qpAdm analysis confirms European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

To provide further confirmation of my discovery two years ago that Chinchorro DNA contains European admixture, I’ve performed a number of qpAdm analyses using the following populations:

  • Target population: One of 23 ancient American samples, including the Chinchorro sample.
  • Source population 1: A collection of populations shown to be purely Amerindian in admixture analyses: Mixe, Piapoco, Wichi, Chané, Karitiana, and Surui.
  • Source population 2: One of 11 ancient or modern Caucasoid or Veddoid populations.
  • Outgroup populations: Mbuti Pygmies, Han Chinese, Nganasans, Eskimos, and Papuans.

In the table below are the mean Caucasoid mixture coefficients for the 253 analyses, and also the coefficients plus or minus one standard error, in decreasing order of the lower bound. The 11 analyses in which the Chinchorro mummy sample was the target population have the 11 largest lower bounds. The mean coefficients for the Chinchorro sample tend to be around 0.45, with the lower bounds mostly around 0.30.

Target                Source 2           − 1 SE   Mean     + 1 SE
Chinchorro mummy      Pit Grave CA       0.3526   0.5426   0.7326
Chinchorro mummy      Spanish            0.3141   0.4741   0.6341
Chinchorro mummy      Iran EN            0.3070   0.4770   0.6470
Chinchorro mummy      Mala               0.2927   0.4697   0.6467
Chinchorro mummy      NW Asia Minor EN   0.2868   0.4368   0.5868
Chinchorro mummy      Pre-LGM Euro       0.2849   0.4749   0.6649
Chinchorro mummy      West Euro HG       0.2841   0.4481   0.6121
Chinchorro mummy      Georgia HG         0.2634   0.4014   0.5394
Chinchorro mummy      Tamil              0.2595   0.4205   0.5815
Chinchorro mummy      East Euro HG       0.2280   0.5600   0.8920
Chinchorro mummy      Natufian           0.1447   0.3457   0.5467
Mex mummy F9          East Euro HG       0.1303   0.4593   0.7883
Mex mummy F9          Spanish            0.1033   0.2683   0.4333
Mex mummy F9          Pit Grave CA       0.0964   0.2944   0.4924
Mex mummy F9          Tamil              0.0954   0.2844   0.4734
Mex mummy F9          West Euro HG       0.0924   0.3034   0.5144
Mex mummy F9          NW Asia Minor EN   0.0896   0.2476   0.4056
Mex mummy F9          Georgia HG         0.0880   0.2470   0.4060
Mex mummy F9          Iran EN            0.0720   0.2570   0.4420
Patagonian AM73       Natufian           0.0668   0.1698   0.2728
Mex mummy F9          Pre-LGM Euro       0.0611   0.2161   0.3711
Micmac MARC1492       Georgia HG         0.0359   0.0749   0.1139
Micmac MARC1492       Pit Grave CA       0.0355   0.0785   0.1215
Micmac MARC1492       NW Asia Minor EN   0.0336   0.0686   0.1036
Brazilian Enoque65    Natufian           0.0335   0.1025   0.1715
Brazilian Enoque65    Mala               0.0334   0.0874   0.1414
Micmac MARC1492       Spanish            0.0326   0.0706   0.1086
Micmac MARC1492       Iran EN            0.0323   0.0673   0.1023
Pericú BC25           Spanish            0.0233   0.0563   0.0893
Brazilian Enoque65    Tamil              0.0232   0.0792   0.1352
Pericú BC25           West Euro HG       0.0231   0.0591   0.0951
Pericú BC25           Georgia HG         0.0225   0.0565   0.0905
Pericú BC25           NW Asia Minor EN   0.0222   0.0532   0.0842
Pericú BC25           Pre-LGM Euro       0.0220   0.0550   0.0880
Pericú BC25           Tamil              0.0217   0.0577   0.0937
Micmac MARC1492       East Euro HG       0.0209   0.0779   0.1349
Pericú BC25           Pit Grave CA       0.0204   0.0604   0.1004
Micmac MARC1492       West Euro HG       0.0204   0.0624   0.1044
Pericú BC25           Mala               0.0186   0.0546   0.0906
Pericú BC25           Iran EN            0.0184   0.0504   0.0824
Mex mummy F9          Mala               0.0184   0.2364   0.4544
Micmac MARC1492       Natufian           0.0151   0.0581   0.1011
Micmac MARC1492       Pre-LGM Euro       0.0146   0.0516   0.0886
Brazilian Enoque65    Georgia HG         0.0133   0.0683   0.1233
Pericú BC25           Natufian           0.0128   0.0498   0.0868
Brazilian Enoque65    Iran EN            0.0079   0.0569   0.1059
Brazilian Enoque65    Pit Grave CA       0.0061   0.0661   0.1261
Brazilian Enoque65    NW Asia Minor EN   0.0041   0.0541   0.1041
Mex mummy MOM6        Natufian           0.0040   0.1150   0.2260
Brazilian Enoque65    Pre-LGM Euro       0.0036   0.0586   0.1136
Fuegian 894           Natufian           0.0023   0.0213   0.0403
Brazilian Enoque65    Spanish            0.0023   0.0553   0.1083
Fuegian 890           Natufian           0.0022   0.0302   0.0582
Micmac MARC1492       Tamil              0.0014   0.0414   0.0814
Brazilian Enoque65    West Euro HG      −0.0004   0.0576   0.1156
Fuegian MA577         Georgia HG        −0.0019   0.0161   0.0341
Fuegian MA577         West Euro HG      −0.0026   0.0174   0.0374
Pericú BC25           East Euro HG      −0.0027   0.0493   0.1013
Fuegian MA577         Iran EN           −0.0029   0.0141   0.0311
Fuegian MA577         NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0034   0.0136   0.0306
Fuegian MA577         Pit Grave CA      −0.0036   0.0184   0.0404
Fuegian MA577         Spanish           −0.0042   0.0148   0.0338
Fuegian MA577         Tamil             −0.0042   0.0158   0.0358
Patagonian AM66       Natufian          −0.0045   0.0995   0.2035
Fuegian MA577         Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0056   0.0124   0.0304
Fuegian MA577         Mala              −0.0074   0.0136   0.0346
Micmac MARC1492       Mala              −0.0093   0.0327   0.0747
Fuegian MA577         East Euro HG      −0.0097   0.0173   0.0443
Fuegian MA577         Natufian          −0.0103   0.0087   0.0277
Fuegian 890           East Euro HG      −0.0125   0.0305   0.0735
Fuegian 894           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0127   0.0053   0.0233
Fuegian 894           West Euro HG      −0.0138   0.0072   0.0282
Fuegian 894           Spanish           −0.0140   0.0060   0.0260
Fuegian 894           Iran EN           −0.0141   0.0049   0.0239
Fuegian 894           Georgia HG        −0.0144   0.0056   0.0256
Fuegian 894           Pit Grave CA      −0.0145   0.0085   0.0315
Fuegian 894           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0153   0.0047   0.0247
Fuegian 890           West Euro HG      −0.0173   0.0137   0.0447
Fuegian 890           Georgia HG        −0.0175   0.0105   0.0385
Patagonian AM74       Natufian          −0.0176   0.0064   0.0304
Patagonian AM66       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0181   0.0539   0.1259
Pericú BC28           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0185   0.0945   0.2075
Fuegian 890           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0189   0.0091   0.0371
Fuegian 890           Iran EN           −0.0194   0.0076   0.0346
Fuegian 894           East Euro HG      −0.0198   0.0102   0.0402
Fuegian 890           Spanish           −0.0199   0.0081   0.0361
Fuegian 890           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0199   0.0071   0.0341
Fuegian 890           Mala              −0.0201   0.0119   0.0439
Fuegian 890           Pit Grave CA      −0.0202   0.0138   0.0478
Fuegian 890           Tamil             −0.0208   0.0102   0.0412
Patagonian AM66       West Euro HG      −0.0210   0.0540   0.1290
Patagonian AM66       Iran EN           −0.0212   0.0448   0.1108
Pericú BC23           Natufian          −0.0218   0.2042   0.4302
Fuegian 894           Tamil             −0.0219   0.0001   0.0221
Patagonian AM66       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0224   0.0456   0.1136
Patagonian AM66       Spanish           −0.0235   0.0525   0.1285
Fuegian 894           Mala              −0.0244  −0.0014   0.0216
Patagonian AM74       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0246  −0.0046   0.0154
Patagonian AM74       Iran EN           −0.0247  −0.0047   0.0153
Patagonian AM74       East Euro HG      −0.0248   0.0072   0.0392
Patagonian AM74       Spanish           −0.0253  −0.0043   0.0167
Patagonian AM66       Georgia HG        −0.0256   0.0524   0.1304
Patagonian AM74       Georgia HG        −0.0256  −0.0046   0.0164
Patagonian AM66       Pit Grave CA      −0.0276   0.0634   0.1544
Patagonian AM74       Pit Grave CA      −0.0276  −0.0026   0.0224
Patagonian AM74       West Euro HG      −0.0280  −0.0040   0.0200
Patagonian AM74       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0288  −0.0068   0.0152
Mex mummy MOM6        Iran EN           −0.0305   0.0945   0.2195
Patagonian AM66       Mala              −0.0312   0.0488   0.1288
Patagonian AM74       Tamil             −0.0332  −0.0092   0.0148
Pericú BC29           Iran EN           −0.0340   0.0160   0.0660
Mex mummy MOM6        NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0352   0.0698   0.1748
Patagonian AM74       Mala              −0.0364  −0.0124   0.0116
Patagonian AM66       Tamil             −0.0366   0.0444   0.1254
Pericú BC29           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0368   0.0172   0.0712
Pericú BC29           Spanish           −0.0383   0.0177   0.0737
Pericú BC29           Georgia HG        −0.0396   0.0204   0.0804
Fuegian 895           Natufian          −0.0435  −0.0235  −0.0035
Pericú BC29           West Euro HG      −0.0438   0.0182   0.0802
Pericú BC29           Tamil             −0.0438   0.0172   0.0782
Pericú BC28           Georgia HG        −0.0441   0.0779   0.1999
Mex mummy MOM6        Spanish           −0.0447   0.0723   0.1893
Fuegian 895           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0461  −0.0271  −0.0081
Pericú BC29           Pit Grave CA      −0.0468   0.0192   0.0852
Fuegian 895           Iran EN           −0.0469  −0.0279  −0.0089
Fuegian 895           Georgia HG        −0.0474  −0.0284  −0.0094
Patagonian AM71       Natufian          −0.0479  −0.0049   0.0381
Fuegian 895           Spanish           −0.0481  −0.0281  −0.0081
Fuegian 895           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0507  −0.0307  −0.0107
Pericú BC28           Spanish           −0.0507   0.0733   0.1973
Fuegian 895           West Euro HG      −0.0517  −0.0307  −0.0097
Pericú BC29           Mala              −0.0520   0.0090   0.0700
Patagonian AM66       East Euro HG      −0.0530   0.0480   0.1490
Brazilian Enoque65    East Euro HG      −0.0540   0.0210   0.0960
Pericú BC28           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0545   0.0615   0.1775
Fuegian 895           Pit Grave CA      −0.0551  −0.0321  −0.0091
Pericú BC29           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0553   0.0027   0.0607
Pericú BC28           West Euro HG      −0.0568   0.0822   0.2212
Mex mummy F9          Natufian          −0.0598   0.1282   0.3162
Fuegian 895           Tamil             −0.0601  −0.0381  −0.0161
Pericú BC28           Pit Grave CA      −0.0602   0.0798   0.2198
Mex mummy MOM6        Georgia HG        −0.0603   0.0877   0.2357
Pericú BC28           Mala              −0.0610   0.0850   0.2310
Pericú BC28           Iran EN           −0.0626   0.0634   0.1894
Fuegian 895           Mala              −0.0647  −0.0417  −0.0187
Pericú BC27           Natufian          −0.0650   0.0570   0.1790
Fuegian 895           East Euro HG      −0.0651  −0.0361  −0.0071
Pericú BC28           East Euro HG      −0.0678   0.1322   0.3322
Pericú BC28           Tamil             −0.0699   0.0641   0.1981
Pericú BC30           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0710  −0.0320   0.0070
Pericú BC30           Iran EN           −0.0720  −0.0330   0.0060
Pericú BC30           Georgia HG        −0.0722  −0.0312   0.0098
Mex mummy MOM6        Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0730   0.0480   0.1690
Mex mummy MOM6        West Euro HG      −0.0736   0.0794   0.2324
Pericú BC30           Spanish           −0.0741  −0.0331   0.0079
Pericú BC29           Natufian          −0.0744  −0.0044   0.0656
Mex mummy MOM6        Pit Grave CA      −0.0783   0.0647   0.2077
Pericú BC27           Georgia HG        −0.0786   0.0514   0.1814
Pericú BC30           West Euro HG      −0.0814  −0.0374   0.0066
Pericú BC23           Tamil             −0.0818   0.0732   0.2282
Pericú BC30           Pit Grave CA      −0.0831  −0.0361   0.0109
Pericú BC30           Natufian          −0.0856  −0.0376   0.0104
Patagonian AM72       Mala              −0.0864   0.1236   0.3336
Pericú BC27           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0871   0.0229   0.1329
Patagonian AM72       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0884   0.1086   0.3056
Pericú BC30           Tamil             −0.0900  −0.0450   0.0000
Pericú BC30           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0904  −0.0464  −0.0024
Pericú BC23           Georgia HG        −0.0906   0.0554   0.2014
Pericú BC23           Iran EN           −0.0919   0.0571   0.2061
British Columbia 939  NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0923  −0.0673  −0.0423
Pericú BC29           East Euro HG      −0.0932  −0.0072   0.0788
Pericú BC23           Spanish           −0.0934   0.0546   0.2026
Pericú BC23           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.0934   0.0716   0.2366
Pericú BC23           NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0934   0.0536   0.2006
Pericú BC30           Mala              −0.0935  −0.0495  −0.0055
British Columbia 939  Iran EN           −0.0936  −0.0676  −0.0416
Pericú BC27           Spanish           −0.0949   0.0251   0.1451
Patagonian AM71       Iran EN           −0.0953  −0.0593  −0.0233
British Columbia 939  Georgia HG        −0.0962  −0.0692  −0.0422
Mex mummy MOM6        Tamil             −0.0966   0.0454   0.1874
Patagonian AM73       Iran EN           −0.0972  −0.0262   0.0448
British Columbia 939  Spanish           −0.0978  −0.0708  −0.0438
Patagonian AM73       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.0979  −0.0249   0.0481
Patagonian AM72       Georgia HG        −0.0984   0.1506   0.3996
Patagonian AM72       Iran EN           −0.0988   0.0842   0.2672
Patagonian AM72       Spanish           −0.1007   0.1043   0.3093
Patagonian AM71       NW Asia Minor EN  −0.1014  −0.0644  −0.0274
Patagonian AM73       Spanish           −0.1023  −0.0253   0.0517
Pericú BC30           East Euro HG      −0.1030  −0.0400   0.0230
Patagonian AM73       Georgia HG        −0.1037  −0.0287   0.0463
Pericú BC27           Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1039   0.0291   0.1621
Patagonian AM72       Tamil             −0.1059   0.1171   0.3401
Pericú BC27           Iran EN           −0.1060   0.0110   0.1280
Patagonian AM71       Georgia HG        −0.1064  −0.0664  −0.0264
Patagonian AM71       Spanish           −0.1072  −0.0682  −0.0292
Pericú BC23           West Euro HG      −0.1076   0.0534   0.2144
British Columbia 939  West Euro HG      −0.1083  −0.0783  −0.0483
Pericú BC27           West Euro HG      −0.1086   0.0214   0.1514
Pericú BC27           Pit Grave CA      −0.1096   0.0304   0.1704
Patagonian AM73       East Euro HG      −0.1097   0.0043   0.1183
Patagonian AM73       Pit Grave CA      −0.1099  −0.0199   0.0701
British Columbia 939  Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1116  −0.0846  −0.0576
Mex mummy MOM6        Mala              −0.1120   0.0360   0.1840
Patagonian AM71       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1129  −0.0729  −0.0329
British Columbia 939  Pit Grave CA      −0.1152  −0.0832  −0.0512
Patagonian AM73       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1152  −0.0372   0.0408
British Columbia 939  Tamil             −0.1164  −0.0874  −0.0584
Patagonian AM71       Tamil             −0.1170  −0.0770  −0.0370
Pericú BC27           Tamil             −0.1186   0.0064   0.1314
Patagonian AM72       Pre-LGM Euro      −0.1189   0.0861   0.2911
Patagonian AM71       Mala              −0.1191  −0.0801  −0.0411
Patagonian AM73       Mala              −0.1197  −0.0417   0.0363
British Columbia 939  Mala              −0.1216  −0.0916  −0.0616
Pericú BC27           Mala              −0.1221  −0.0031   0.1159
Patagonian AM73       Tamil             −0.1228  −0.0428   0.0372
Patagonian AM71       West Euro HG      −0.1231  −0.0801  −0.0371
Patagonian AM73       West Euro HG      −0.1241  −0.0371   0.0499
Pericú BC23           Mala              −0.1251   0.0379   0.2009
British Columbia 939  Natufian          −0.1271  −0.0971  −0.0671
Pericú BC23           Pit Grave CA      −0.1280   0.0460   0.2200
Patagonian AM72       Pit Grave CA      −0.1299   0.1241   0.3781
Patagonian AM71       Pit Grave CA      −0.1308  −0.0828  −0.0348
Patagonian AM71       East Euro HG      −0.1344  −0.0774  −0.0204
British Columbia 939  East Euro HG      −0.1434  −0.1044  −0.0654
Patagonian AM72       West Euro HG      −0.1447   0.1213   0.3873
Mex mummy MOM6        East Euro HG      −0.1657   0.0323   0.2303
Pericú BC27           East Euro HG      −0.1731   0.0249   0.2229
Fuegian MA572         Georgia HG        −0.1806  −0.0816   0.0174
Fuegian MA572         NW Asia Minor EN  −0.1941  −0.0861   0.0219
Pericú BC23           East Euro HG      −0.1991   0.0389   0.2769
Fuegian MA572         Iran EN           −0.2024  −0.0924   0.0176
Fuegian MA572         West Euro HG      −0.2039  −0.0859   0.0321
Patagonian AM72       Natufian          −0.2101   0.2569   0.7239
Fuegian MA572         Pre-LGM Euro      −0.2137  −0.0997   0.0143
Fuegian MA572         Spanish           −0.2184  −0.1014   0.0156
Fuegian MA572         Mala              −0.2217  −0.1097   0.0023
Fuegian MA572         Tamil             −0.2228  −0.1018   0.0192
Fuegian MA572         East Euro HG      −0.2326  −0.0956   0.0414
Pericú BC28           Natufian          −0.2424  −0.1064   0.0296
Fuegian MA572         Pit Grave CA      −0.2532  −0.1122   0.0288
Fuegian MA572         Natufian          −0.2882  −0.1412   0.0058
Fuegian MA575         Pre-LGM Euro      −0.3196  −0.1466   0.0264
Fuegian MA575         Iran EN           −0.3350  −0.1380   0.0590
Fuegian MA575         Georgia HG        −0.3576  −0.1676   0.0224
Fuegian MA575         Spanish           −0.3629  −0.1779   0.0071
Fuegian MA575         NW Asia Minor EN  −0.3717  −0.1837   0.0043
Fuegian MA575         Mala              −0.3774  −0.1454   0.0866
Patagonian AM72       East Euro HG      −0.3854   0.0356   0.4566
Fuegian MA575         Natufian          −0.3864  −0.1784   0.0296
Fuegian MA575         Tamil             −0.3923  −0.1723   0.0477
Fuegian MA575         Pit Grave CA      −0.4451  −0.2371  −0.0291
Fuegian MA575         West Euro HG      −0.4688  −0.2238   0.0212
Fuegian MA575         East Euro HG      −0.5707  −0.2947  −0.0187
Posted in Uncategorized

Principal component analysis confirms European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

In my White Gods post from four years ago I included numerous photographs of mummies from the Chinchorro culture of southern Peru and northern Chile, showing that they have brown and chestnut European hair, and not black Mongoloid Amerindian hair. Based on that observation I concluded that Caucasoids must have first come to South America at or before the time of the Chinchorro culture, which began around 7020 BC and ended around 1110 BC.

Two years later, with a series of calculator and admixture analyses, I discovered that a Chinchorro DNA sample dated to 3972–3806 BC contained approximately 30% European admixture:

This Chinchorro sample has been included in all of my admixture analyses since then, and all of those analyses have consistently shown it to be about 30% European.

The principal component analysis whose results are plotted below confirms the findings of my calculator and admixture analyses. The analysis includes ancient and modern Amerindian and Caucasoid samples. Some of the Mayan, Bolivian, and Quechua samples, which my admixture analyses have shown to contain up to 17% European admixture, are shifted to the right of the more pure Amerindian samples, toward the Caucasoid samples. To the right of them is a Mixtec sample which is 23.5% European, and to the right of that Mixtec sample is the 30% European Chinchorro mummy sample, and also the Pericú sample BC23, which my admixture analyses have also consistently shown to have a significant amount of European admixture. Note that in this plot the Chinchorro mummy sample has a positive value of the second principal component, making it shifted in the direction of European rather than Middle Eastern Caucasoids.

Below is another PCA plot, with the Caucasoid samples restricted to those having a positive value of the second principal component in the first plot, which excludes the Middle Eastern samples, leaving only the European samples. The positions of the Amerindian samples are similar, but now BC23 is horizontally between the Mixtec sample and the Chinchorro mummy sample.

Posted in Uncategorized

K = 14 admixture analysis of Scythians and Sarmatians

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes eight new Scythian and Sarmatian genomes. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The sample labeled Samara Scythian IA, which has appeared in previous plots, is I0247, from Samara, Russia. It is dated to 380–200 BC, and it belonged to the Caucasoid Y haplogroup R1a1a1b2a2a-Z2123 and the Mongoloid mitochondrial haplogroup G2a4.

The plot shows that the three Scythian and Sarmatian samples from the western part of the Eurasian Steppe had small amounts of the plain yellow Southern Mongoloid component and the light yellow Northern Mongoloid component, while the six Scythian samples from the eastern part of the Eurasian Steppe had much larger amounts of those components. The eastern Scythians of the Pazyryk culture generally had more Mongoloid admixture than those of the earlier Zevakino-Chilikta and Aldy-Bel cultures of the eastern region. The table below gives the Mongoloid admixture percentages for the nine samples.

                           Southern Northern Total
Early Sarmatian IA I0575       3.58     3.32  6.91
Early Sarmatian IA I0574       3.26     2.71  5.97
Samara Scythian IA I0247       5.19     3.12  8.31
Zevakino Scythian IA IS2       7.35    13.62 20.97
Zevakino Scythian IA Ze6      26.01    25.81 51.82
Aldy-Bel Scythian IA I0577     7.25    13.91 21.15
Aldy-Bel Scythian IA I0576    12.10    22.90 35.00
Pazyryk Scythian IA I0562     23.94    24.01 47.95
Pazyryk Scythian IA I0563     30.20    28.05 58.25
Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100
IS2     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500
I0576   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200

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Phenotype SNPs for Scythians and Sarmatians

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for eight Scythian and Sarmatian genomes. Nonzero derived allele counts are in bold. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  2/2

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  4/4
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  2/6
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  3/3
IS2     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/1
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  15/34

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/3
I0576   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/2
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/20
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/3
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  3/32

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/1
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/10
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  1/22

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/2
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  4/4
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  1/2
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  14/15

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/11
I0576   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/1
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/11
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/6
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/35

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/2
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/11
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  1/15
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/7
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/35

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/2
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/3
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/3
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/1
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/24

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/7
I0576   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/1
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/15
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/5
IS2     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/1
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  1/35

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/11
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/13
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/7
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/37

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/7
I0576   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/1
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/9
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/5
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  1/33

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/16
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/22
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/6
IS2     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/1
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/32

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample  Region   Culture   Date BC  D/T
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel  700–500  0/1
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk   400–200  0/2
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk   400–200  0/1

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/9
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/18
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  4/32

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/5
I0576   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/1
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/11
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/30

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/2
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/9
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/1
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  0/21

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/4
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  8/10
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  2/4
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  4/12

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  4/4
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  25/26

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  4/4
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  6/6
I0576   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/1
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/25
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/2
IS2     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  1/1
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  3/20

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample  Region   Culture            Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian    500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel           700–500  0/2
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  7/15
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk            400–200  0/3
Ze6     Eastern  Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  5/21

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample  Region   Culture          Date BC  D/T
I0575   Western  Early Sarmatian  500–100  0/2
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian  500–100  0/1
I0577   Eastern  Aldy-Bel         700–500  0/2
Ι0562   Eastern  Pazyryk          400–200  0/16
I0563   Eastern  Pazyryk          400–200  0/3

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample  Region   Culture          Date BC  D/T
I0574   Western  Early Sarmatian  500–100  0/1
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Y-SNP calls for Scythians and Sarmatians

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for Scythian and Sarmatian samples.

Sample  Culture            Date BC  Haplogroup
I0575   Early Sarmatian    500–100  R1b1a1a2a2c1-Y21707*  calls
I0577   Aldy-Bel           700–500  R1a1a1b2a2-YP1456*    calls
I0563   Pazyryk            400–200  R1a1a1b2a2-S23201*    calls
IS2     Zevakino-Chilikta  900–600  Q1a2a1c1-L332*        calls
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K = 13 admixture analysis of Mesolithic and Neolithic Latvian and Ukrainian genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 13 admixture analysis that includes eight genomes from Mesolithic and Neolithic Latvia and Ukraine. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The samples from the Mesolithic Kunda and Narva cultures are similar to the Mesolithic samples from Motala, Sweden, being made up mostly of the dark blue Western component, but also having about 25% of the medium blue Eastern component.

Latvia_HG3 and Latvia_MN1 are indistinguishable from the Western European hunter-gatherers in this analysis, being made up entirely of the dark blue component.

The hunter-gatherer sample from the Comb Ware culture is similar to the earlier hunter-gatherer samples from Karelia and Samara in Russia, being made up mostly of the medium blue Eastern component, but also having about 25% of the dark blue Western component.

The Corded Ware sample from Latvia is similar to the Pit Grave and Afanasevo samples, but with a bit less of the pine green Caucasus-related component. It has more of the medium blue component than any other sample in this analysis. It differs from all of the other Corded Ware samples in that it completely lacks the light blue early farmer component.

The Mesolithic sample from Ukraine and the sample from the Neolithic Dnieper-Donets culture of Ukraine are similar to each other, being made up mostly of the medium blue Eastern component, but also having around 35–45% of the dark blue Western component.

Sample       Period            Culture         Date BC
Latvia_HG1   Mesolithic        Kunda           6467–6249
Latvia_HG2   Mesolithic        Narva           5841–5636
Latvia_HG3   Early Neolithic   Unassigned      5302–4852
Latvia_MN1   Middle Neolithic  Unassigned      4251–3976
Latvia_MN2   Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware       4229–3800
Latvia_LN1   Late Neolithic    Corded Ware     3089–2676
Ukraine_HG1  Mesolithic        Unassigned      9193–8641
Ukraine_N1   Neolithic         Dnieper-Donets  4519–4343

all-13-17-1

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Phenotype SNPs from Mesolithic and Neolithic Latvia and Ukraine

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for genomes from Mesolithic and Neolithic Latvia and Ukraine. Nonzero derived allele counts are in bold. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample       Period            Culture      Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG2   Mesolithic        Narva        5841–5636  7/7
Latvia_MN1   Middle Neolithic  Unassigned   4251–3976  1/1
Latvia_LN1   Late Neolithic    Corded Ware  3089–2676  0/1
Ukraine_HG1  Mesolithic        Unassigned   9193–8641  0/1

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample      Period            Culture      Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda        6467–6249  2/2
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva        5841–5636  1/1
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic   Unassigned   5302–4852  2/2
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware    4229–3800  0/0
Latvia_LN1  Late Neolithic    Corded Ware  3089–2676  0/1

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample      Period            Culture      Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva        5841–5636  0/4
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware    4229–3800  0/1
Latvia_LN1  Late Neolithic    Corded Ware  3089–2676  0/1

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample       Period            Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1   Mesolithic        Kunda       6467–6249  3/3
Latvia_HG2   Mesolithic        Narva       5841–5636  4/4
Latvia_HG3   Early Neolithic   Unassigned  5302–4852  1/1
Latvia_MN2   Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware   4229–3800  0/3
Ukraine_HG1  Mesolithic        Unassigned  9193–8641  1/2

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample      Period           Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic       Kunda       6467–6249  0/4
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic  Unassigned  5302–4852  0/1

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample      Period            Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva       5841–5636  3/3
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic   Unassigned  5302–4852  1/2
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware   4229–3800  3/3

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample      Period            Culture    Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda      6467–6249  0/2
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva      5841–5636  0/3
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware  4229–3800  0/1

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample       Period            Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1   Mesolithic        Kunda       6467–6249  0/4
Latvia_HG2   Mesolithic        Narva       5841–5636  0/4
Latvia_MN2   Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware   4229–3800  0/3
Ukraine_HG1  Mesolithic        Unassigned  9193–8641  0/1

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample      Period           Culture      Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic       Kunda        6467–6249  0/3
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic       Narva        5841–5636  0/5
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic  Unassigned   5302–4852  0/2
Latvia_LN1  Late Neolithic   Corded Ware  3089–2676  0/1

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample       Period            Culture         Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1   Mesolithic        Kunda           6467–6249  0/1
Latvia_HG2   Mesolithic        Narva           5841–5636  0/5
Latvia_HG3   Early Neolithic   Unassigned      5302–4852  0/1
Latvia_MN2   Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware       4229–3800  0/1
Latvia_LN1   Late Neolithic    Corded Ware     3089–2676  0/1
Ukraine_HG1  Mesolithic        Unassigned      9193–8641  0/1
Ukraine_N1   Neolithic         Dnieper-Donets  4519–4343  0/1

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample      Period            Culture    Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda      6467–6249  0/3
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva      5841–5636  0/4
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware  4229–3800  0/3

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample      Period      Culture  Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic  Narva    5841–5636  0/6

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample      Period           Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic       Kunda       6467–6249  0/2
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic       Narva       5841–5636  0/4
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic  Unassigned  5302–4852  0/2

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample      Period            Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda       6467–6249  0/2
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva       5841–5636  0/3
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic   Unassigned  5302–4852  0/1
Latvia_MN1  Middle Neolithic  Unassigned  4251–3976  0/1
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware   4229–3800  0/3

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample      Period            Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva       5841–5636  0/1
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic   Unassigned  5302–4852  0/1
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware   4229–3800  0/3

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample      Period            Culture    Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva      5841–5636  1/4
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware  4229–3800  0/2

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample      Period            Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda       6467–6249  0/1
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva       5841–5636  0/4
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic   Unassigned  5302–4852  0/1
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware   4229–3800  0/1

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample      Period            Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda       6467–6249  0/1
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva       5841–5636  4/4
Latvia_MN1  Middle Neolithic  Unassigned  4251–3976  1/1
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware   4229–3800  0/1

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample      Period            Culture     Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda       6467–6249  0/1
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva       5841–5636  0/5
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic   Unassigned  5302–4852  1/1
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware   4229–3800  1/1

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample      Period            Culture         Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda           6467–6249  0/1
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva           5841–5636  0/3
Latvia_HG3  Early Neolithic   Unassigned      5302–4852  0/1
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware       4229–3800  1/1
Ukraine_N1  Neolithic         Dnieper-Donets  4519–4343  1/1

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample       Period            Culture      Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1   Mesolithic        Kunda        6467–6249  0/2
Latvia_HG2   Mesolithic        Narva        5841–5636  0/2
Latvia_HG3   Early Neolithic   Unassigned   5302–4852  0/1
Latvia_MN2   Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware    4229–3800  0/2
Latvia_LN1   Late Neolithic    Corded Ware  3089–2676  0/1
Ukraine_HG1  Mesolithic        Unassigned   9193–8641  0/2

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample       Period            Culture         Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG2   Mesolithic        Narva           5841–5636  0/1
Latvia_HG3   Early Neolithic   Unassigned      5302–4852  0/2
Latvia_MN2   Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware       4229–3800  0/1
Latvia_LN1   Late Neolithic    Corded Ware     3089–2676  0/1
Ukraine_HG1  Mesolithic        Unassigned      9193–8641  0/2
Ukraine_N1   Neolithic         Dnieper-Donets  4519–4343  0/2

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample      Period            Culture    Date BC    D/T
Latvia_HG1  Mesolithic        Kunda      6467–6249  1/3
Latvia_HG2  Mesolithic        Narva      5841–5636  2/5
Latvia_MN2  Middle Neolithic  Comb Ware  4229–3800  2/2
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