Analyses of a Late Bronze Age Hungarian genome

Below are the results of analyses of the BR2 sample from the Late Bronze Age Kyjatice culture of Hungary. The sample is from the Ludas-Varjú-dűlő site, and it is dated to 1110–1270 BC.

BR2 was male. The published Y haplogroup for BR2 was J2a1, but his Y-SNP calls further show that he was J2a1b*. He belonged to mitochondrial haplogroup K1a1a.

BR2 had two copies of both of the two major Caucasoid depigmentation mutations. He likely had dark brown or light brown hair and brown eyes. He had one copy of the mutation that confers the ability to digest milk into adulthood.

BR2 had 41.61% of the K12b North European component, which is less than the 48.4% that modern Hungarians have. He had 35.99% of the K12b Atlantic Med component, which is more than the 27% for modern Hungarians. He had 16.30% of the K12b Caucasus component, which is associated with Y haplogroups G, J2, and R1a. This is about the same as the 16.2% for modern Hungarians. He had 1.12% of the K12b Gedrosia component, which is associated with Y haplogroup R1b. The Early Bronze Age sample BR1 from about 1,000 years earlier didn’t have any of the Gedrosia component, while modern Hungarians have 4.1%.

globe4

  • 93.63% European
  • 4.98% Amerindian
  • 1.27% African
  • 0.13% Asian

globe10

  • 74.29% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 16.01% Southern
  • 7.55% West_Asian
  • 1.42% Neo_African
  • 0.42% Australasian
  • 0.20% East_Asian
  • 0.09% South_Asian
  • 0.01% Siberian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African

globe13

  • 49.96% North_European
  • 36.34% Mediterranean
  • 5.92% West_Asian
  • 5.89% Southwest_Asian
  • 1.43% West_African
  • 0.31% Australasian
  • 0.11% East_Asian
  • 0.02% South_Asian
  • 0.01% Siberian
  • 0.00% Amerindian
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% Palaeo_African

K7b

  • 69.51% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 19.26% Southern
  • 9.89% West_Asian
  • 1.29% African
  • 0.02% East_Asian
  • 0.01% Siberian
  • 0.01% South_Asian

K10a

  • 56.77% Atlantic_Baltic
  • 33.51% Mediterranean
  • 7.14% West_Asian
  • 1.39% Sub_Saharan
  • 1.13% Red_Sea
  • 0.04% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.01% South_Asian
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Palaeoafrican
  • 0.00% Siberian

K12b

  • 41.61% North_European
  • 35.99% Atlantic_Med
  • 16.30% Caucasus
  • 3.51% Southwest_Asian
  • 1.34% Sub_Saharan
  • 1.12% Gedrosia
  • 0.10% Northwest_African
  • 0.03% South_Asian
  • 0.01% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.00% East_African
  • 0.00% East_Asian
  • 0.00% Siberian

dv3

  • 39.57% West_European
  • 31.04% Mediterranean
  • 18.91% East_European
  • 6.29% West_Asian
  • 2.17% Southwest_Asian
  • 0.70% Palaeo_African
  • 0.55% Neo_African
  • 0.54% East_African
  • 0.16% Southeast_Asian
  • 0.07% Northwest_African
  • 0.00% Northeast_Asian
  • 0.00% South_Asian

MDLP K=5

  • 40.85% West-Eurasian
  • 39.25% Paleo-mediterranean
  • 17.66% Caucasian
  • 2.23% South-Asian
  • 0.01% East-Eurasian

MDLP K=6

  • 45.49% West-Eurasian
  • 33.91% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 16.57% Caucasian
  • 2.10% North-West-Eurasian
  • 1.90% South-Asian
  • 0.03% East-Euroasian

MDLP K=7

  • 45.10% West-Eurasian
  • 33.43% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 16.49% Caucasian
  • 3.14% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 1.81% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.02% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=8

  • 36.88% East-European
  • 24.39% West-European
  • 24.38% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 10.81% Caucasian
  • 1.99% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 1.53% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.02% Volga-Finnic
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=9

  • 36.44% East-European
  • 25.01% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 23.30% West-European
  • 10.77% Caucasian
  • 1.98% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 1.50% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.98% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.02% Volga-Finnic
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=10

  • 29.13% East-European
  • 23.46% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 22.47% British
  • 13.00% Iberian
  • 7.77% Caucasian
  • 1.81% Paleo-North-European
  • 1.40% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.94% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.01% Volga-Finnic
  • 0.00% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=11

  • 29.44% East-European
  • 23.45% Mediterranean
  • 22.04% Celto-Germanic
  • 12.70% Iberian
  • 7.66% Caucasian
  • 1.98% Paleo-North-European
  • 1.37% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.91% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.42% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.03% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.01% Altaic-Turkic

MDLP K=12

  • 27.64% East-European
  • 22.82% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 21.63% Celto-Germanic
  • 12.17% Iberian
  • 6.95% Caucasian
  • 4.86% Balto-Finnic
  • 1.49% Paleo-North-European
  • 1.19% South-Central Asian
  • 0.84% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.39% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.02% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Alatic-Turkic

MDLP K=13

  • 21.37% Altaic
  • 16.59% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 16.36% Celto-Germanic
  • 10.60% Mediterrean
  • 7.88% East-Mediterranean
  • 6.15% East-European
  • 6.05% South-Central-Asian
  • 4.55% Iberian
  • 4.46% Baltic-Finnic
  • 2.46% Volga-Uralic
  • 1.97% Uralic-Permic
  • 1.21% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.34% Caucasian

MDLP K=14

  • 25.17% Balto-Slavic
  • 19.70% Celto-Germanic
  • 18.96% Mediterranean
  • 11.51% Paleo-Mediterranean
  • 9.69% Iberian
  • 5.27% East-Mediterranean
  • 4.32% Balto-Finnic
  • 2.28% Caucasian
  • 1.31% Paleo-Scandinavian
  • 0.86% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.72% Paleo-Balkanic
  • 0.21% Volga-Finnic
  • 0.01% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% Altaic

MDLP K=15

  • 25.24% Balto-Slavic
  • 19.83% Celto-Germanic
  • 18.92% Balkanic-1
  • 11.29% West-Mediterranean
  • 9.58% Iberian
  • 5.19% East-Mediterranean
  • 4.41% Balto-Finnic
  • 2.30% Caucasian
  • 1.39% Paleo-North-European
  • 0.92% South-Central-Asian
  • 0.67% Balkanic-2
  • 0.22% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.04% West-Altaic
  • 0.01% Uralic-Permic
  • 0.00% East-Altaic

MDLP World-22

  • 49.18% North-East-European
  • 34.88% Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic
  • 6.12% Near_East
  • 5.22% West-Asian
  • 2.06% North-European-Mesolithic
  • 1.19% Sub-Saharian
  • 0.57% Indo-Tibetan
  • 0.37% Austronesian
  • 0.16% Pygmy
  • 0.12% South-African
  • 0.09% North-Siberean
  • 0.03% Samoedic
  • 0.00% Arctic-Amerind
  • 0.00% East-Siberean
  • 0.00% East-South-Asian
  • 0.00% Indian
  • 0.00% Indo-Iranian
  • 0.00% Melanesian
  • 0.00% Mesoamerican
  • 0.00% North-Amerind
  • 0.00% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.00% South-America_Amerind

MDLP Ancient Roots K17

  • 47.09% Ancestral_East_European_ANE
  • 22.22% Ancestral_Mediterranean_EEF
  • 19.12% West_European_HG
  • 4.92% Caucasian-Basal
  • 1.84% Ancestral_Sami-Finnic
  • 1.02% Ancestral_North_Indian
  • 0.89% Uralic
  • 0.65% Ancestral_West_Siberian
  • 0.55% African_Sub_Saharian
  • 0.40% Ancestral_South_Indian
  • 0.29% Archaic_African
  • 0.29% Circumpolar
  • 0.29% Near-East-Basal
  • 0.27% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.11% Amerindian
  • 0.04% Ancestral_East_Siberian
  • 0.04% South_East_Asian

MDLP Ancient Roots K18

  • 34.50% East_European
  • 26.56% North_West_European
  • 17.81% Mediterranean
  • 7.15% Caucasian
  • 3.76% Roma
  • 3.09% Sami-Finnic
  • 2.45% Afroasiatic
  • 2.11% West_Siberian
  • 0.94% Archaic_African
  • 0.64% Melano-Austronesian
  • 0.62% East_African
  • 0.12% Amerindian
  • 0.10% South_Central_Asian
  • 0.10% South_Indian
  • 0.05% Volga-Uralic
  • 0.00% Arctic
  • 0.00% East_Siberian
  • 0.00% South_East_Asian

MDLP K23b

  • 36.80% European_Hunters_Gatherers
  • 27.66% European_Early_Farmers
  • 26.83% Caucasian
  • 2.98% Near-East
  • 1.43% Ancestral-North-Eurasian
  • 1.24% Ancestral-North-Indian
  • 0.85% North-African
  • 0.37% Archaic-Human
  • 0.24% Amerindian
  • 0.23% Archaic-African
  • 0.21% East-African
  • 0.17% Subsaharian
  • 0.15% African-Pygmy
  • 0.15% Ancestral-South-Indian
  • 0.15% Austroloid
  • 0.11% Melano-Polinesian
  • 0.10% Arctic
  • 0.10% East-Siberian
  • 0.08% Paleo-Siberian
  • 0.06% Khoisan
  • 0.03% Austronesian
  • 0.03% South-East-Asian
  • 0.02% Altaiс
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