The Chachapoyas

The Chachapoya culture was an Andean culture located in the cloud forests of northern Peru. It’s not clear when the culture originated, but it was conquered by the Incas around 1475 AD. When Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532, the hostility of the Chachapoyas toward the Incas led many of them to side with the Spanish.

The most spectacular remnant of the Chachapoya civilization is Kuelap, a mountain fortress built at an altitude of 10,000 feet. In terms of the mass of stone used, Kuelap is even bigger than the Great Pyramid of Giza. Much of Kuelap is dated to around 800 AD, but parts of it have been dated to around 500 AD, and it is thought that construction began around 400 AD. Part of Kuelap is shown in the photograph below.

kuelap

The Spanish conquistador and chronicler Pedro Cieza de León wrote the following about the Chachapoyas:

They are the whitest and most handsome of all the people that I have seen in Indies, and their wives were so beautiful that because of their gentleness, many of them deserved to be the Incas’ wives and to also be taken to the Sun Temple (…) The women and their husbands always dressed in woolen clothes and in their heads they wear their llautos, which are a sign they wear to be known everywhere.

As in many of the other ancient Andean cultures, the Chachapoyas mummified their dead. In all of the photographs of Chachapoya mummies that I have seen, they appear to have Caucasoid rather than Mongoloid cranial morphology. In most of the photographs the hair is missing, but I have been able to find a few where the hair is intact. One such photograph is here. Three more are here, here, and here. These photographs clearly show that Chachapoyas had curly brown or red Caucasoid hair, and not stiff black Mongoloid Amerindian hair.

Many of the Chachapoya mummies are from the Laguna de los Cóndores site. The photograph of human remains from this site here (full size here) clearly shows that the individual had red or reddish-brown Caucasoid hair.

Along the southern coast of Peru the Nazca culture flourished from 100 BC to 800 AD. A major burial place for this culture was the Chauchilla Cemetery, which was established around 200 AD and was used for 600 to 700 years. Doing a Flickr search for “chauchilla” produces a large number of very high-resolution, very close-up photographs of the human remains at the cemetery, the vast majority of which have their hair intact. A good example is here (full size here). When you view these photographs, make sure you find the page with all of the sizes of the photograph when it’s available. These photographs make it 100% clear that the Nazca people had red and brown Caucasoid hair.

There is a photograph here of a 3,410-year-old mummy from northern Chile. In the caption for this photograph, the liars at New Scientist magazine tell their readers that she has “long black hair”. In my White Gods post I said that she had brown hair, but I have since found another photograph of the same mummy in this article that makes it clear that she actually had red hair. A commenter on this article asks “The 13th Century Peruvian woman had red hair, but this was the pre-Columbus period. Can anyone explain please?”. I can. White people were in Peru before Columbus.

Many of the Chachapoya mummies were positioned with their hands over their faces. The first of the four photographs I linked to above gives an example, and more examples can be seen here. This same practice can be seen in the photograph of a Paracas mummy here. The Paracas culture existed along the southern coast of Peru between 1200 BC and 100 BC.

Some of the Paracas mummies had blond hair. Thor Heyerdahl included a photograph of the head of a blond Paracas mummy in his 1952 work American Indians in the Pacific (number 3 on the color plate here). Another photograph of a blond Paracas mummy, with white skin, can be seen here.

This documentary on the Chachapoyas aired a couple of months ago. At 45:55 a painting from the Inca period is shown that depicts captured Chachapoya women. The women have Caucasoid facial features, light skin, and reddish blond hair. The documentary then shows some of the modern-day descendants of the Chachapoyas, who are called “Gringuitos”, or “little Gringos”, by the other Peruvians. These people have light skin, blond or red hair, and sometimes freckles, and yet they have no recent European ancestry. The documentary then talks about genetic testing done on the “Gringuitos”, which showed that they have between 10% and 50% European admixture, and that their red hair is of European origin. The testing further showed that their European admixture is specifically from Western Europe, and that R1b is found in the “Gringuitos”.

The YFull spreadsheet shows that 9 out of the 41 1000 Genomes Peruvian samples (22%) are R1b. Note that my K = 26 admixture analysis of Amerindians and Mestizos showed that the 1000 Genomes Peruvian samples have Caucasoid admixture beyond what is found in all Amerindians, but that this admixture is distinct from the kind of additional Caucasoid admixture that is found in Mestizos, and that it therefore cannot possibly be from the post-Columbian Spanish.

In my post on the White Gods I said that I thought they came to the Americas from Northwest Africa and the Canary Islands. My analyses of Chachapoya genomes showed that the largest K12b component for the sample NA47 was the Northwest African component. Some of the original inhabitants of the Canary Islands, the Guanches, had a Nordic phenotype, with blue eyes and red or blond hair, while others had a Mediterranean phenotype. In this ancient DNA study, 10% of samples from Guanche remains were found to be R1b, while 27% were found to be E1b1b1b-M81. R1b is associated with the centum Indo-European languages, and E1b1b1b-M81 is associated with Berber languages. In his book The White Indians of Nivaria, Gordon Kennedy notes that the language of the Guanches contained both proto-Indo-European and Berber elements. The language of the Guanches of Tenerife had a particularly strong affinity to proto-Indo-European, and George Glas noted in 1764 that he thought the Tenerife language had some resemblance to the language of ancient Peru.

Some Chachapoya mummies were placed in the sarcophagi shown in the photograph below.

sarcophagi

Note that the faces of these sarcophagi have Caucasoid features, including a strong brow ridge, a high nasal bridge, and what is either a strong chin or a beard. Also note how similar these sarcophagi are to the Moai of Easter Island shown in the next photograph.

moai

Heyerdahl believed that Polynesia had first been populated by the White Gods of Peru around 500 AD. The balsa raft that he sailed from Peru to Polynesia in 1947 in order to prove that his theory was possible was named after Kon-Tiki Viracocha, the White creator god of ancient Peru. The bearded face of Kon-Tiki was painted on the raft’s sail. I recommend reading Heyerdahl’s 1971 article “The Bearded Gods Speak“, which contains a great deal of scholarship on the White Gods.

The oral history of the Easter Islanders tells of two distinct races of people on the island, the Hanau epe, or “long-ears”, and the Hanau momoko, or “short-ears”. The Hanau epe were the first inhabitants of the island, and they were the people who created the Moai. They were said to have had red hair, fair skin, and thin noses, while the Hanau momoko had black hair, dark skin, and flat noses. The reason the Hanau epe had long ears is that they wore large ear ornaments that elongated their earlobes. Note that my White Gods post includes a photograph of ceramic vessels from the pre-Inca Moche culture that are in the form of Caucasoid men, and that these men are wearing large ear ornaments. All of the Moai also have long ears. The Hanau momoko came to Easter Island later, possibly around 1100 AD, and they ultimately rose up against the Hanau epe and killed all but one of them. This one survivor must have gone on to have children, because even in recent decades there were red-haired natives on Easter Island who claimed descent from the original Hanau epe.

This study analyzed DNA samples taken in 1971 from 48 nonadmixed Easter Island natives, and it found that 5 of them (10%) were R1b. It also found that several of the natives had a European HLA haplotype whose frequency peaks in Basques. (Note that my K = 26 admixture analysis of Amerindians and Mestizos showed that a primary component in the additional Caucasoid admixture found in Peruvians is a Basque component.) The study notes that the genealogy of the natives sampled implies that the R1b and the HLA haplotype must have been introduced to the island before about 1816. The authors of the study of course suggest that this introduction occurred sometime between the modern European discovery of the island by the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen in 1722, and 1816. But the fact is that Roggeveen noticed to his surprise that there were already what he termed “white men” among the islanders when he got there. The authors also toss out another politically-correct explanation that suggests that the R1b and the HLA haplotype is from the crew of a Spanish caravel that vanished in Polynesia in 1526. Not only is there not a shred of evidence to support this explanation, it is also contradicted by the facts. The Easter Island natives had committed to memory detailed genealogies of their white-skinned ancestors, and by taking an average Polynesian generation to represent 25 years, it was found that these genealogies start around 500 AD.

The elite among the Polynesian natives had lighter skin than the other natives, and the elite among the Incas had lighter skin than the other Incas. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer was aware of these facts, and in his 1851 work Parerga and Paralipomena he wrote the following:

The highest civilisation and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians, are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste or race is fairer in colour than the rest and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmans, the Incas, and the rulers of the South Sea Islands.

Some of the Paracas mummies had stiff black Mongoloid Amerindian hair. The results of my analyses of Chachapoya genomes imply that at least some of the Chachapoya mummies must have also had such hair. I suspect that Carlos Bustamante and Eske Willerslev know very well that most of the Chachapoya mummies are Caucasoid, but that they deliberately selected the few mummies with Mongoloid hair for their paper, in an attempt to conceal the truth. They slipped up, however, by allowing at least one mummy with some additional Caucasoid admixture, NA47, into their cherry-picked sample.

Along with the “scientific community”, the “HBD community” has also sought to deny or suppress the truth about White people in the Americas before the Vikings. In this post Dienekes declared that the White Gods are “in the realm of alernative [sic] history”. And in my 2013 in review post you can read about how Greg Cochran repeatedly deleted my comments containing facts about Caucasoids in ancient Peru.

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mt-SNP calls for Chachapoyas

Below are links to the mt-SNP calls for the seven Chachapoyas.

The calls confirm the published findings that NA39 was B2 and that NA42 was D1.

The calls for NA40 are strange. The published haplogroup for NA40 was M, and NA40 had 1 of 2 mutations for M and 5 of 5 mutations for M8, but NA40 also had 4 of 4 mutations for N, and 1 of 1 mutation for R.

NA41, NA43, and NA50 were probably B2.

NA47 had 2 of 2 mutations for N, but 0 of 2 mutations for B2.

NA39

NA40

NA41

NA42

NA43

NA47

NA50

Posted in Uncategorized

Y-SNP calls for Chachapoyas

Below are the Y-SNP calls for the seven Chachapoyas. Positive calls are in bold, and negative calls are in non-bold.

DNA evidence indicates that NA40 was female, and that NA41, NA43, NA47, and NA50 were possibly female, but I’m including the Y-SNP calls for all of the samples because the DNA-based sex determination for low-coverage genomes like these is not always correct.

NA39

C1a1a1-Z7985
C1b1-K246
C1b1a1a-Z12508
C1b1a1a1-Z12520
D1b2-Z14798
E-M5531
E1a-Z15429
E1a2-Z15143
E1a2-Z15150
E1a2a2-Z15207
E1a2b-Z15089
E1a2b1a1a1-Z14912
E1b1a1a1c2c3a2-Z16106
E2b-Z15799
E2b-Z15833
E2b-Z15872
G-Z6318
G2-M3273/PF2895
G2a1a1-Z8013
G2a2b2a1c1a1-Z6044
G2a2b2b1a-PF3394
H1a1d1-Z14607
H1a1d1-Z14656
H1a1d2c1a1-Z12541
H1a2a1-Z14772
H1b1-Z14111
H1b2-Z14274
H1b2a-Z14388
H3-Z13573
H3a2b-Z12869
H3b-Z13923
H3b1-Z13710
H3b1-Z13800
O2-L463
O3a1c-002611/IMS-JST002611
Q1b-Y1137.2/Z1543.2
Q1b1-FGC1777/Y2020
Q1b1a-FGC1811/Y2124

NA40

A1a-V58
C1b1-K246
C1b1a-Z12491
C1b1a1a1-Z12520
D1b1d1a-Z14833
E-M5531
E-PF1618
E1a2a1b1a-Z15357
E1b1a1a1c2a1-Z15992
E2-CTS1430
E2b-CTS3677
E2b-Z15833
G-CTS11670
G-M3605/PF3077
G-Z3247
G-Z3285
G2-CTS4703/M3533/PF2976
G2-M3273/PF2895
G2-Z6474
G2a2a1b1-Z6490
G2b-Z8018
H1a1d2c1a1-Z12542
H1a2a1-Z14732
H1b2-Z14274
H3a-Z13441
H3a-Z16822
H3a2a-Z12734
H3a2b-Z12869
H3b1-Z13710
H3b1-Z13800
Q1b2-Y1154

NA41

E1a-Z15508
E1b1a1a1-L86.1
E2b-Z15823
E2b-Z15833
E2b-Z15852
G-Z6318
G2-Z6474
H1b2-Z14274
H1b2a-Z14401
H3-Z13526
H3a2-Z12773
H3b1-Z13710

NA42

C1a1a2-Z7232
C1b1a-Z12491
C1b2-Z12352
C2e2-Z12260
D1b1d1-Z14876
D1b2-Z14798
D1b2a-CTS11619
E-CTS939/M5389
E-P169/Page54/PF1878
E-Z15668
E1a-CTS340
E1a-Z15485
E1a2-CTS3256
E1a2-Z15154
E1a2a2-Z15241
E1a2b1a1a1-Z14925
E1a2b1a2-Z14984
E1b1-P2/PF1940/PN2
E1b1a1a1c2c1a-Z16078
E1b1a1a1c2c1a-Z16102
E1b1a1a1c2c3b1-Z16138
E1b1a1a1c2c3b1-Z16151
E1b1a1a1c2c3b1-Z16156
E1b1b1b2b1-P72
E1b2-P75
E2-CTS2838
E2-P68
E2b-CTS3677
E2b-CTS6931
E2b-CTS9568
E2b-CTS9847
E2b-Z15799
E2b-Z15823
E2b-Z15833
E2b-Z15847
G-Z3247
G-Z3285
G-Z3507
G-Z6318
G2-Z6474
G2a2a1b1-CTS3850/Z2051
G2a2b2a1-Z3245
G2a2b2a1-Z6294
G2a2b2b-PF3375
H1a1d2-Z14515
H1a1d2b2a-Z14473
H1a2a-Z4422
H1a2a1-Z14732
H1a2a1-Z14761
H1a2a1-Z14772
H1b1-Z14065
H1b1-Z14111
H1b2-Z14274
H1b2-Z14307
H1b2a-Z14374
H1b2a-Z14375
H1b2a-Z14386
H3-Z13527
H3a-Z13438
H3a1-Z13133
H3a2-Z12763
H3a2a-Z12734
H3a2a2-Z12697
H3a2b-Z12869
H3b1-Z13694
H3b1-Z13710
H3b1-Z13793
H3b1-Z13800
N1c2b-P43
P-P69
Q1b-Y1071
Q1b-Y1098
Q1b-Y1109
Q1b1-FGC1861/Y2084
R1-P238/PF6115

NA43

B2b2-P112
E1a2-Z15154
E1b1a1a1c2-Z15936
H1b2-Z14274
H1b2a-Z14374
H1b2a-Z14375
H3a2-Z12773
H3a2a-Z12734
H3a2b-Z12871
H3b-Z13886
H3b1-Z13710

NA47

C1b1a1a1-Z12520
D1b2-Z14798
E1a2-Z15118
E1b1a1a1c2c3b1-Z16156
E1b1b1a-V68
G-Z3247
G-Z6318
H1a2a1-Z14772
H1b2-Z14274
H1b2-Z14307

NA50

D1b2-Z14798
E1a2a2-Z15208
H1a1d1-Z14586
H1a2a1-Z14772
H1b2-Z14274
H3a2-Z12786

Posted in Uncategorized

Analyses of Chachapoya genomes

Below are the results of analyses of seven Chachapoya genomes.

The following is the description of the samples given here:

Samples NA39-50 were obtained from pre-Columbian Chachapoyan and Chachapoya-Inca remains dating between 1000 and 1500 AD. They were recovered from the site Laguna de los Condores in northeastern Peru. Bone samples were used for DNA analysis.

NA47 wasn’t a pure Amerindian, but had Caucasoid admixture beyond what is found in all Amerindians.

We now have genetic evidence that Caucasoids were in South America before Columbus.

In an upcoming post I’ll have information about the Chachapoyas and further commentary on these results. A link to that post will appear in the comments for this one. Until I can get that post up I recommend reading my White Gods post from last year, if you haven’t already seen it.

NA39

globe4

  • 95.23% Amerindian
  • 4.77% Asian
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% European

globe10

  • 95.60% Amerindian
  • 3.76% East_Asian
  • 0.64% Australasian
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 96.05% Amerindian
  • 3.82% East_Asian
  • 0.13% Australasian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% North_European
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K7b

  • 49.56% East_Asian
  • 41.57% Siberian
  • 7.24% South_Asian
  • 1.63% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K10a

  • 37.11% Siberian
  • 28.50% Southeast_Asian
  • 25.66% East_Asian
  • 4.73% South_Asian
  • 4.00% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K12b

  • 38.73% East_Asian
  • 31.44% Siberian
  • 20.86% Southeast_Asian
  • 5.31% North_European
  • 3.66% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Med
  • 0.00% Caucasus
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Gedrosia
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 57.35% Southeast_Asian
  • 30.30% Northeast_Asian
  • 12.35% West_European
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • 92.92% Mesoamerican
  • 6.30% North-Siberean
  • 0.78% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Near_East
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-East-European
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.00% West-Asian

Old World 26

  • 19.20% Finnish
  • 15.75% Yakut
  • 13.39% Naxi
  • 11.16% Gujarati
  • 9.38% Dai
  • 7.49% Yoruba
  • 5.82% Kenya-Bantu
  • 5.71% Palestinian
  • 3.71% Archaic
  • 3.20% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 2.77% Kalash
  • 1.51% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.88% Japanese
  • 0.01% Papuan
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% Sardinian
  • 0.00% She

NA40

globe4

  • 98.32% Amerindian
  • 1.68% African
  • 0.00% Asian
  • 0.00% European

globe10

  • 95.96% Amerindian
  • 2.40% Siberian
  • 1.64% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 87.68% Amerindian
  • 11.00% Arctic
  • 1.32% West_African
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% North_European
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K7b

  • 48.12% Siberian
  • 27.05% East_Asian
  • 13.87% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 7.51% South_Asian
  • 3.44% West_Asian
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% Southern

K10a

  • 62.22% Siberian
  • 13.57% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 11.51% East_Asian
  • 10.49% Southeast_Asian
  • 1.43% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.77% West_Asian
  • 0.01% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

K12b

  • 41.81% Siberian
  • 25.55% East_Asian
  • 11.97% North_European
  • 10.04% Southeast_Asian
  • 5.94% Gedrosia
  • 4.29% South_Asian
  • 0.39% East_African
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Med
  • 0.00% Caucasus
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 56.96% Northeast_Asian
  • 16.37% Southeast_Asian
  • 13.41% West_European
  • 7.72% South_Asian
  • 5.39% Palaeo_African
  • 0.13% Neo_African
  • 0.01% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • 51.40% Mesoamerican
  • 38.02% North-Amerind
  • 5.42% Paleo-Siberian
  • 5.16% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Near_East
  • 0.00% North-East-European
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.00% West-Asian

Old World 26

  • 21.72% Naxi
  • 14.64% Yakut
  • 13.97% Finnish
  • 11.29% Gujarati
  • 10.49% Dai
  • 7.20% Palestinian
  • 5.65% Japanese
  • 3.88% Yoruba
  • 3.70% Archaic
  • 3.26% Kenya-Bantu
  • 2.41% Kalash
  • 1.02% Melanesian
  • 0.76% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.01% She
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% Sardinian

NA41

globe4

  • 100.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% Asian
  • 0.00% European

globe10

  • 99.70% Amerindian
  • 0.30% Australasian
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 100.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% North_European
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K7b

  • 61.16% Siberian
  • 31.55% East_Asian
  • 7.28% West_Asian
  • 0.00% African
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern

K10a

  • 73.64% Siberian
  • 25.73% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.58% Red_Sea
  • 0.05% West_Asian
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

K12b

  • 56.72% Siberian
  • 33.64% Southeast_Asian
  • 9.64% Gedrosia
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Med
  • 0.00% Caucasus
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% North_European
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 62.29% Northeast_Asian
  • 28.20% Southeast_Asian
  • 5.59% East_European
  • 3.92% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian
  • 0.00% West_European

MDLP World-22

  • Insufficient SNPs

Old World 26

  • 16.92% Finnish
  • 12.10% Gujarati
  • 12.10% Yakut
  • 9.74% Naxi
  • 8.26% Kenya-Bantu
  • 8.22% Palestinian
  • 7.13% Yoruba
  • 6.97% Dai
  • 5.49% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 5.35% Archaic
  • 2.81% Kalash
  • 1.78% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 1.59% She
  • 0.85% Bedouin
  • 0.50% Melanesian
  • 0.19% Japanese
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% Sardinian

NA42

globe4

  • 99.85% Amerindian
  • 0.15% African
  • 0.00% Asian
  • 0.00% European

globe10

  • 100.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 100.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% North_European
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K7b

  • 65.08% Siberian
  • 22.29% East_Asian
  • 11.99% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 0.64% African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K10a

  • 59.34% Siberian
  • 31.46% East_Asian
  • 7.70% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 1.51% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K12b

  • 47.32% Siberian
  • 39.13% East_Asian
  • 13.54% North_European
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Med
  • 0.00% Caucasus
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Gedrosia
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 69.83% Northeast_Asian
  • 16.91% Southeast_Asian
  • 4.57% Neo_African
  • 3.68% East_European
  • 3.67% West_European
  • 1.35% South_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • 41.68% Mesoamerican
  • 30.50% North-Amerind
  • 27.82% South-America_Amerind
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 0.00% Austronesian
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.00% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Near_East
  • 0.00% North-East-European
  • 0.00% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.00% West-Asian

Old World 26

  • 19.51% Yakut
  • 16.64% Naxi
  • 13.94% Finnish
  • 11.49% Dai
  • 8.28% Gujarati
  • 4.44% Palestinian
  • 4.29% She
  • 3.72% Papuan
  • 3.26% Japanese
  • 3.17% Kenya-Bantu
  • 3.10% Yoruba
  • 2.79% Sardinian
  • 2.00% Archaic
  • 1.39% Kalash
  • 0.84% San
  • 0.72% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.42% Burusho
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mozabite

NA43

globe4

  • Insufficient SNPs

globe10

  • Insufficient SNPs

globe13

  • Insufficient SNPs

K7b

  • Insufficient SNPs

K10a

  • Insufficient SNPs

K12b

  • Insufficient SNPs

dv3

  • Insufficient SNPs

MDLP World-22

  • Insufficient SNPs

Old World 26

  • 18.32% Finnish
  • 11.91% Yakut
  • 11.63% Gujarati
  • 8.81% Dai
  • 8.67% Kenya-Bantu
  • 7.91% Yoruba
  • 7.68% Naxi
  • 7.27% Palestinian
  • 6.63% Archaic
  • 6.43% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 2.60% Kalash
  • 1.74% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.40% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Japanese
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% Sardinian
  • 0.00% She

NA47

globe4

  • 56.08% Amerindian
  • 27.06% European
  • 16.86% African
  • 0.00% Asian

globe10

  • 55.53% Amerindian
  • 21.77% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 19.12% Palaeo_African
  • 3.58% Australasian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 55.23% Amerindian
  • 22.68% North_European
  • 18.46% Palaeo_African
  • 3.63% Australasian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_African
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K7b

  • 31.71% South_Asian
  • 29.21% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 20.68% East_Asian
  • 18.40% African
  • 0.01% Siberian
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K10a

  • 29.69% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 21.42% South_Asian
  • 19.77% Southeast_Asian
  • 11.79% Sub_Saharan
  • 10.32% Siberian
  • 7.01% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K12b

  • 37.70% Northwest_African
  • 24.12% Southeast_Asian
  • 21.08% South_Asian
  • 9.49% North_European
  • 7.61% East_African
  • 0.00% Atlantic_Med
  • 0.00% Caucasus
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Gedrosia
  • 0.00% Siberian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% Sub_Saharan

dv3

  • 39.73% Northeast_Asian
  • 23.05% East_European
  • 20.24% Palaeo_African
  • 14.01% Northwest_African
  • 2.97% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Mediterranean
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian
  • 0.00% West_European

MDLP World-22

  • Insufficient SNPs

Old World 26

  • 18.73% Finnish
  • 12.18% Yoruba
  • 11.22% Gujarati
  • 11.03% Yakut
  • 10.15% Kenya-Bantu
  • 7.84% Dai
  • 6.93% Palestinian
  • 6.81% Naxi
  • 5.80% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 4.62% Archaic
  • 2.58% Kalash
  • 1.95% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.14% Papuan
  • 0.03% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Japanese
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% Sardinian
  • 0.00% She

NA50

globe4

  • Insufficient SNPs

globe10

  • Insufficient SNPs

globe13

  • Insufficient SNPs

K7b

  • Insufficient SNPs

K10a

  • Insufficient SNPs

K12b

  • Insufficient SNPs

dv3

  • Insufficient SNPs

MDLP World-22

  • Insufficient SNPs

Old World 26

  • 16.53% Finnish
  • 9.57% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 9.52% Kenya-Bantu
  • 9.28% Yoruba
  • 8.99% Archaic
  • 8.74% Yakut
  • 7.74% Palestinian
  • 7.41% Dai
  • 6.78% Naxi
  • 6.42% Gujarati
  • 4.81% Sardinian
  • 2.10% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 1.66% Kalash
  • 0.42% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Japanese
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% She
Posted in Uncategorized

mt-SNP calls for a Bronze Age Dane

The mt-SNP calls for the old man from the Borum Eshøj Bronze Age burial in Denmark are here.

The calls show that the old man was R*. Note that Afontova Gora 2, who was autosomally very similar to the old man, may also have been R*.

Posted in Uncategorized

Y-SNP calls for a Bronze Age Dane

Below are the Y-SNP calls for the old man from the Borum Eshøj Bronze Age burial in Denmark. They’re all negative. They show that the old man wasn’t G, which is not surprising. The autosomal results for the old man already allow us to infer with a high degree of confidence that he was R1b. The Gedrosia autosomal component is strongly associated with R1b, and the old man had a large amount of the Gedrosia component.

C1a1a1-Z7986
C1b2-Z12416
D1b2-Z14798
E1a-Z15498
E1a2-Z15154
E1a2a1b-Z879
E1a2b1a2-Z15017
E2b-Z15833
G-Z3247
G-Z6318
G2-Z6474
H1a2a1-Z14772
H1b1-Z14055
H1b2-Z14274
H3-Z13499
H3a1-Z13124
H3a2-Z12773
H3a2b-Z12871
H3b1-Z13710
H3b1-Z13770
Q1b2-Y1268

Posted in Uncategorized

Analyses of a Bronze Age Danish genome

Below are the results of analyses of a Bronze Age Danish genome.

The following is the description of the sample given here:

Sample M4 is an ancient hair sample obtained from the Borum Eshøj Bronze Age burial in Denmark. The burial comprised three individuals in oak coffins, commonly referred to as “the woman,” “the young man,” and “the old man.” The M4 sample is from the latter. The site was excavated in 1871–1875 and the coffins dated to c.1350 BC.

You can find a lot of information about the Borum Eshøj burial here. Along the left side of the page are links to subpages about the burial, including this one about the old man.

The photograph of the young man here shows that he had blond hair.

Note that the Negroid and Mongoloid admixture showing up in the results below is noise that is due to bacterial and fungal DNA in the M4 sample, and also to the small number of SNPs for the sample.

The K12b results show that the old man had 25.03% of the Gedrosia component, which is associated with R1b, and none of the Caucasus component, which is associated with R1a and J2. Mal’ta 1 and Afontova Gora 2 also had 20–25% of the Gedrosia component and none of the Caucasus component. And Thracians also had significant amounts of the Gedrosia component.

The dv3 results show that the old man had 29.39% of the West European component and none of the East European component.

The people of the Borum Eshøj burial belonged to the Nordic Bronze Age culture, and this culture is thought to have been the culture of the proto-Germanic people.

globe4

  • 63.24% European
  • 18.32% Amerindian
  • 17.26% Asian
  • 1.18% African

globe10

  • 47.49% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 15.96% Australasian
  • 13.07% Amerindian
  • 9.50% South_Asian
  • 8.88% Siberian
  • 5.09% Neo_African
  • 0.01% Southern
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% West_Asian

globe13

  • 32.02% North_European
  • 13.86% Australasian
  • 12.00% South_Asian
  • 11.39% Arctic
  • 9.50% Mediterranean
  • 8.76% Southwest_Asian
  • 7.48% Amerindian
  • 4.28% West_African
  • 0.72% Siberian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K7b

  • 48.57% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 21.75% South_Asian
  • 15.81% Siberian
  • 8.65% East_Asian
  • 5.23% African
  • 0.00% Southern
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K10a

  • 44.42% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 19.73% South_Asian
  • 14.27% Siberian
  • 8.95% Southeast_Asian
  • 7.60% Mediterranean
  • 5.04% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Red_Sea
  • 0.00% West_Asian

K12b

  • 36.03% Atlantic_Med
  • 25.03% Gedrosia
  • 20.05% Siberian
  • 12.66% Southeast_Asian
  • 5.08% Sub_Saharan
  • 0.84% North_European
  • 0.31% South_Asian
  • 0.00% Caucasus
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian

dv3

  • 29.39% West_European
  • 21.58% Mediterranean
  • 20.83% South_Asian
  • 14.59% Southeast_Asian
  • 13.60% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_European
  • 0.00% Neo_African
  • 0.00% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African
  • 0.00% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.00% West_Asian

MDLP World-22

  • 32.76% Indian
  • 17.62% Indo-Iranian
  • 13.03% Near_East
  • 11.08% South-America_Amerind
  • 10.18% North-East-European
  • 6.18% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 5.83% Indo-Tibetan
  • 2.43% Austronesian
  • 0.88% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% North-Siberean
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% Pygmy
  • 0.00% Samoedic
  • 0.00% South-African
  • 0.00% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.00% West-Asian

Old World 26

  • 20.84% Finnish
  • 9.95% Gujarati
  • 9.65% Sardinian
  • 9.36% Kenya-Bantu
  • 8.79% Yoruba
  • 7.92% Yakut
  • 7.56% Palestinian
  • 7.04% Dai
  • 5.53% Archaic
  • 5.44% Naxi
  • 4.70% Mbuti-Pygmy
  • 2.25% Biaka-Pygmy
  • 0.90% Kalash
  • 0.06% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Basque
  • 0.00% Bedouin
  • 0.00% Brahui
  • 0.00% Burusho
  • 0.00% Druze
  • 0.00% Japanese
  • 0.00% Lahu
  • 0.00% Mandenka
  • 0.00% Mozabite
  • 0.00% Papuan
  • 0.00% San
  • 0.00% She
Posted in Uncategorized
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