K = 14 admixture analysis of Bronze Age German warrior genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes genomes from a Bronze Age battlefield at the archeological site of Weltzin, in the Tollense valley, in northeastern Germany. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The Tollense valley warriors are genetically similar to the Late Neolithic Nordic samples, the German Bell Beaker samples, and the Unetice samples.

The one Tollense valley sample dated to 2960 BC is similar to other Middle and Late Neolithic samples from Western and Central Europe.

Sample Period Date BC
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ35 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ53 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ64 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250

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Phenotype SNPs for Bronze Age German warriors

Below are genotypes for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for samples from a Bronze Age battlefield at the archeological site of Weltzin, in the Tollense valley, in northeastern Germany. Genotypes with derived alleles are highlighted.

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 AA

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 AA

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960 CC
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 CC

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960 TT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ53 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 TT

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960 TT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ53 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 TT

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 TT

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 GG

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 GG

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 CC

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 CC

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 CC

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 GG

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960 GG
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ53 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 AA

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960 CC
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 CC

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 TT
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 TT

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 GG

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960 AA
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ53 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 AA

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 GG

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ16 Neolithic 2960 CC
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ53 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 CC
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 CC

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Period Date BC GT
WEZ15 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ24 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ39 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ40 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ48 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ51 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ54 Bronze Age 1250 AA
WEZ56 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ57 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ58 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ59 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ61 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ63 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ71 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ74 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ77 Bronze Age 1250 GG
WEZ83 Bronze Age 1250 GG
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K = 14 admixture analysis of the complete Tianyuan genome

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes the complete genome of Tianyuan 1, whose remains were found in Tianyuan Cave, in the Zhoukoudian cave system, near Beijing, China. The remains were dated to 42,000–39,000 BP. Tianyuan 1 belonged to the Mongoloid mitochondrial haplogroup B.

Here are the component percentages for Tianyuan 1:

      1.16%
      2.71%
      7.34%
      0.00%
      0.00%
      0.00%
      0.00%
      32.17%
      14.02%
      19.23%
      8.79%
      1.16%
      1.57%
      11.85%

These results are similar to the results for my earlier analyses of the Tianyuan sample going back to 2013, which were based on about one fiftieth of the data used for this analysis.

One difference, however, between the new results and the earlier results is that Tianyuan 1 now shows more of the Mongoloid components and less of the Caucasoid components.

Another difference is that Tianyuan 1 now shows some of the Negroid components, which is not actually due to Negroid admixture, but instead to the fact that Tianyuan 1 had archaic admixture in excess of what is found in modern non-Negroid and non-Australoid populations.

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K = 14 admixture analysis of Sungir genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes five genomes from the archeological site of Sungir in Russia. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

A plot for a K = 13 analysis of the Sungir genomes, which doesn’t have a dark blue component, is here.

The Sungir individuals from 34,000 years ago are genetically similar to the other pre-LGM Europeans, and especially to Kostenki 14, who lived further south in Russia around 3,500 years earlier. Their DNA is made up primarily of the dark blue (K = 14) or plain blue (K = 13) European hunter-gatherer components, with the rest made up of an undifferentiated Caucasoid, or proto-Caucasoid, pattern of components.

Sungir 6, from 1100–1220 AD, is genetically similar to the modern central Russian samples. Like them, he has a small amount of Mongoloid admixture (2.91%). This is consistent with the analysis in this post which estimated that the Mongoloid admixture in northern Russians resulted from an admixture event that took place between 400 and 1100 AD, before the Mongol invasion of Europe starting in 1223 AD.

Sample Period Date
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD

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Phenotype SNPs from Sungir

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for five genomes from the archeological site of Sungir in Russia. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 2/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 2/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 13/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/4
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 6/6

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 3/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 1/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 7/7
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 5/5

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/10

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/3
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/16
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/9
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/11

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/1

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 2/3

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/7
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/11

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/4
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/9
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/10

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/3
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/8
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/4

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/8

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 1/7
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/8

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/10
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/15

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/7
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/14
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/7

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 2/11
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/8
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 2/4

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/6

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 1/7
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/9

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/11
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/7

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/25
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/7
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 5/5

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/5
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/23
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 7/7

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/14
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 8/8

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/2
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/19
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 4/7

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/14
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/12
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/9

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 1/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/8
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/17
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 3/3
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Y-SNP calls from Sungir

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for samples from the archeological site of Sungir in Russia.

Sample Period Date Haplogroup
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP pre-C1a2-V20
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP pre-C1a2-V20
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP pre-C1a2-V20
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP pre-C1a2-V20
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD I2a1b2a1a1a1a3-A16681
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K = 13 admixture analysis of prehistoric sub-Saharan African genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 13 admixture analysis that includes 15 new genomes from sub-Saharan Africa. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The two earlier samples from South Africa are, like the modern Bushman samples from Namibia, made up entirely of the black Bushman and Pygmy component. The third South African sample, from around 800 AD, has 16.62% of the aqua green Natufian-related component.

The samples from Malawi generally have around 70% of the Bushman and Pygmy component, with the rest made up mostly of the brown Negro component, and in some cases small amounts of the Natufian-related component.

The earliest sample from Tanzania (1100 BC) has 55.72% of the Natufian-related component, while the latest sample from Tanzania (1400 AD) is made up almost entirely of the Negro component. The two Tanzania samples from 600 AD, like the 1500 AD sample from Kenya, the 2500 BC sample from Mota Cave in Ethiopia, and the modern samples from the Hadza people of Tanzania, have significant amounts of each of the Bushman and Pygmy, Negro, and Natufian-related components. Note that the 1500 AD Kenya sample belongs to the Caucasoid Y haplogroup E1b1b, as the Natufians did. The amount of the Natufian-related autosomal component in African populations correlates very well with the frequency of the E1b1b haplogroup in those populations. The Hadza, for example, have on average 18.20% of the Natufian-related component, and they have an E1b1b haplogroup frequency of 15.0%.

Sample Location Date
I2967 Malawi 6223–6007 BC
I2966 Malawi 8050–3050 BC
I4468 Malawi 4227–3973 BC
I4427 Malawi 4225–3963 BC
I4422 Malawi 3343–3029 BC
I4421 Malawi 3450–2850 BC
I4426 Malawi 726–380 BC
I9028 South Africa 291–15 BC
I9133 South Africa 67 BC – 202 AD
I9134 South Africa 668–881 AD
I3726 Tanzania 1191–940 BC
I1048 Tanzania 529–643 AD
I0589 Tanzania 580–647 AD
I2298 Tanzania 1311–1406 AD
I0595 Kenya 1454–1628 AD

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