K = 14 admixture analysis of Mesolithic Scandinavian genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes six new genomes from Mesolithic Scandinavia. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples, and for the previously published Stora Förvar 11 sample.

The new samples are, like the previously published Mesolithic samples from Motala, Sweden, made up of a mix of the dark blue Western European hunter-gatherer component and the medium blue Eastern European component. The three Norwegian samples, however, have more of the medium blue component than the Swedish samples do.

Sample Location Date BC
Hummervikholmen 1 Southern Norway 7502–7325
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807
Stora Förvar 11 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7073–6810
Stora Bjers 1 Gotland, Sweden 7013–6629
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814

Advertisements
Posted in Uncategorized

Pigmentation of Mesolithic Scandinavians

Below are predicted skin, hair, and eye color for five new genomes from Mesolithic Scandinavia.

Sample Location Date BC Skin Hair Eyes
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 Light Black Brown
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 NA Black Brown
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 Light D-brown/ Black Blue
Stora Bjers 1 Gotland, Sweden 7013–6629 NA Blond/ D-blond Blue
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 NA Black NA
Posted in Uncategorized

Phenotype SNPs from Mesolithic Scandinavia

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for genomes from Mesolithic Scandinavia. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 1 Southern Norway 7502–7325 2/2
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 7/7
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 3/3
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 78/78
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 1/1

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 4/4
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 1/1
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 100/100

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/8
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/3
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/97
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/1

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 1 Southern Norway 7502–7325 2/2
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 6/6
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 5/5
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 36/76
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 1/1

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 1 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/3
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/5
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/69
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/2

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 8/8
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 1/1
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 54/54
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 1/1

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/3
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/3
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/139
Stora Förvar 11 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7073–6810 0/1
Stora Bjers 1 Gotland, Sweden 7013–6629 0/1
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/1

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/4
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/1
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/117
Stora Förvar 11 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7073–6810 0/1

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/2
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/90

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/1
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/98

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/3
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/2
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/135
Stora Förvar 11 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7073–6810 0/1
Stora Bjers 1 Gotland, Sweden 7013–6629 0/1
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/1

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/4
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/4
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/149
Stora Förvar 11 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7073–6810 0/1
Stora Bjers 1 Gotland, Sweden 7013–6629 0/1
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/1

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 1 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/1
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/7
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/2
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/91
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/1

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/7
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/1
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/91

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 1 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/2
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/2
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/4
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/67
Stora Förvar 11 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7073–6810 0/1
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/2

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/3
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/2
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/97
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/3

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/3
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/3
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/103
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/2

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 1/2
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 1/2
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 81/81
Stora Bjers 1 Gotland, Sweden 7013–6629 1/1

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 3/3
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 2/97

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 1 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/2
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/6
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 43/75
Stora Förvar 11 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7073–6810 1/1
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/1

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 1 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/2
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/78
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/1

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 0/2
Stora Förvar 9 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7350–7038 0/3
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 0/80
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 0/3

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Location Date BC D/T
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 4/4
Stora Förvar 12 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7083–6807 28/58
Posted in Uncategorized

Y-SNP calls from Mesolithic Scandinavia

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for DNA samples from Mesolithic Scandinavia.

Sample Location Date BC Haplogroup
Hummervikholmen 2 Southern Norway 7502–7325 I2c1-S6635*
Stora Förvar 11 Stora Karlsö, Sweden 7073–6810 I1~M253
Stora Bjers 1 Gotland, Sweden 7013–6629 I2a1a2a~L1286*
Steigen 1 Northern Norway 4000–3814 I2a1b-M423
Posted in Uncategorized

K = 14 admixture analysis of early Holocene Alaskan genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes two genomes dating to the early Holocene from the Upward Sun River site in central Alaska. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The large amounts of the red and pink Amerindian components show that these samples are more closely related to Amerindians than to any other race, while the presence of the medium blue Mal’ta-related, yellow Mongoloid, and orange Eskimo components shows that they don’t share as much genetic drift with modern Amerindian populations as the Anzick 1 sample from Montana does.

Sample Location Culture Date BP
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230
USR2 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230

Posted in Uncategorized

Pigmentation of an early Holocene Alaskan

Below are predicted skin, hair, and eye color for USR1, a female infant whose skeleton, dated to the early Holocene, was found at the Upward Sun River site in central Alaska.

Sample Location Culture Date BP Skin Hair Eyes
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 Medium Black Brown
Posted in Uncategorized

Phenotype SNPs from early Holocene Alaska

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for two genomes dating to the early Holocene from the Upward Sun River site in central Alaska. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 21/21

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 18/18

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 6/13

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/37

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/16
USR2 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/1

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 16/16
USR2 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 1/1

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/15

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/18

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/20

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/25

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/22

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/19

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/17

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/16

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/22

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/21

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/25

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/26

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/21

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/23

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/22

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/35
USR2 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/1

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Location Culture Date BP D/T
USR1 Alaska Denali 11,600–11,230 0/14
Posted in Uncategorized
Categories