K = 14 admixture analysis of prehistoric Portuguese genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes 10 genomes from prehistoric Portugal.

The plot shows that the Middle Bronze Age samples have a significant amount of the Eastern European medium blue component, consistent with the R1b-M269 Y haplogroup that they belonged to.

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K = 12 admixture analysis of prehistoric Portuguese genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 12 admixture analysis that includes 10 genomes from prehistoric Portugal. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The Middle Neolithic and Copper Age samples are similar to samples of the same periods from Spain, being made up mostly of the light blue early European farmer component, but also having a significant amount of the plain blue European hunter-gatherer component.

The plot shows that, unlike the earlier samples, and contrary to the admixture analysis that appeared in the academic paper on these samples, the Middle Bronze Age samples did have some of the pine green Caucasus-related component.

Sample Period Date BC
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430

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Phenotype SNPs from prehistoric Portugal

Below are genotypes for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for 10 genomes from prehistoric Portugal. Genotypes with derived alleles are highlighted.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CT
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GA
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 TC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TG
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 TT
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 TT
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 TT

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GA
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 AA
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AC
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 CC
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 CC
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AC
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 CC

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AG
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 GG
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AG

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Period Date BC GT
LC41 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 AA
LC42 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
LC44 Middle Neolithic 4200–3500 GG
CA122A Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM364 Copper Age 3500–2000 GG
CM9B Copper Age 3500–2000 AG
DA96B Copper Age 3500–2000 AG
MG104 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA
TV32032 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AA
TV3831 Middle Bronze Age 1740–1430 AG
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K = 14 admixture analysis of ancient Egyptian genomes

At the bottom of this post is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes three genomes from ancient Egypt. The table above the plot gives some information for these samples.

The brown and black Negroid components are completely absent in the two Pre-Ptolemaic samples, while the Ptolemaic sample is 1.99% Negroid. This contrasts with the modern Egyptian samples, which are on average 10.93% Negroid.

Among the other ancient samples, the ancient Egyptian samples are most similar to the Bronze Age samples from Jordan in the Levant. Note that the Pre-Ptolemaic samples JK2134 and JK2911 belong to the same J1a2a2-Z2324 and J2b1-PF7314 Y haplogroups that the Bronze Age Levant samples I1705 and I1730 belong to.

Among the modern samples, the ancient Egyptian samples are most similar to the Saudi and Yemenite Jew samples.

These results are hardly surprising, as it has been well understood since the early 19th century, based on the cranial morphology of Egyptian mummies, the hair of Egyptian mummies, and also on the ancient Egyptians’ artistic representations of themselves, that they were predominately Caucasoid rather than Negroid. For example, on page 19 of Samuel George Morton’s 1844 work Crania Ægyptiaca, there’s a table showing that of 100 ancient Egyptian crania, 84 of them belong to different types of unmixed Caucasoids. On the next page, he gives the following quote from an earlier study of ancient Egyptian crania performed by Georges Cuvier (1769–1832):

I have examined in Paris, and in the various collections of Europe, more than fifty heads of mummies, and not one amongst them presented the characters of the Negro or Hottentot.

For ancient Egyptians’ depictions of themselves, see the following two images, which are from murals illustrating the Book of Gates in the tomb of pharaoh Seti I, who ruled Egypt from 1290 to 1279 BC. The first image shows, from left to right, four Libyans, a Nubian, a Semite, and an Egyptian. The second image shows, from bottom to top and from left to right, Horus, four Egyptians, four Semites, four Nubians, and four Libyans. The Nubians are clearly Negroid, while the Egyptians are clearly Caucasoid. The Libyans look more like modern Northern Europeans than modern Northwest Africans.

The three ancient Egyptian genomes leave important questions unanswered. Since they’re from middle-class people, one such question is how the ancient Egyptian elite might have differed from the rest of the population genetically.

This 2012 paper presented Y-STR data for the pharaoh Ramesses III, who ruled from 1186 to 1155 BC. The authors used Whit Athey’s haplogroup predictor to predict that Ramesses III belonged to the Negroid haplogroup E1b1a, which was the cause of much jubilation among Afrocentrists. But this thread casts doubt on the correctness of the Y-STR data, and, in any case, I’ve analyzed the data with the newer NevGen haplogroup predictor, which uses a more sophisticated methodology than Athey’s predictor, and it determined that Ramesses III belonged to the Caucasoid haplogroup E1b1b, with a 97.3% probability. This result makes a lot more sense, because as the below images show, neither paintings of Ramesses III nor his mummy show any Negroid features.

The most important question to be answered is how the ancient Egyptian civilization originated. In the early 1900s the English Egyptologist Sir William Flinders Petrie developed the Dynastic Race theory of the civilization’s origins, and it was the dominant mainstream theory until the late 1960s, when it, like so many other good ideas, became a politically incorrect taboo subject. According to this theory, the Egyptian civilization was founded by people from the Uruk period (4000–3100 BC) of southern Mesopotamia, who sailed in reed boats through the Persian Gulf, around the Arabian Peninsula, and up the Red Sea, and who then moved west over land into the Nile valley, where they introduced the arts of civilization, including writing, and established the first pharaonic dynasty.

Part of what led Petrie to his theory is the appearance of clear Mesopotamian influences in Egypt’s Naqada II period (3500–3200 BC) which were absent in the preceding Naqada I period (4400–3500 BC). These influences include architectural styles, pottery styles, cylinder seals, artwork, and rock and tomb paintings depicting Mesopotamian-style boats, symbols, and figures. You can read this page and this page for an overview of the Dynastic Race theory. The second page discusses the Mesopotamian influences of the two predynastic Egyptian artifacts shown below. The first is the ivory handle of the Gebel el-Arak knife, dated to the Naqada II period. Depicted at the top of the back side of the handle is a man (the “Master of Animals”) wearing Mesopotamian clothing flanked by two upright lions. The second artifact is the Narmer Palette, dated to the Naqada III period (3200–3000 BC, also known as the Protodynastic period or Dynasty 0). It is thought to depict the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer, the first pharaoh of Egypt. The back side of the palette shows two serpopards with their necks intertwined. Below the photograph of the Narmer Palette is a photograph of a cylinder seal from the Uruk period of Mesopotamia, showing a very similar serpopard design.

The other major piece of evidence that led Petrie to his theory is that the people of the Naqada I and Naqada II cultures were distinctly different in both their burial styles and in the physical types of their remains. An important paper on the craniometry of these remains is “The Dynastic Race in Egypt” by Douglas Derry, published in 1956. Below are two excerpts from this paper:

The Predynastic people are seen to have had narrow skulls with a height measurement exceeding the breadth, a condition common also in negroes. The reverse is the case in the Dynastic Race, who not only had broader skulls but the height of these skulls, while exceeding that in the Predynastic Race, is still less than the breadth. This implies a greater cranial capacity and of course a larger brain in the invading people.

It is also very suggestive of the presence of a dominant race, perhaps relatively few in numbers but greatly exceeding the original inhabitants in intelligence; a race which brought into Egypt the knowledge of building in stone, of sculpture, painting, reliefs, and above all writing; hence the enormous jump from the primitive Predynastic Egyptian to the advanced civilization of the Old Empire.

In 1977–78 Thor Heyerdahl and his crew sailed the Tigris, a Mesopotamian-style reed boat like those depicted in Naqada II period Egyptian rock paintings, from the Persian Gulf to Pakistan, and then to the Red Sea, to demonstrate the possibility of seaborne contact between the Mesopotamian, Indus Valley, and Egyptian civilizations. Below is a photograph of the Tigris, and a map showing its voyage.

The Sumerian language spoken in southern Mesopotamia was at one time widely held to be an Indo-European language. This 2009 paper reviews 30 Sumerian and Proto-Indo-European words that show some kind of relationship. And this 2008 paper by Gordon Whittaker presents his theory that an Indo-European language he calls Euphratic was spoken in southern Mesopotamia before Sumerian was spoken there, and that the earliest proto-cuneiform tablets of the Late Uruk period (3350–3100 BC) are written in this Indo-European language. It’s possible that these Indo-Europeans of southern Mesopotamia belonged to Y haplogroup R1b-M269, and that their Y chromosomes were transmitted by the Dynastic Race of Egypt through the centuries to Tutankhamun, who is reported to have belonged to R1b-M269.

Sample  Period         Date BC
JK2134  Pre-Ptolemaic  776–569
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2

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Phenotype SNPs from ancient Egypt

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for genomes from ancient Egypt. Nonzero derived allele counts are in bold. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/3
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     0/1

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/1

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2134  Pre-Ptolemaic  776–569  0/1
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/2

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/3
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     0/6

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/2
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     0/3

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample  Period     Date BC  D/T
JK2888  Ptolemaic  97–2     0/1

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/4

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  1/4
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     0/5

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/3
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     0/1

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/3
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     0/1

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/10

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/2

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  2/2
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     1/1

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/7

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/4
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     1/1

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample  Period         Date BC  D/T
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  0/2
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     0/2
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Y-SNP calls from ancient Egypt

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for samples from ancient Egypt.

Sample  Period         Date BC  Haplogroup
JK2134  Pre-Ptolemaic  776–569  J1a2a2-Z2329    calls
JK2911  Pre-Ptolemaic  769–560  J2b1-PF7314     calls
JK2888  Ptolemaic      97–2     E1b1b1a1b2-V22  calls
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Chinchorro DNA paper published on bioRxiv

I’ve written a paper on my discovery of European admixture in a Chinchorro mummy DNA sample, and it’s now published on bioRxiv:

European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

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