn-haired race.

Short mentions observations made by Daniel Wilson in his 1862 work Prehistoric Man. In this book Wilson describes the hair of several mummies from a cemetery just south of Arica, Chile, which were first examined by John H. Blake in 1836. This is the same area where the brown and chestnut-haired Chinchorro mummies from a much earlier time period would be discovered by Max Uhle in 1917. Writing about an adult male mummy from a family tomb, Wilson says:

The hair has undergone little or no change, and differs essentially from that most characteristic feature of the Indian of the northern continent. It is brown in colour, and as fine in texture as the most delicate Anglo-Saxon hair. It is neatly braided and arranged, the front locks being formed each into a roll on the side of the head, while the hair behind is plaited into a triangular knot of six braids.

About the adult female mummy from the tomb, Wilson writes:

The hair is shorter, and somewhat coarser, but fine when compared with that of the northern Indians. It is of a light brown colour, smooth, and neatly braided across the upper part of the forehead, then carried backward and secured on each side of the head.

He also describes one of the woolen bags found in the tomb:

Woven of a peculiar pattern differing from all the others, and of an unusually fine texture: it was found, on being opened, to contain a small bead of malachite, the only one discovered in the tomb, and locks of human hair, each secured by a string tied with a peculiar knot. All the hair is of fine texture, of various shades, from fine light brown to black, and to all appearance has undergone no change.

The colour and texture of the hair are facts of great importance to the ethnologist, as indicating essential differences from the modern Indians in one important respect; and therefore confirming the probability of equally important ethnic differences, suggested by other evidence.

He later elaborates on the difference between the hair of the ancient Peruvians and Chileans and that of Amerindians:

Such are some illustrations of ancient Peruvian customs and sepulchral rites, along with evidence of characteristics which go far to disprove the assumed unity of physical type throughout the Western Hemisphere. No feature of the modern Indian is more universal, or yields more slowly even to the effacing influences of hybridity, than the long, coarse black hair, which so strikingly contrasts with the short woolly covering of the Negro’s head. I have repeatedly obtained specimens from Indian graves, as from the Huron graves near Lake Simcoe, the most modern of which cannot be later than the middle of the seventeenth century. In all these the hair retains its black colour and coarse texture, unchanged alike by time and inhumation; and in this respect corresponds with that of the Modern Indians of South America, and also of the Chinese and other true Mongols of Asia. The Peruvians, Dr. Morton observes, “differ little in person from the Indians around them, being of the middle stature, well limbed, and with small feet and hands. Their faces are round, their eyes small, black, and rather distant from each other; their noses are small, the mouth somewhat large, and the teeth remarkably fine. Their complexion is a dark brown, and their hair long, black, and rather coarse.” In this respect, therefore, the disclosures of the Peruvian cemeteries of Atacama reveal important variations from one of the most persistent and universal characteristics of the modern American races…

The “Gringuito” descendants of the Chachapoyas still preserve some of the genotype and phenotype of the White Gods of ancient Peru and Chile. Their autosomal DNA is between 10% and 50% European, and some of them have Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b. As the following photographs show, many of them have features like fair skin, blond and red hair, blue eyes, and freckles, which are typical of modern Northern Europeans, and not at all typical of modern Southern Europeans like Spaniards, who usually have brown eyes and brown or black hair.

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Posted in Uncategorized

Was the Lord of Sipán White?

One of the most important archeological discoveries in South America in the past 30 years was made in the northern coastal region of Peru at the site of Huaca Rajada, shown below. The site consists of two large pyramids, on the right below, and a smaller platform, on the left. These structures were made from adobe bricks, and they have been heavily eroded by centuries of rains, mostly brought to the otherwise dry coast of Peru by recurrent El Niño events.

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Below is a drawing of what the site originally looked like, before the centuries of erosion.

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In 1987 police learned that looters were removing gold artifacts from the site, and they alerted archeologists who then took control of the area. Within the platform the archeologists discovered the richest tomb ever found in the Americas, shown below. In the center is the wooden sarcophagus of a ruler of the Moche culture (100 AD to 800 AD), now known as the Lord of Sipán. He lived around 250 AD, and was 35–45 years old when he died. He was around 1.63 meters (5 feet 4 inches) tall. He was buried with three women, four men, a boy, two llamas, and a dog.

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Below is a close-up of some of the regalia that the Lord of Sipán was buried with.

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The English Wikipedia article on the Lord of Sipán includes a section titled “DNA testing” which states the following:

Archeological research and DNA testing enabled deducing certain physical characteristics of the ruler, such as skin color, the form of his lips, hair, eyes and other facial features. It was also possible to provide an accurate estimate of his age at death, allowing for a more accurate facial reconstruction by researchers.

And yet no mention is made of the actual results of this DNA testing. No references are given in the section, and I have been unable to find any sources for the section’s information online.

The gold mask found in the Lord of Sipán’s tomb shown below suggests that he might have had blue eyes.

lord-of-sipan-mask

The Spanish, Russian, and Ukrainian Wikipedia articles on the Lord of Sipán further state that he was found to be Rh negative. As the map below shows, the frequency of the Rh negative blood type peaks in Basques at 21–36%, drops to less than 10% in non-European Caucasoids, and then drops to less than 1% in Negroids, Mongoloids, and Australoids. The Rh negative blood type is also found in less than 1% of Amerindians, and those Amerindians who do happen to be Rh negative likely have European admixture. The Rh negative blood type was probably originally absent among Amerindians.

rh-negative-map

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The Lady of Cao was White

One of the most important archeological sites in the northern coastal region of Peru is the El Brujo (“The Wizard”) archeological complex. The part of the complex known as Huaca Prieta was occupied as early as 4700 BC, and the area continued to be inhabited through to the time of the Chimu culture (1100–1470 AD). The two largest structures on the site, the Huaca El Brujo and and Huaca Cao Viejo pyramids, were built by the Moche culture (100–700 AD). The partially excavated Huaca Cao Viejo pyramid is shown below.

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This pyramid featured spectacular polychrome friezes, like the one below with abstract depictions of sea life.

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In the northwestern corner of the upper platform of the pyramid was a patio with five tombs, as shown below.

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In 2005 the mummy of a very high status female was discovered in the largest tomb. Known as the Lady of Cao, she died around 450 AD, in her mid to late twenties. Later investigation concluded that she died of complications due to childbirth.

The next photograph shows the Lady of Cao’s very large mummy bundle as it was first found. The mummy was wrapped in 26 layers of cotton fabric, and the bundle was covered with a cane mat. A large face was embroidered onto the bundle. Next to the bundle was the skeleton of a teenage girl who had been sacrificed so that she could accompany the Lady of Cao to the afterlife.

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The same practice of embroidering faces onto mummy bundles can be seen in the mummy bundles below from the Chachapoya culture of the northern highlands of Peru.

chachapoya-mummy-bundles

The next photograph shows the Lady of Cao’s mummy bundle after the outermost layers of cotton fabric were removed. As shown, layer 6 contained golden copper sheets, golden copper crowns, and two large copper-covered wooden war clubs.

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In the below replica of the Lady of Cao, she is portrayed as an Amerindian woman with dark brown skin and black hair.

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And as the next photographs show, reenactments of Moche ceremonies are performed in Peru in which the Lady of Cao is portrayed by brown-skinned, black-haired Amerindian actresses.

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The above depictions of the Lady of Cao as an Amerindian woman are in fact fraudulent. She was, in reality, a European woman, as the following photographs of her remains clearly show.

The below close-up of the Lady of Cao’s face shows that the hair falling over her right eye is brown European hair, and not black Amerindian hair. Note that the red discoloration on parts of the skin and hair is due to cinnabar that was applied to the body after death.

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The next photograph of the Lady of Cao’s head shows that she had a cranial morphology like that of many European females, and unlike that of Amerindian females.

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And next is a photograph of the Lady of Cao’s head from the side.

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The following photographs of the Lady of Cao’s body, and parts of her body, show that she had fair white skin, much of which was covered with elaborate tattoos.

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The next two images include drawings of the Lady of Cao’s tattoos.

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One can contrast the European physical features of the Lady of Cao’s mummy with the features of a mummy of a genuine Amerindian female. Below are photographs of the Llullaillaco Maiden, one of three children sacrificed by the Incas around 1500 AD, whose mummies were found in the Andes of Argentina in 1999. The photographs show her braided black hair, brown skin, and her large, round, and wide-faced Amerindian cranial morphology.

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llullaillaco-maiden-2

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Statuettes of the White Gods

In my White Gods post from three years ago, I included the photograph below, which shows ceramic vessels from the ancient Peruvian Moche culture (100 AD to 800 AD) that depict four obviously Caucasoid men with beards. (Note that Amerindians don’t have beards.)

moche

Below is another ceramic vessel from the Moche culture, which portrays a European man with white skin and red hair, mustache, and goatee. The man is depicted as a prisoner bound with ropes.

moche-red-hair

The pottery of the Nazca culture (100 BC to 800 AD) depicts some people who are obviously European, some who are obviously Amerindian, and some who look like Mestizos. Below are some of the pieces of Nazca pottery that depict Europeans, with European skin color and facial features.

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The piece below depicts an apparent Mestizo holding the head of a European female.

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The next piece depicts an Amerindian fisherman, with dark reddish-brown skin and black hair.

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Below is a piece that depicts an act of miscegenation between an Amerindian man and a European woman.

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And next is a ceramic vessel in the form of a tattooed European man, from the Ica culture (900 AD to 1500 AD), which succeeded the Nazca culture in the southern coastal region of Peru.

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Pieces of artwork depicting Europeans have been found that date back to the very beginnings of pre-Columbian American civilization. As I noted in my White Gods post, the first civilization in the Americas was the Norte Chico civilization of Peru, which began around 3700–3500 BC and ended around 1800 BC. The largest city of the Norte Chico civilization was Caral, which was inhabited between 2600 and 2000 BC. As the photographs below show, Caral had some of the most advanced architecture on Earth at the time, including extremely complex pyramids and circular amphitheaters.

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Below are some of the clay figurines that were found a few years ago at Norte Chico sites.

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The figurine on the right below is said to depict a priestess. The male figurine on the left has a particularly European, non-Amerindian facial appearance.

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The most important examples of these kinds of sculptures were recently found at the coastal Norte Chico city of Vichama, parts of which are shown below.

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In June of last year, reed baskets were found in one of the buildings at Vichama, which contained three statuettes, as shown below.

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Below are the statuettes themselves, which were dated to 1800 BC. The female statuette in the center was said to represent a priestess, and the male statuette on the left and the female statuette on the right were said to represent political authorities. It’s also possible, however, that the three people depicted were regarded as gods by the inhabitants of Vichama. The bodies of all three of the figures have a color like that of European skin. The male figure on the left has blond hair. The female figure on the right has red hair. The female figure in the middle has black hair and red freckles on her face.

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As shown in the next image, in another building at Vichama two clay female heads were found wrapped in cloth and covered with yellow, blue, and orange feathers.

vichama-sculptures

The two heads are shown below.

vichama-heads

The same blond and red hair seen on the above statuettes from America’s first civilization can be seen on human remains from ancient Peru, as I will now show.

The next image is plate 35 from Thor Heyerdahl’s 1952 work American Indians in the Pacific. Figure 1 shows a pre-Inca Peruvian head with fine, wavy dark blond hair.

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And below is another scan of figure 1 from plate 35.

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Next is plate 36 from American Indians in the Pacific. Figure 3 is a head with fine, wavy blond hair from the Paracas culture (1200–800 BC to 100 BC), which preceded the Nazca culture in the southern coastal region of Peru. Figures 1, 7, 9, and 12 also show examples of blond or dark blond hair from pre-Inca Peru.

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And below is a larger scan of the Paracas head in figure 3 from plate 36. Note also the narrow-faced European, non-Amerindian morphology of the skull.

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The next image shows a Paracas mummy with blond hair and white skin. Here again, the cranial morphology is distinctly European and not Amerindian.

paracas-mummy

Below is a mummy of a child with fine, wavy blond hair from the Nazca area.

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And here is a close-up of the child’s blond hair:

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According to this page, five blond mummies were found during the dictatorship of the left-wing Peruvian general Juan Velasco Alvarado (1968–1975), and Alvarado ordered these mummies to be destroyed.

On this page of this website I found the below photograph of another skull from the Paracas culture with blond hair.

paracas-skull

The page also shows the next photograph of an obviously European Peruvian mummy head with white skin and light brown hair and beard. The following photograph shows the same head as it is now displayed in a museum in Ica, Peru, after the hair and skin were artificially and fraudulently darkened to make the head look more Amerindian.

mummy-head-before

mummy-head-after

The chronicler and conquistador Pedro Pizarro, cousin of Francisco Pizarro, wrote the following about the Incas in his 1571 work Relation of the discovery and conquest of the kingdoms of Peru:

The people of this kingdom of Peru were white, swarthy in color, and among them the Lords and Ladies were whiter than Spaniards. I saw in this land an Indian woman and a child who would not stand out among white blonds. These people [of the upper class] say that they were the children of the idols.

Below is an ancient Peruvian mummy with red hair. This is the same mummy that the liars at New Scientist magazine claimed to have “long black hair” on this page.

mummy-red-hair-1

Next is a photograph of a Chachapoya skull with red or reddish-brown hair from the Laguna de los Cóndores site.

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And the next photograph is of a head from the Nazca culture with red or reddish-brown hair, white skin, and European facial features.

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Below is a mummy of a Peruvian child with fine red or reddish-brown hair from around 1334 AD.

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Next is another mummy of a child with fine red hair from Paramonga, a city of the Chimu culture (1100 AD to 1470 AD), which succeeded the Moche culture in the northern coastal region of Peru.

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Below is a mummy with fine, wavy red hair from the Wari culture (500 AD to 1000 AD), which was contemporaneous with the Tiwanaku culture further south.

wari-mummy

One of the first people from Spain to see the ruins of the capital city of the Wari culture was Pedro Cieza de León, and in the first part of his 1553 work Chronicle of Peru, he wrote the following about the people who built the city:

The largest river near the city is called Viñaque, near which there are some great and very ancient edifices, which are now in ruins, but appear to have stood for many ages. When the Indians are asked who built these ancient monuments, they reply that a bearded and white people like ourselves were the builders, who came to these parts many ages before the Incas began to reign, and formed a settlement here.

And finally, below are mummies with fine, wavy red hair from the Nazca culture’s Chauchilla Cemetery, which was established around 200 AD and used for 600 to 700 years.

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Posted in Uncategorized

Third K = 15 admixture analysis of prehistoric and modern genomes

Below is a plot for another K = 15 admixture analysis of prehistoric and modern genomes. Like the K = 13 analysis in the preceding post, this analysis includes one Neolithic and three Bronze Age samples from Ireland.

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Third K = 13 admixture analysis of prehistoric and modern genomes

Below is a plot for another K = 13 admixture analysis of prehistoric and modern genomes. This analysis includes a Middle to Late Neolithic sample from Ballynahatty in Northern Ireland, and three Early Bronze Age samples from Rathlin Island in Northern Ireland.

The three Bronze Age samples belonged to Y haplogroup R1b-L21, which has always clearly been associated with the Insular Celtic languages (except in the confused minds of some very stupid people). It has been obvious since early last year that the R1b-L21 men of the British Isles were descended from the R1b-P312 men of the Bell Beaker culture. And we know from my discovery of four months ago, along with abundant archeological evidence, that the R1b-P312 men of the Bell Beaker culture were descended from R1b-M269 men who were already in Iberia hundreds of years before that culture began.

The analysis the plot is based on uses only part of the data for the four Irish samples. The numbers of SNPs used for these samples are below.

Sample        Period                    Date          SNPs
Ballynahatty  Middle to Late Neolithic  3343–3020 BC  45,762
Rathlin 1     Early Bronze Age          2026–1885 BC  47,044
Rathlin 2     Early Bronze Age          2024–1741 BC  40,568
Rathlin 3     Early Bronze Age          1736–1534 BC  29,938

all-13-3-2

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