Higher-resolution K = 6 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a higher-resolution K = 6 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC. This analysis uses a much larger number of transversion SNPs for all samples than my earlier admixture analyses. While most of my admixture analyses have used 1,067 transversion SNPs for the Chinchorro sample, and my previous high-resolution admixture analyses used 2,055 transversion SNPs for the sample, this analysis uses 26,982 transversion SNPs for the sample.

Here are the new admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      38.98%
      0.00%
      0.91%
      60.10%
      0.00%

The sum of the non-Amerindian component percentages in this analysis is 39.90%, which is consistent with the preceding analyses.

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Higher-resolution K = 5 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a higher-resolution K = 5 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC. This analysis uses a much larger number of transversion SNPs for all samples than my earlier admixture analyses. While most of my admixture analyses have used 1,067 transversion SNPs for the Chinchorro sample, and my previous high-resolution admixture analyses used 2,055 transversion SNPs for the sample, this analysis uses 26,982 transversion SNPs for the sample.

Here are the new admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      38.48%
      0.00%
      61.51%
      0.00%

The estimate of 38.48% additional Caucasoid admixture in this analysis is about the same as the 38.61% estimate produced by the preceding K = 4 analysis.

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Higher-resolution K = 4 analysis of the European admixture in Chinchorro DNA

Below is a plot for a higher-resolution K = 4 admixture analysis that includes a Chinchorro mummy sample from Chile dated to 3972–3806 BC. This analysis uses a much larger number of transversion SNPs for all samples than my earlier admixture analyses. While most of my admixture analyses have used 1,067 transversion SNPs for the Chinchorro sample, and my previous high-resolution admixture analyses used 2,055 transversion SNPs for the sample, this analysis uses 26,982 transversion SNPs for the sample.

The plot shows that the additional Caucasoid admixture that the Pericú sample BC23 appeared to have in my earlier analyses is spurious.

Here are the new admixture percentages for the Chinchorro sample:

      0.00%
      38.61%
      0.00%
      61.39%

This analysis thus estimates that the Chinchorro sample has more additional Caucasoid admixture than the 29.15% estimate produced by my earlier high-resolution K = 4 analysis.

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K = 14 admixture analysis of ancient Northern European genomes

Below is a plot for a K = 14 admixture analysis that includes 39 new genomes from ancient Northern Europe. The new samples are marked with an asterisk in the plot. The table above the plot gives some information for the new samples.

The hunter-gatherers of the Kunda and Narva cultures are made up of the dark blue Western European hunter-gatherer component, with some of them having small amounts of the medium blue Eastern European component.

The two new Mesolithic samples from northwestern Russia are similar to the three previously published Mesolithic samples from Karelia and Samara in Russia, being made up mostly of the medium blue component, with smaller amounts of the dark blue component.

The three new samples from the Neolithic Funnelbeaker culture in Sweden are similar to the four previously published samples from that culture, being made up mostly of the light blue Early European farmer component, with smaller amounts of the dark blue component.

The hunter-gatherers of the Comb Ware culture in Estonia are similar to the Mesolithic Russian hunter-gatherers of Karelia and Samara, but with a bit more of the dark blue component.

The new Corded Ware samples from Lithuania are similar to the Corded Ware samples from Germany and Estonia. They have some of the light blue component, unlike the one Corded Ware sample from Latvia which lacks it.

The Late Neolithic sample from Ölsund, Sweden is also similar to the German and Estonian Corded Ware samples.

The new Bronze Age samples from Lithuania are similar to modern samples from the Baltic states, except that they completely lack the yellow Mongoloid components present in small amounts in the modern Estonian samples, and to a lesser extent in the modern Latvian and Lithuanian samples.

The Late Bronze Age samples from Latvia, however, differ somewhat from modern Baltic samples, in that they have significantly more of the dark blue component than the modern samples do.

Sample Country Culture Date BC
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230
Donkalnis 4 Lithuania Kunda 6000–5740
Popovo 2 Russia Mesolithic 7500–5000
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000
Motala AA Sweden Mesolithic 5722–5564
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530
Kretuonas 5 Lithuania Narva 4450–4340
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240
Donkalnis 1 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647
Saxtorp 389 Sweden Funnelbeaker 4000–3300
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371
Tamula 3 Estonia Comb Ware 3800–3640
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750
Ölsund Sweden Late Neolithic 2573–2140
Turlojiškė 5 Lithuania Bronze Age 2100–600
Turlojiškė 1932 Lithuania Bronze Age 1230–920
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400
Kivutkalns 164 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–390
Kivutkalns 194 Latvia Late Bronze Age 405–230

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Pigmentation of ancient Northern Europeans

Below are predicted skin, hair, and eye color for new genomes from ancient Northern Europe.

Sample Country Culture Date BC Skin Hair Eyes
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 Medium Black Blue
Motala AA Sweden Mesolithic 5722–5564 NA NA Blue
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 NA D-brown/ Black Brown
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540 NA NA Blue
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 NA Brown/ D-brown Blue
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 Light Black Blue
Kretuonas 5 Lithuania Narva 4450–4340 NA NA Blue
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 Medium Brown Blue
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 Light Blond/ D-blond Blue
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 Light D-brown/ Black Blue
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 Light Black NA
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 NA D-brown/ Black NA
Saxtorp 389 Sweden Funnelbeaker 4000–3300 Light NA NA
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 NA Blond/ D-blond Blue
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360 Medium NA Blue
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 Light Black Brown
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 Light D-blond/ Brown Blue
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 NA Red Blue
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 Medium Black Brown
Turlojiškė 5 Lithuania Bronze Age 2100–600 NA NA Blue
Turlojiškė 1932 Lithuania Bronze Age 1230–920 NA NA Blue
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 NA Blond Blue
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 NA D-brown/ Black Brown
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 NA Blond/ D-blond Blue
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 Light D-brown/ Black Blue
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 Light D-brown/ Black Blue
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 Light Red Blue
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 Light D-blond/ Brown Blue
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 Light D-blond/ Brown Blue
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 Light D-blond/ Brown Brown
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Phenotype SNPs from ancient Northern Europe

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for new genomes from ancient Northern Europe. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 1/1
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 10/10
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 1/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 1/1
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 1/1
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/1

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 1/1
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 1/1
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 4/4
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 2/2
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/1
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 1/1

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/8
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/3
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/1
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/25
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/25
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/8
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/42
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/1
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/2
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/13
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410 0/2
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/11
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/12
Turlojiškė 5 Lithuania Bronze Age 2100–600 0/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/2
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/6
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/3
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/12
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/63
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/12
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/22
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/7
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/29
Kivutkalns 194 Latvia Late Bronze Age 405–230 0/1

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 2/2
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 6/6
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 2/2
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 1/2
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 6/6
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 1/1
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/1
Saxtorp 389 Sweden Funnelbeaker 4000–3300 0/1
Tamula 3 Estonia Comb Ware 3800–3640 0/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 1/3
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/11
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/1
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 1/2
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/1
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 2/2
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/10
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 2/4
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/6
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/2
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/9

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/1
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 1/1
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/1
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540 0/1
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/4
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/7
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/4
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360 0/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/4
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/10
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 3/4
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/3
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/3
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/4
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/4
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/3
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/1
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 1/2

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 1/1
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 2/5
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 1/1

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/4
Popovo 2 Russia Mesolithic 7500–5000 0/2
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/3
Motala AA Sweden Mesolithic 5722–5564 0/1
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/10
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/8
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/48
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/31
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/7
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/111
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/8
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/13
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/5
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/13
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410 0/2
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/22
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/20
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/3
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/1
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810 0/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/11
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/6
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/7
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/141
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 8/15
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/11
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/9
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/92

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/11
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/4
Motala AA Sweden Mesolithic 5722–5564 0/1
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/5
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 2/12
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/38
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 3/26
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 1/11
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/78
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/5
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/5
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 1/6
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/11
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/13
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/10
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/5
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810 0/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/10
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/4
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/7
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/99
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 2/13
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/16
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/12
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/80
Kivutkalns 194 Latvia Late Bronze Age 405–230 0/4

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/2
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/3
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/1
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/10
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/2
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/6
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/14
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/2
Tamula 3 Estonia Comb Ware 3800–3640 0/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/6
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/8
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/4
Ölsund Sweden Late Neolithic 2573–2140 0/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/2
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/8
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/17
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/5
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/19
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/4
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/8

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/4
Popovo 2 Russia Mesolithic 7500–5000 0/1
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/4
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/7
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540 0/2
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/3
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/26
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/11
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/7
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/37
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/1
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/2
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/6
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/25
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/19
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/3
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/2
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810 0/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/6
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/4
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/3
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/51
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/6
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/13
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/4
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/33

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/9
Popovo 2 Russia Mesolithic 7500–5000 0/2
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/3
Motala AA Sweden Mesolithic 5722–5564 0/1
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 1/9
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/12
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/53
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/34
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/8
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/111
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 1/7
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/12
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/6
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/13
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410 0/2
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/13
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 2/16
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/2
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/3
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810 0/2
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/10
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/8
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/5
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/119
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/12
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/12
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/11
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/100
Kivutkalns 194 Latvia Late Bronze Age 405–230 0/2

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/2
Popovo 2 Russia Mesolithic 7500–5000 0/1
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/3
Motala AA Sweden Mesolithic 5722–5564 0/1
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/11
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/4
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/42
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/22
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 1/7
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/74
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/5
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/7
Saxtorp 389 Sweden Funnelbeaker 4000–3300 1/1
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/4
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/8
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410 0/2
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/25
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 2/17
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/3
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810 0/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 4/5
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/3
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/6
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/115
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 8/14
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/13
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/9
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/60

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/10
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/5
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/14
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/17
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/91
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/64
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/6
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/99
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/2
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/4
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/3
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/16
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/9
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/26
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/5
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/8
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/4
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/21
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/73
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/13
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/14
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/9
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/55
Kivutkalns 164 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–390 0/1

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/1
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/2
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/1
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/3
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/4
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/3
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/7
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 1/1
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/1
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 1/1
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/2
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 2/2
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/1
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/1
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/1

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/6
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/4
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/5
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540 0/1
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/3
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/40
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/42
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/4
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/59
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/1
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/5
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360 0/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/11
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410 1/1
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/8
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/19
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 3/10
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/2
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 9/9
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 14/23
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 2/8
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 6/12
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 2/6
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/33
Kivutkalns 194 Latvia Late Bronze Age 405–230 2/2

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/2
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/4
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/3
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 2/3
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/11
Kretuonas 5 Lithuania Narva 4450–4340 0/1
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/17
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 1/4
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/15
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/2
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/1
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/2
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360 0/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 3/4
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/14
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 1/9
Turlojiškė 5 Lithuania Bronze Age 2100–600 0/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/4
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/3
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/2
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/35
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 2/8
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/10
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/1
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/23

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/4
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/1
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/10
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/18
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/1
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/13
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/1
Saxtorp 389 Sweden Funnelbeaker 4000–3300 0/1
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410 0/1
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/6
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/5
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/1
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810 0/1
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/1
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/8
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/1
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/11
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/3
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/7
Kivutkalns 194 Latvia Late Bronze Age 405–230 0/2

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 3/3
Motala AA Sweden Mesolithic 5722–5564 1/1
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 1/3
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540 2/2
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 2/2
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 13/13
Kretuonas 5 Lithuania Narva 4450–4340 1/1
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 17/17
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 4/4
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 19/19
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 1/1
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360 1/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/3
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 9/9
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 4/4
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/1
Turlojiškė 5 Lithuania Bronze Age 2100–600 1/1
Turlojiškė 1932 Lithuania Bronze Age 1230–920 1/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 2/2
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/2
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 2/2
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 2/2
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 18/18
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 4/4
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 3/3
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 4/4
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 10/15

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/1
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 1/1
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 3/7
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 1/1
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 4/5
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 1/1
Saxtorp 389 Sweden Funnelbeaker 4000–3300 1/1
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360 2/2
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 3/3
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 12/12
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 1/1
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 1/1
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 4/4
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 3/3
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 2/2
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 1/1
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 5/5

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/6
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/1
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/7
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/4
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/24
Kretuonas 5 Lithuania Narva 4450–4340 1/1
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/40
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 8/8
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 34/34
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/1
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 1/2
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 1/2
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360 0/1
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/6
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 3/5
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 7/12
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/1
Turlojiškė 5 Lithuania Bronze Age 2100–600 1/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 2/2
Turlojiškė 1 Lithuania Bronze Age 930–810 1/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 8/8
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 3/3
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 6/6
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 24/40
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 17/17
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 2/16
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 10/10
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 33/33

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/2
UzOO 77 Russia Mesolithic 5500–5000 0/2
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/5
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540 0/1
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/18
Kretuonas 5 Lithuania Narva 4450–4340 0/1
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/15
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/8
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/31
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/2
Saxtorp 5164 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3945–3647 0/2
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 0/7
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 0/10
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/17
Turlojiškė 4 Lithuania Bronze Age 908–485 1/1
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/2
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 1/1
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/7
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/17
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/4
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/5
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/7
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 0/18

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Spiginas 4 Lithuania Kunda 6440–6230 0/2
Veibri 4 Estonia Narva 4900–4720 0/2
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 0/1
Donkalnis 6 Lithuania Narva 4720–4530 0/21
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 0/13
Kretuonas 2 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/6
Kretuonas 4 Lithuania Narva 5500–2900 0/28
Kretuonas 1 Lithuania Narva 4460–3820 0/1
Saxtorp 5158 Sweden Funnelbeaker 3625–3371 0/1
Tamula 3 Estonia Comb Ware 3800–3640 0/1
Tamula 1 Estonia Comb Ware 3630–3360 0/2
Plinkaigalis 242 Lithuania Corded Ware 3260–2630 5/8
Plinkaigalis 241 Lithuania Corded Ware 2860–2410 0/4
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 1/6
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Corded Ware 2130–1750 0/10
Kunila 2 Estonia Corded Ware 2580–2340 0/1
Turlojiškė 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 0/2
Kivutkalns 42 Latvia Late Bronze Age 810–560 0/4
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Late Bronze Age 800–545 0/6
Kivutkalns 207 Latvia Late Bronze Age 790–535 0/17
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Late Bronze Age 805–515 0/10
Kivutkalns 215 Latvia Late Bronze Age 760–425 0/7
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Late Bronze Age 745–400 0/3
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Late Bronze Age 730–400 3/8
Kivutkalns 194 Latvia Late Bronze Age 405–230 2/2

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Country Culture Date BC D/T
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Corded Ware 2620–2470 2/3
Posted in Uncategorized

Y-SNP calls from ancient Northern Europe

In the table below are links to Y-SNP calls for DNA samples from ancient Northern Europe.

Sample Country Culture Date BC Haplogroup
Popovo 2 Russia Mesolithic 7500–5000 J1~L255
Donkalnis 4 Lithuania Mesolithic 6000–5740 I(xI1)
Donkalnis 7 Lithuania Narva 5460–4940 R1b1a1a1~M73
Kivisaare 3 Estonia Narva 4730–4540 R1b1a1a~P297
Spiginas 1 Lithuania Narva 4440–4240 I2a1a2a1a-L233
Kretuonas 5 Lithuania Narva 4450–4340 I2a1b~Y3104(xI2a1b2)
Tamula 3 Estonia Comb Ceramic 3800–3640 R1b1a~L754
Gyvakarai 1 Lithuania Late Neolithic 2620–2470 R1a1a1b1a-Y2395
Spiginas 2 Lithuania Late Neolithic 2130–1750 R1a1a1b1a2b-CTS1211
Olsund Sweden Late Neolithic 2573–2140 R1~M173
Turlojiske 3 Lithuania Bronze Age 1010–800 R1a1a1b1a2a-YP617
Turlojiske 5 Lithuania Bronze Age 2100–600 R1a1a1b~Z645
Kivutkalns 153 Latvia Bronze Age 800–545 R1a1a1b1a3-YP1370
Kivutkalns 19 Latvia Bronze Age 730–400 R1a1a1b1a2b-Y13467
Kivutkalns 25 Latvia Bronze Age 800–545 R1a1a1b1a2b-CTS1211
Kivutkalns 209 Latvia Bronze Age 405–230 R1a1a1b1a2b-Y13467
Kivutkalns 222 Latvia Bronze Age 805–515 R1a1a1b1a2b-Y13467
Posted in Uncategorized
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