Phenotype SNPs from Sungir

Below are derived allele counts and total numbers of reads for SNPs that have a large effect on phenotype for five genomes from the archeological site of Sungir in Russia. Nonzero derived allele counts are highlighted. Note that small derived allele counts may be due to DNA damage.

ASIP, rs2424984, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 2/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 2/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 13/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/4
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 6/6

ASIP, rs6058017, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 3/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 1/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 7/7
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 5/5

EDAR, rs3827760, Mongoloid teeth, hair, etc.

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/10

IRF4, rs12203592, light hair and eyes, freckling

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/3
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/16
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/9
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/11

KITLG, rs12821256, blond hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/13
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/1

KITLG, rs642742, Veddoid brown skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 2/3

MC1R, rs1110400, red hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/7
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/11

MC1R, rs11547464, red hair

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/4
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/6
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/9
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/10

MC1R, rs1805005, blond hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/3
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/8
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/4

MC1R, rs1805006, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/8

MC1R, rs1805007, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 1/7
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/8

MC1R, rs1805008, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/10
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/5
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/15

MC1R, rs1805009, red hair, fair skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/3
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/7
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/14
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/7

MCM6, rs182549, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 2/11
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/8
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 2/4

MCM6, rs4988235, ability to digest milk

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/6

OCA2, rs1800407, green or hazel eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 1/7
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/11
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/3
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/9

OCA2, rs1800414, Mongoloid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/11
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/15
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 0/7

OCA2/HERC2, rs12913832, blue eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/25
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/7
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 5/5

SLC24A5, rs1426654, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/5
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/5
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/23
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/6
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 7/7

SLC45A2, rs16891982, Caucasoid light skin

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/4
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/14
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/2
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 8/8

TYR, rs1042602, light skin, absence of freckles

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/2
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/19
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 4/7

TYR, rs1393350, blond hair, blue eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 0/2
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/14
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/12
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 0/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 1/9

TYRP1, rs2733831, light hair and eyes

Sample Period Date D/T
Sungir 1 Mid Upper Paleolithic 33,875–31,770 BP 1/1
Sungir 2 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,283–33,185 BP 0/8
Sungir 3 Mid Upper Paleolithic 35,154–33,031 BP 0/17
Sungir 4 Mid Upper Paleolithic 34,485–33,499 BP 2/5
Sungir 6 High Middle Ages 1100–1220 AD 3/3
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2 comments on “Phenotype SNPs from Sungir
  1. Qwest says:

    What does the D (Derived) in Veddoid brown skin? Lightening or darkness?

    • Genetiker says:

      They’re supposed to be depigmentation (lightening) mutations, although there’s some conflicting information about whether they really play a role in determining skin color.

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