K = 14 admixture analysis of Neolithic European genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes 130 new genomes from Neolithic Europe. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The new samples are genetically similar to the previously published Neolithic European samples, being made up mostly of the light blue early European farmer component, with varying amounts of the dark blue Western European hunter-gatherer component.

The sample I4971 from the Early Neolithic Körös culture in Hungary is, like the previously published Körös sample KO1, atypical in that it’s made up entirely of the dark blue component.

The Middle Neolithic samples from the Blätterhöhle Cave site in Germany are also atypical, having significantly more of the dark blue component than other Neolithic European samples.

Sample Country Culture Date BC
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500
I2374 Hungary Körös 6000–5500
I4972 Hungary Körös 6000–5500
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556
I1876 Hungary Starčevo 5641–5547
I1885 Hungary Vinča 5359–5224
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081
I1887 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000
I1894 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000
I1896 Hungary Vinča 5320–5080
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300
I2382 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I2357 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I2375 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I2378 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I2383 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I2743 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I2744 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I2745 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I4186 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I4187 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I4199 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074
I1883 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5301–5076
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900
I3536 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900
I4181 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842
I1893 Hungary Sopot 5030–4848
I4185 Hungary Sopot 5016–4838
I1890 Hungary Sopot 5100–4750
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715
I4183 Hungary Sopot 4904–4709
I0447 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500
I2358 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500
I2359 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500
I2387 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500
I2746 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500
I1901 Hungary Lengyel 4936–4742
I1900 Hungary Lengyel 4796–4685
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500
I1902 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500
I2352 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257
I2353 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000
I2354 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000
I2356 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000
I2395 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000
I2394 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4339–4237
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900
I2351 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850
I2755 Hungary Baden 3600–2850
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929
I2368 Hungary Baden 3300–2850
I2763 Hungary Baden 3300–2850
I2005 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057
I2029 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057
I2016 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2017 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2020 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2021 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2032 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850
I2037 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002
I2008 Germany Linear Pottery 5212–4992
I2014 Germany Linear Pottery 5199–4857
I2012 Germany Rössen 4600–4300
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344
I1560 Germany Middle Neolithic 3780–3099
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117
I1594 Germany Middle Neolithic 3337–3024
I0800 Germany Salzmünde 3345–3097
I0802 Germany Salzmünde 3400–3025
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692
I3273 Spain Copper Age 3627–3363
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943
I3272 Spain Copper Age 3263–2903
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750
I3270 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918
I1975 Spain Copper Age 3090–2894
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877
I3277 Spain Copper Age 3100–2850
I1981 Spain Copper Age 3014–2891
I2473 Spain Copper Age 2916–2714
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346
I1976 Spain Copper Age 2571–2347
I2467 Spain Copper Age 2481–2212

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Phenotype SNPs from Neolithic Europe

Below are genotypes for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for samples from Neolithic Europe. Genotypes with derived alleles are highlighted. Note that derived alleles may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 AA
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 AA
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 AA
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 AA
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 AA
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 AA
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 AA
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 AA
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 AA
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 AA
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 GG
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 AA
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 AA

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 AA
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 AA
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 AA
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 AA
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 AA
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 AA
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 AA
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 AA
I1885 Hungary Vinča 5359–5224 AA
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 AA
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 AA
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361 AA
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 AA
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 AA
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 AA
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 AA
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 AA
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 AA
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 AA
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 AA
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 AA
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 AA
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 AA
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 AA
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 AA
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 AA
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 AA
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 AA
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 AA
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 AA
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 AA
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 GG
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 AA
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 AA
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 AA
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 AA
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 AA
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 AA
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 AA
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 AA
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 AA
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 AA
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 AA
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 AA
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024 AA
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 AA
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 AA
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 AA
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 AA
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 AA
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 AA
I2029 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057 AA
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I2026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I2032 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 AA
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 AA
I2037 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 AA
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 AA
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 AA
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 AA
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 AA
I2012 Germany Rössen 4600–4300 AA
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 AA
I0560 Germany Baalberge 3640–3376 AA
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 AA
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 AA
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 AA
I0551 Germany Salzmünde 3400–3025 AA
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 AA
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 AA
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 AA
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 AA
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 AA
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 AA
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 AA
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 AA
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 AA
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 AA
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 AA
I3273 Spain Copper Age 3627–3363 AA
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 AA
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 AA
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 AA
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 AA
I1981 Spain Copper Age 3014–2891 AA
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 AA
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 AA
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 AA
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1284 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1302 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 AA
I2467 Spain Copper Age 2481–2212 AA

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 CC
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 CC
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 CC
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 CC
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 CC
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 CC
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 CC
I1887 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000 CC
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 CC
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 TT
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 CC
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 CC
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 CC
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 CC
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I4199 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 TT
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 CC
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 CC
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 CC
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 CC
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 CC
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 CC
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I2358 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I1901 Hungary Lengyel 4936–4742 CC
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 CC
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I2352 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 CC
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 CC
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 CC
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 CC
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 TT
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 CC
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 CC
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 CC
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 TT
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 CC
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 CC
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 CC
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024 CC
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 CC
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 CC
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 CC
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2032 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 CC
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 CC
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 CC
I2008 Germany Linear Pottery 5212–4992 CC
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 CC
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 CC
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 CC
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 CC
I0560 Germany Baalberge 3640–3376 TT
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 CC
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 CC
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 CC
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 CC
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 CC
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 TT
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 CC
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 CC
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 CC
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 CC
I1981 Spain Copper Age 3014–2891 CC
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 CC
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 CC
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 CC
I1271 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 TT
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 TT
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 TT
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 TT
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 TT
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 TT
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 TT
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 TT
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 TT
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 TT
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 TT
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 TT
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 CC
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 TT
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 TT
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 TT
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 TT
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 TT
I1890 Hungary Sopot 5100–4750 TT
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 TT
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 TT
I2358 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 TT
I2746 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 TT
I1901 Hungary Lengyel 4936–4742 TT
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 TT
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 TT
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 TT
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 CC
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 TT
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 TT
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 TT
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 TT
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 TT
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 TT
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 TT
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 TT
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 TT
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 TT
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 TT
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 TT
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 TT
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 TT
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 TT
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 TT
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 TT
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 TT
I0560 Germany Baalberge 3640–3376 TT
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 TT
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 TT
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 TT
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 TT
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 TT
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 TT
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 TT
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 TT
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 TT
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 TT
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 TT
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 TT
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 TT
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 TT
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 TT
I1271 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1284 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 CC
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 CC
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 TT
I2743 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 TT
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 TT
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I1900 Hungary Lengyel 4796–4685 CC
I2354 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 CC
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 CC
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 CC
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 TT
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 TT
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 CC
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 CC
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 CC
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 CC
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 CC
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 CC
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 CC

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 TT
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 TT
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 TT
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 TT
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 TT
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 TT
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 TT
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 TT
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 TT
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 TT
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361 TT
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 TT
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 TT
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 TT
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 TT
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 TT
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 TT
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 TT
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 TT
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 TT
I2378 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 TT
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 TT
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 TT
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 TT
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 TT
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 TT
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 TT
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 TT
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 TT
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 TT
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 TT
I1901 Hungary Lengyel 4936–4742 TT
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 TT
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 TT
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 TT
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 TT
I2356 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 TT
I2395 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 TT
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 TT
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 TT
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 TT
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 TT
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 TT
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 TT
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 TT
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 TT
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 TT
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 TT
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 TT
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 TT
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 TT
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024 TT
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 TT
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 TT
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 TT
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 TT
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 TT
I2029 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057 TT
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I2032 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 TT
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 TT
I2037 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 TT
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 TT
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 TT
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 TT
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 TT
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 TT
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 TT
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 TT
I0800 Germany Salzmünde 3345–3097 TT
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 TT
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 TT
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 TT
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 TT
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 TT
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 TT
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 TT
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 TT
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 TT
I3273 Spain Copper Age 3627–3363 TT
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 TT
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 TT
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 TT
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 TT
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 TT
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 TT
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 TT
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 TT
I1276 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 TT

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 GG
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 GG
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 GG
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 GG
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 GG
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 GG
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 GG
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 GG
I1876 Hungary Starčevo 5641–5547 GG
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 GG
I1887 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000 GG
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361 GG
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 GG
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 GG
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 GG
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 GG
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 GG
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 GG
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 GG
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 GG
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2744 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 GG
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 GG
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 GG
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 GG
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 GG
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 GG
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 GG
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I1901 Hungary Lengyel 4936–4742 GG
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 GG
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I2352 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 GG
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 GG
I2353 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 GG
I2356 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 GG
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 GG
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 GG
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 GG
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 GG
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 GG
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 GG
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 GG
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 GG
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 GG
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 GG
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024 GG
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 GG
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 GG
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 GG
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0797 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2016 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 GG
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 GG
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 GG
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 GG
I2037 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 GG
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 GG
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 GG
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 GG
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 GG
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 GG
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 GG
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 GG
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 GG
I1594 Germany Middle Neolithic 3337–3024 GG
I0800 Germany Salzmünde 3345–3097 GG
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 GG
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 GG
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 GG
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 GG
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 GG
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 GG
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 GG
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3270 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 GG
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 GG
I1981 Spain Copper Age 3014–2891 AA
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 GG
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 GG
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 GG
I1271 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 GG

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 GG
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 GG
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 GG
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 GG
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 GG
I1896 Hungary Vinča 5320–5080 GG
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 GG
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 GG
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 GG
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 GG
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 GG
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 GG
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 GG
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 GG
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 GG
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 GG
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 GG
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 GG
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 GG
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 TT
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 GG
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 GG
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 GG
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 GG
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 GG
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 GG
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 GG
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 GG
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 GG
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 GG
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 GG
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 GG
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 GG
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 GG
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 GG
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 GG
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 TT
I2037 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 GG
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 GG
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 GG
I2012 Germany Rössen 4600–4300 GG
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 GG
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 GG
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 GG
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 GG
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 TT
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 GG
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 GG
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 GG
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 GG
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 GG
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 GG
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 GG
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 GG
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 GG
I1282 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1284 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 TT

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 CC
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 CC
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 CC
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 CC
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 CC
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 CC
I1896 Hungary Vinča 5320–5080 CC
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 CC
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 CC
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 CC
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 CC
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 CC
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 CC
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 CC
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2744 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I4187 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 CC
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 CC
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 CC
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 CC
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 CC
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 CC
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 CC
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I2358 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I1901 Hungary Lengyel 4936–4742 CC
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 CC
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 CC
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 CC
I2395 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 CC
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 CC
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 CC
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 CC
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 CC
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 CC
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 CC
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 CC
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 CC
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 CC
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 CC
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 CC
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 CC
I2029 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057 CC
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2032 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 CC
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 CC
I2037 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 CC
I2008 Germany Linear Pottery 5212–4992 CC
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 CC
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 CC
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 CC
I2012 Germany Rössen 4600–4300 CC
I0560 Germany Baalberge 3640–3376 CC
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 CC
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 CC
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 CC
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 CC
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 CC
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 CC
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 CC
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 CC
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I3273 Spain Copper Age 3627–3363 CC
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 CC
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 CC
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 CC
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 CC
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 CC
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 CC
I1276 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1976 Spain Copper Age 2571–2347 CC
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 CC

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 CC
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 CC
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 CC
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 CC
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 CC
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 CC
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 CC
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 CC
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 CC
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 CC
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361 CC
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 CC
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 CC
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 CC
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 CC
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 CC
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 CC
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 TT
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 CC
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2378 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2744 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 CC
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 CC
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 CC
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 CC
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 CC
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 CC
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I1901 Hungary Lengyel 4936–4742 CC
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 CC
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 CC
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 CC
I2353 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 CC
I2356 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 CC
I2395 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 CC
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 CC
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 CC
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 CC
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 CC
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 CC
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 CC
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 CC
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 CC
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 CC
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 CC
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 CC
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024 CC
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 CC
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 CC
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 CC
I2029 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057 CC
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2032 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 CC
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 CC
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 CC
I2037 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 CC
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 CC
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 CC
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 CC
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 CC
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 CC
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 CC
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 CC
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 CC
I0800 Germany Salzmünde 3345–3097 CC
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 CC
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 CC
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 CC
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 CC
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 CC
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 CC
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I3273 Spain Copper Age 3627–3363 CC
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 CC
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 CC
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 CC
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 CC
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 CC
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 CC
I1276 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 CC

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 CC
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 CC
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 CC
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 CC
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 CC
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 CC
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 CC
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 CC
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 CC
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 CC
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 CC
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 CC
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 CC
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 CC
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 CC
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 CC
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 CC
I2378 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2745 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 CC
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 CC
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 CC
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 CC
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 CC
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 CC
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 CC
I2395 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 CC
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 CC
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 CC
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 CC
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 CC
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 CC
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 CC
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 CC
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 CC
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 CC
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 CC
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 CC
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 CC
I2029 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057 CC
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2032 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 CC
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 CC
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 CC
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 TT
I2037 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 CC
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 CC
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 CC
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 CC
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 CC
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 CC
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 CC
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 CC
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 CC
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 CC
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 CC
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 CC
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 CC
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 CC
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 CC
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 CC
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 CC
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 CC
I1276 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 CC

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 GG
I2374 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 GG
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 GG
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 GG
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 GG
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 GG
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 GG
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 GG
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 GG
I1876 Hungary Starčevo 5641–5547 GG
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 GG
I1896 Hungary Vinča 5320–5080 GG
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 GG
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361 GG
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 GG
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 GG
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 GG
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 GG
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 GG
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 GG
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 GG
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 GG
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2357 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2383 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2745 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I4199 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 GG
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 GG
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 GG
I1883 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5301–5076 GG
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 GG
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 GG
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 GG
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 GG
I1893 Hungary Sopot 5030–4848 GG
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 GG
I0447 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I2358 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I1900 Hungary Lengyel 4796–4685 GG
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 GG
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1902 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 GG
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 GG
I2354 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 GG
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 GG
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 GG
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 GG
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 GG
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 GG
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 GG
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 GG
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 GG
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 GG
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 GG
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024 GG
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 GG
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 GG
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 GG
I2005 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057 GG
I2029 Germany Linear Pottery 5295–5057 GG
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0797 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 GG
I2008 Germany Linear Pottery 5212–4992 GG
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 GG
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 GG
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 GG
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 GG
I0560 Germany Baalberge 3640–3376 GG
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 GG
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 GG
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 GG
I0551 Germany Salzmünde 3400–3025 GG
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 GG
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 GG
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 GG
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 GG
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 GG
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 GG
I3272 Spain Copper Age 3263–2903 GG
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3270 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 CC
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 GG
I3277 Spain Copper Age 3100–2850 GG
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 GG
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 GG
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 GG
I1276 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 GG

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 GG
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 GG
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 GG
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 GG
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 GG
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 GG
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 GG
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 GG
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 GG
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 GG
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 GG
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 GG
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 GG
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 GG
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 GG
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 GG
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 GG
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2357 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2375 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2743 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I4199 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 GG
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 GG
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 GG
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 GG
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 GG
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 GG
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 GG
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I2358 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 GG
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 GG
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 GG
I2356 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 GG
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 GG
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 GG
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 GG
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 GG
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 GG
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 GG
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 GG
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 GG
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 GG
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 GG
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 GG
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 GG
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 GG
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 GG
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 GG
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2020 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 GG
I2008 Germany Linear Pottery 5212–4992 GG
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 GG
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 GG
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 GG
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 GG
I0807 Germany Baalberge 3970–3710 GG
I0560 Germany Baalberge 3640–3376 GG
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 GG
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 GG
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 GG
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 GG
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 GG
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 GG
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 GG
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 GG
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 GG
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 GG
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 GG
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 GG
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3270 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 GG
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 GG
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 GG
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 GG
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 GG
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 GG

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2374 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 CC
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 CC
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 CC
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 CC
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 CC
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 CC
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 CC
I1887 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000 CC
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361 CC
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 CC
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 CC
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 CC
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 CC
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 CC
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 CC
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 CC
I2383 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 CC
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 CC
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 CC
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 CC
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 CC
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 CC
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 CC
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 CC
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 CC
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 CC
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 CC
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 CC
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 CC
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 CC
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024 CC
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 CC
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 CC
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 CC
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 CC
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0797 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 CC
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 CC
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 CC
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 CC
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 CC
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 CC
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 CC
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 CC
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 CC
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 CC
I0802 Germany Salzmünde 3400–3025 CC
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 CC
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 CC
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 CC
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 CC
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 CC
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 CC
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 CC
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 CC
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 CC
I1981 Spain Copper Age 3014–2891 CC
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 CC
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 CC
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 CC
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 CC

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 TT
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 TT
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 TT
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 TT
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 TT
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 TT
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 TT
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 TT
I1887 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000 TT
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 TT
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 TT
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 TT
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 TT
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 TT
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 TT
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 TT
I2357 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 TT
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 TT
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 TT
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 TT
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 TT
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 TT
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 TT
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 TT
I1893 Hungary Sopot 5030–4848 TT
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 TT
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 TT
I1902 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 TT
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 TT
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 TT
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 TT
I2395 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 TT
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 TT
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 TT
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 TT
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 TT
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 TT
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 TT
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 TT
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 TT
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 TT
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 TT
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 TT
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 TT
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 TT
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 TT
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 TT
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 TT
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 TT
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 TT
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 TT
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 TT
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 TT
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 TT
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 TT
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 TT
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 TT
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 TT
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 TT
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 TT
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 TT
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 TT
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 TT
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 TT
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 TT
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 TT
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 TT
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 TT
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 TT
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 TT
I1981 Spain Copper Age 3014–2891 TT
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 TT
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 TT
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 TT
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1282 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 TT

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 GG
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 AA
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 AA
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 AA
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 GG
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 AA
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 AA
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 GG
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 AA
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 AA
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 AA
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 AA
I2378 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 AA
I2743 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I4199 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 AA
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 GG
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 AA
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 AA
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 AA
I3536 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 AA
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 AA
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 AA
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 GG
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 AA
I2359 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 AA
I1902 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 AA
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 AA
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 AA
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 GG
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 AA
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 AA
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 AA
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 AA
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 GG
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 AA
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 AA
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 GG
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 GG
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 AA
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 AA
I2754 Hungary Baden 3337–3024 AA
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 AA
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 AA
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 AA
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 AA
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 AA
I2368 Hungary Baden 3300–2850 AA
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 AA
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 AA
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 GG
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 AA
I2008 Germany Linear Pottery 5212–4992 GG
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 GG
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 GG
I2014 Germany Linear Pottery 5199–4857 GG
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 GG
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 AA
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 GG
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 GG
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 GG
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 GG
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 AA
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 AA
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 AA
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 GG
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 AA
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 AA
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 GG
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 AA
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 AA
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 AA
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 AA
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 AA
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 AA
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 AA
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1976 Spain Copper Age 2571–2347 AA

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 AA
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 AA
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 AA
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 AA
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 AA
I1887 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000 AA
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361 AA
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 AA
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 AA
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 GG
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 AA
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 AA
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 AA
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 AA
I2745 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 AA
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 AA
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 GG
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 AA
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 AA
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 AA
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 AA
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 AA
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 AA
I2356 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 AA
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 AA
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 AA
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 AA
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 AA
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 AA
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 AA
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 AA
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 AA
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 AA
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 AA
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 AA
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 AA
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 AA
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 AA
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 AA
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 AA
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 AA
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 AA
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 AA
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 AA
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 AA
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 AA
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 AA
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 AA
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 AA
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 AA
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 AA
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 AA
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 GG
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 AA
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 AA
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 AA
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 AA

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 CC
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 CC
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 CC
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 CC
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 GG
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 GG
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 CC
I1894 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000 GG
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 CC
I3537 Hungary Alföld 5481–5361 CC
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 CC
I2382 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 GG
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 GG
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 CC
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 GG
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 CC
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 GG
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 CC
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 GG
I2355 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2357 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2378 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 CC
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 GG
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 CC
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 CC
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 GG
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 GG
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I2358 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I1901 Hungary Lengyel 4936–4742 CC
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 CC
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 GG
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 CC
I2353 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 GG
I2354 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 GG
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 CC
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 GG
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 GG
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 GG
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 GG
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 CC
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 CC
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 GG
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 CC
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 CC
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 CC
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 GG
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 GG
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 GG
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2036 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 GG
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 CC
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 GG
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 CC
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 CC
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 GG
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 CC
I0560 Germany Baalberge 3640–3376 CC
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 CC
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 CC
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 CC
I1594 Germany Middle Neolithic 3337–3024 CC
I0551 Germany Salzmünde 3400–3025 CC
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 CC
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 GG
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 CC
I2199 Spain Early Neolithic 5216–5031 GG
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 CC
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I3273 Spain Copper Age 3627–3363 CC
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 CC
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3270 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 CC
I1975 Spain Copper Age 3090–2894 GG
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 CC
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 CC
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 CC
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1976 Spain Copper Age 2571–2347 GG
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 GG

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 CC
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 CC
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 CC
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 CC
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 AA
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 CC
I1896 Hungary Vinča 5320–5080 AA
I1889 Hungary Vinča 5202–4851 CC
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 CC
I2382 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 CC
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 CC
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 AA
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 AA
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 CC
I2375 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2743 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2745 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I4199 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 CC
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 CC
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 CC
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 CC
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 CC
I1882 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I4196 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5300–4900 CC
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 CC
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 CC
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I2359 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 CC
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 CC
I1902 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 CC
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 CC
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 CC
I2353 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 AA
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 AA
I1909 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4232–4046 CC
I1908 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 CC
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 AA
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 CC
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 CC
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 CC
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 CC
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 AA
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 AA
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 AA
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 AA
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 AA
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 CC
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 CC
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 AA
I0022 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0797 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2016 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I2030 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 CC
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 CC
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 CC
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 CC
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 CC
I0659 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4963 CC
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 CC
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 AA
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 CC
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 CC
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 CC
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 CC
I1594 Germany Middle Neolithic 3337–3024 CC
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 AA
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 CC
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 CC
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 CC
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 CC
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 CC
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 CC
I0405 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I0407 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 CC
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 AA
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 CC
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 CC
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 CC
I3277 Spain Copper Age 3100–2850 CC
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 CC
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 AA
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 AA
I1271 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1302 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1303 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 CC
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 CC

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Country Culture Date BC GT
I2373 Hungary Körös 6000–5500 GG
I1508 Hungary Körös 5713–5566 GG
I2794 Hungary Körös 5706–5541 GG
I1878 Hungary Starčevo 5832–5667 GG
I1880 Hungary Starčevo 5800–5500 GG
I1877 Hungary Starčevo 5704–5556 GG
I0174 Hungary Starčevo 5702–5536 GG
I1885 Hungary Vinča 5359–5224 GG
I1895 Hungary Vinča 5321–5081 GG
I1887 Hungary Vinča 5400–5000 GG
I2380 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 GG
I2376 Hungary Alföld 5500–5000 AA
I1506 Hungary Alföld 5306–5071 GG
I2384 Hungary Alföld 5302–5057 GG
I1498 Hungary Alföld 5291–5056 GG
I1500 Hungary Alföld 5295–4950 GG
I1505 Hungary Alföld 5211–5011 GG
I2743 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I4188 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 GG
I2377 Hungary Alföld 5208–4942 GG
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 AA
I1499 Hungary Bükk 5281–5026 GG
I2739 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5309–5074 GG
I1904 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5208–4948 GG
I1891 Hungary Sopot 5195–4842 GG
I4184 Hungary Sopot 4930–4715 GG
I0447 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I2746 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 GG
I1905 Hungary Lengyel 4826–4602 GG
I1899 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1903 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1906 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 GG
I1495 Hungary Lengyel 4491–4357 GG
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 GG
I2356 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4500–4000 GG
I2394 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4339–4237 GG
I1907 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4333–4072 GG
I4189 Hungary Balaton-Lasinya 4300–3900 AA
I2783 Hungary Hunyadihalom 4228–3963 GG
I2788 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3909–3651 GG
I2789 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3800–3600 AA
I2790 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3762–3636 AA
I2791 Hungary Proto-Boleráz 3658–3384 GG
I2369 Hungary Baden 3367–3103 GG
I2371 Hungary Baden 3359–3098 GG
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2785 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 GG
I2370 Hungary Baden 3346–2945 GG
I2366 Hungary Baden 3340–2945 GG
I2367 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 GG
I1497 Hungary Baden 3315–2923 AA
I0018 Germany Linear Pottery 5310–5076 GG
I0025 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0026 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I1550 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I2038 Germany Linear Pottery 5500–4850 GG
I0054 Germany Linear Pottery 5223–5021 AA
I0057 Germany Linear Pottery 5219–5021 GG
I0056 Germany Linear Pottery 5213–5009 GG
I0048 Germany Linear Pottery 5210–5002 GG
I0046 Germany Linear Pottery 5211–4991 GG
I0100 Germany Linear Pottery 5202–4852 GG
I0821 Germany Linear Pottery 5201–4850 GG
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 GG
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 AA
I1563 Germany Middle Neolithic 3704–3117 GG
CB13 Spain Early Neolithic 5469–5327 GG
I0409 Spain Early Neolithic 5311–5218 GG
I0412 Spain Early Neolithic 5310–5078 GG
I0413 Spain Early Neolithic 5303–5075 GG
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 GG
I1972 Spain Early Neolithic 4827–4692 GG
I0408 Spain Middle Neolithic 3893–3661 GG
I0406 Spain Middle Neolithic 3900–3600 AA
I1838 Spain Copper Age 3354–2943 GG
I3272 Spain Copper Age 3263–2903 GG
I3269 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3271 Spain Copper Age 3350–2750 GG
I3276 Spain Copper Age 3092–2918 AA
I1843 Spain Copper Age 3092–2877 GG
I0581 Spain Copper Age 2900–2679 GG
I1281 Spain Copper Age 2865–2575 GG
I1272 Spain Copper Age 2857–2496 GG
I1280 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I1300 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 GG
I5838 Spain Copper Age 2900–2346 AA
I1277 Spain Copper Age 2568–2346 GG
Posted in Uncategorized

Y-SNP calls from Neolithic Europe

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for DNA samples from Neolithic Europe.

Sample Country Culture Date BC Haplogroup
I4971 Hungary Körös 5736–5547 I2a2~M436(xI2a2a)
I2382 Hungary Alföld 5500–5300 H2~P96
I3535 Hungary Alföld 5221–5000 I2~M438
I2378 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 I2a2a~M223
I4187 Hungary Alföld 5300–4900 H2~P96
I2379 Hungary Alföld 5209–4912 I2a2a1b-CTS10057
I1883 Hungary Linear Pottery T 5301–5076 G2a~P15
I4185 Hungary Sopot 5016–4838 J2~M172(xJ2b)
I1890 Hungary Sopot 5100–4750 I2~M438
I0449 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 I2a1-P37(xM26, M423)
I2387 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 I2~M438
I2746 Hungary Tisza 5000–4500 G2a~P15
I1900 Hungary Lengyel 4796–4685 E1b1b1a1b1~L618
I1902 Hungary Lengyel 4800–4500 J2a1~Z6055
I2793 Hungary Tiszapolgár 4444–4257 I2a2a1b-CTS10057
I2752 Hungary Baden 3600–2850 I2a1a1~M26
I2753 Hungary Baden 3332–2929 I2a1a1-M26
I0795 Germany Linear Pottery 5217–5041 T1~L206
I0807 Germany Baalberge 3970–3710 I2~M438
I0559 Germany Baalberge 3654–3527 R1b1a2~V88
I1565 Germany Middle Neolithic 4038–3532 I2a1-P37(xM26, M423)
I1593 Germany Middle Neolithic 3958–3344 R1b1a2~V88
I1594 Germany Middle Neolithic 3337–3024 R1b1a2~V88
I0410 Spain Early Neolithic 5294–5066 R1b1a2b1~Y8451*
Posted in Uncategorized

K = 14 admixture analysis of Berber Guanche genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes genomes from the part of the aboriginal population of the Canary Islands that was descended from Berbers. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The Berber Guanche samples are, unsurprisingly, genetically similar to the modern Mozabite Berber samples, although they have a bit less of the brown Negro component than the Mozabite samples do, with 10.13% of the component on average compared to 16.00% on average for the Mozabites.

The authors of the paper that the samples below came from would like everyone to believe that these samples are representative of all of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, but as I explained in the preceding post, that’s a lie. There were Guanches who were descended from Europeans, who had a Northern European phenotype, and who belonged to European Y haplogroups, but genome-wide data for those European Guanches did not appear in the latest paper, and the leftist, anti-White “scientific community” would prefer that the public never sees such data.

Sample Island Date AD
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155
gun011 Tenerife 695–888
gun012 Tenerife 582–660
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992

Posted in Uncategorized

Phenotype SNPs for Berber Guanches

At the bottom of this post are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for genomes from the part of the aboriginal population of the Canary Islands that was descended from Berbers. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

The paper that the samples below came from paints a picture of an aboriginal population of the Canary Islands which was overwhelmingly homogeneous, and descended from Berbers or a Berber-like population, with only “possible low-level gene flow” or “possible small-scale introgression” from non-Berber populations, which they claim would have taken place after the Berbers first populated the islands. This picture is largely in line with the recent, politically-correct narrative from the “scientific community”, which is that prior to the 15th century AD the Canary Islands were inhabited by Berbers and no one else. This narrative is false, and the authors of the paper must know perfectly well that it’s false.

In my post on the Chachapoyas from 2014, I cited this 2009 paper, which found that 3 out of 30 Guanche Y-DNA samples belonged to the European haplogroup R1b-M269, and that 2 out of the 30 belonged to the European haplogroup I. One of the 30 samples was identified as P*, which is almost certainly in actuality the European haplogroup R1b-V88. Later, this 2017 paper (whose main results can be seen here for free) found that 7 out of 16 Guanche Y-DNA samples from the island of El Hierro belonged to R1b-M269. The fact that these European haplogroups were found in Guanche DNA samples is not mentioned once in the new paper, and not one of the new paper’s samples belonged to these European haplogroups, which is quite convenient for the recent PC narrative.

In my Chachapoyas post I noted that parallel to the heterogeneous mix of European and Berber Y haplogroups among the Guanches, there was a heterogeneous mix of phenotypes among them, with some of them having traits typical of modern Northern Europeans (including fair skin, blond and red hair, and blue and green eyes), and others having traits typical of the earliest inhabitants of North Africa (darker skin, dark brown or black hair, and brown eyes). In the new paper the authors state that “at least for this sample of Guanches the dominating phenotype was lactose intolerant, dark hair, light or medium skin color, and brown eyes”, as if they were unaware that there are other Guanche remains, conveniently “overlooked” by their paper, which would certainly yield very different DNA results.

The distribution of these heterogeneous phenotypes differed both between the islands of the Canary archipelago and within each island. The Guanches in the northern part of Tenerife tended to have lighter pigmentation, while those in the southern part tended to have darker pigmentation. The Guanches of Tenerife on the whole tended to have lighter pigmentation than those of Gran Canaria. The Guanches on the easternmost islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were on average the darkest of the Guanches, which suggests that the earliest inhabitants of the islands were those with a Northern European phenotype, and that the Berbers, with their darker features, arrived later and partially displaced the Europeans, with more displacement occurring on the islands closest to the African continent.

A good source for information on the pigmentation of the Guanches is the table on page 5 and pages 74–78 of Earnest Hooton’s 1925 work The Ancient Inhabitants of the Canary Islands. Page 74 gives the following poem from 1604 by the Tenerife poet Antonio de Viana, describing Princess Dácil, daughter of the Guanche mencey (king) Bencomo, as having fair, rosy skin, blond hair, and green eyes:

Largo cabello mas que el sol dorado,
Cejas sútiles, que del color mismo
Parecen arcos de oro, y corresponden
Crecidas las pestañas á sus visos,
Los ojos bellos son como esmeraldas,
Cercadas de cristales transparentes,
Entreveradas de zelosos círculos
Cual bello rosicler las dos mejillas
Y afilada nariz proporcionada,
Graciosa boca, cuyos gruesos labios
Parecen hechos de coral purísimo…
Hermoso rostro de color de nieve,
Con fuego y sangre misturado á partes…

Gordon Kennedy gives the following English translation of this poem in his book The White Indians of Nivaria:

Long hair more golden than the sun,
Eyebrows subtle, of the same golden color
That seem like golden arches, and correspond
The brown eye lashes to her semblance,
Beautiful eyes like emeralds,
Enclosed by transparent crystals,
And shine rose circles
As beautiful as flowers her cheeks
Sharp nose in proportion,
To a graceful mouth with thick lips
Seem made of the purest fine coral…
Beautiful face the color of snow,
With blood and fire intermixed…

On page 20, in reference to part of a 1594 work on the Guanches of Tenerife by the Dominican friar Alonso de Espinosa, Hooton notes that there were distinct social classes on Tenerife, and that these social distinctions seemed to be related to the distinct racial elements present on the island:

This passage implies a flock-owning aristocracy and a racially distinct peasantry. It is highly reminiscent of the class distinctions so sharply drawn in the Hamitic field and also of the position of the Fulah among the Negroes of the Sudan. The Guanche nobles attempted to preserve a pure line by practicing endogamy, and of the king or lord Espinosa says: “The lord did not marry with anyone of the lower orders, and if there was no one he could marry without staining the lineage, brothers were married to sisters.”

Espinosa and Galindo agree that some of the inhabitants of the island were fair and others dark and it is extremely probable that social lines followed this racial division, although it is cited by Espinosa as a topographical distinction between the people of the north and those of the south. It seems probable too that the flock-owning aristocracy was the blond element and that the peasantry was gathered from the small brunet and more brachycephalic element, from the fact that the blonds were said to be on the northern side of the island, which includes Laguna and the Vale of Orotava and all of the more pleasant and fertile areas of the island. Furthermore one cannot help being influenced by the fact that the tall, blond, pastoral people have almost invariably established themselves as military overlords of the people with whom they have come into contact throughout the Old and New Worlds. That the brunet population should be larger toward the south of Tenerife is natural when one considers, on the one hand, the aridity and relatively undesirable character of that part of the island and, on the other, its proximity to Gomera and Hierro where the people were darker.

Note that, as in ancient Peru, only members of the Guanche upper classes were mummified after death. Their mummies were placed in the many caves on the islands. The members of the Guanche lower classes were simply buried. Note also that the DNA samples for the new paper didn’t come from Guanche mummies, but from detached skulls.

The Italian military engineer Leonardo Torriani lived on the Canary Islands between 1584 and 1596, when he was employed by the Spanish to work on the islands’ defensive infrastructure. During his time there he wrote Description and History of the Kingdom of the Canary Islands. A color scan of the original manuscript in Italian can be downloaded here, and a black-and-white scan of a Spanish translation of the book can be downloaded here. The book includes four watercolor paintings of Guanches on different islands, shown below. The Guanches in the first, third, and fourth paintings have a medium brown hair color, while the Guanches in the second painting, which are shown performing a type of ritual combat on the island of Gran Canaria, have rosy cheeks and long blond or light brown hair.

Gran Canaria Guanches

Gran Canaria Guanche warriors

La Gomera Guanches

El Hierro Guanches

In my post on ancient Egyptian genomes I included the two images below, which are from murals illustrating the Book of Gates in the tomb of pharaoh Seti I, who ruled Egypt from 1290 to 1279 BC. The four men on the left of the first image and the four men at the top right of the second image are ancient Libyans, and in my post I noted that they look more like modern Northern Europeans than modern Northwest Africans.

On pages 39–41 of his 1914 work The Eastern Libyans, Oric Bates discusses the presence of people with Northern European features in North Africa. He observes that ancient Egyptian artwork from the Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC) depicting Libyans shows only people with dark features, while such artwork from the New Kingdom (1550–1069 BC) shows people with predominantly Northern European features, including fair skin, blond and red hair, and blue eyes. This observation is consistent with a migration of people coming ultimately from Northern Europe into North Africa around 2000 BC, which is around the time that Indo-Europeans belonging to Y haplogroup R1b-M269 first started migrating from Northern Europe into the Iberian peninsula in large numbers. It appears that this southward migration did not stop at the Strait of Gibraltar, but continued into North Africa, and also brought R1b-M269 and Northern European physical traits to the Canary Islands.

This southward migration of R1b-M269 people took place around the beginning of the Bronze Age in Western Europe. In my White Gods post from 2013 I included photographs of spiral petroglyphs on the island of La Palma in the Canary archipelago. This page and this page note the strong similarity between these Canary Island petroglyphs and Breton and Irish petroglyphs which are generally assigned to the Bronze Age.

It’s possible that the haplogroups I and R1b-V88 found in Guanche DNA samples entered the Canary Islands around 2000 BC, as R1b-M269 did, but it seems more likely that they were brought to the islands as the result of the earlier expansion of the Megalithic culture from Iberia into Northwest Africa. I mentioned this expansion in connection with the spread of R1b-V88 from Europe to Africa in my comments in this thread. Another commenter in the thread noted that this expansion took place during the most recent Green Sahara period. The general scenario that I proposed in that thread was later confirmed by this paper on Neolithic DNA samples from Morocco, which showed a significant migration of Europeans from Iberia into Morocco between 5000 and 3000 BC.

The fact that the Berber migrants to the Canary Islands belonged to Y haplogroup E1b1b-M81 implies that they must have arrived there relatively recently, because E1b1b-M81’s TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) is only 2,300 years ago. The Berber Guanches may have been descended from Numidians, whose kingdom lasted from 202 to 40 BC, and whose king Juba II (52 BC – 23 AD) is known to have sent an expedition to the islands.

The latest paper on Guanche DNA, with its convenient omission of samples from European Guanches, shows that, as with the ancient European inhabitants of the Americas and Polynesia, the leftist, anti-White “scientific community” will do everything in its power to suppress knowledge of the ancient European inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 2/2

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 3/3

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/2

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/3
gun012 Tenerife 582–660 0/2

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/8

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 3/8
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 1/1

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/6
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 0/1

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/7
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 0/1

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/1

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/3
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/5
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 0/1

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/6
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 0/1

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/2
gun012 Tenerife 582–660 0/2
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 0/1

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/5

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/8
gun012 Tenerife 582–660 0/1

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/6
gun012 Tenerife 582–660 1/1

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/10
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/6
gun012 Tenerife 582–660 0/1
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 0/2

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 7/7

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 2/3

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/5
gun012 Tenerife 582–660 1/1
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 4/4
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 0/1
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 0/2

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Island Date AD D/T
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 0/1
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 0/6
gun012 Tenerife 582–660 0/2
gun005 Gran Canaria 895–1017 1/1
gun008 Gran Canaria 879–992 1/3
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Y-SNP calls for Guanches

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for DNA samples from Guanches, the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

It’s quite convenient for mainstream narratives about the Canary Islands that genome-wide data for the Guanche DNA samples found to belong to Y haplogroups R1b and I didn’t appear in the recent paper that the samples below came from.

Sample Island Date AD Haplogroup
gun001 Tenerife NA E1b1b1b1a-M81
gun002 Tenerife 1024–1155 E1b1b1b1a1o-BY10311
gun006 Gran Canaria NA T1a2a-Y13274
gun007 Gran Canaria NA E or T1a2
gun011 Tenerife 695–888 E1b1b1b1a1-PF2546
gun012 Tenerife 582–660 E1b1b1b1a1-M183
gun014 Tenerife NA Probably E1b1b1b1a-M81
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K = 14 admixture analysis of Bronze Age German warrior genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes genomes from a Bronze Age battlefield at the archeological site of Weltzin, in the Tollense valley, in northeastern Germany. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The Tollense valley warriors are genetically similar to the Late Neolithic Nordic samples, the German Bell Beaker samples, and the Unetice samples.

The one Tollense valley sample dated to 2960 BC is similar to other Middle and Late Neolithic samples from Western and Central Europe.

Sample Period Date BC
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ35 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ53 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ64 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250

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